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新视野大学英语 读写教程第三册 unit3-b

时间:2005-12-13 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:1234567890   字体: [ ]

Cultural Differences in Western and Japanese Decision-making
To talk about problem-solving or decision-making within a national environment means examiningmany complex cultural forces. It means trying to measure the impact of these forces on contemporarylife, and also coming to grips with changes now taking place.
In Japan, the most important thing is what organization you work for. This is of extreme importancewhen trying to analyze1 the direction-taking or decision-making process. At the least, it explains thegreater job stability in Japan, in contrast to the great job mobility2 in America.
While we differ in many ways, such differences are neither superior nor inferior to each other. Aparticular pattern of management behavior develops from a complex mixture of unique cultural factors— and will only work within a given culture.
Let me try to describe three or four characteristics of the Japanese environment that in some wayaffect decision-making or direction-taking and problem-solving. These characteristics are related toeach other.
First, in any approach to a problem and in any negotiations4 in Japan, there is the "you to you"approach, as distinguished5 from the Western "I to you" approach. The difference is this: in "I to you",both sides present their arguments openly from their own point of view — they state what they wantand what they expect to get. A confrontation6 situation is thereby7 set up, and Westerners are veryskillful in dealing8 with this.
The "you to you" approach practiced in Japan is based on each side — automatically and oftenunconsciously — trying to understand the other person's point of view. Thus, the direction of themeeting is a mutual9 attempt to reduce confrontation and achieve harmony.
A second characteristic is based on "consensus10 opinion" and "bottom-up direction". In Japan greatconsideration is given to the thoughts and opinions of everyone at all levels. This is true of both privateenterprises and government ministries11. In Japan there is a drive for unity12 within the group — whetherit is family, company, or Parliament.
The difference is that Western style decision-making proceeds mostly from top management andoften does not consult middle management or the worker while in Japan, ideas can be created at thelowest levels, travel upward through an organization and have an impact on the eventual13 decision. Thisis "bottom up".
There is also a characteristic style of communication in Japan that is different from the Western way.
The Japanese business person works to achieve harmony, even if the deal falls through, and willspend whatever time is necessary to determine a "you to you" approach, communicating personalviews only indirectly14 and delicately.
This places time in a different perspective. In Japan the Western deadline approach is secondary to athorough job. Owing to this difference in emphasis, the Japanese are thorough in their meetings as wellas in their production. Thus Americans are often frustrated15 by the many successive meetings in manyJapanese businesses. But where the American is pressing for a specific decision, the Japanese is tryingto devise a rather broad direction.
On the other hand, once a given agreement is made, it is the Japanese who sometimes wonder at theslow pace in which Westerners implement16 the decision. The Japanese are eager to move forward andWesterners, perhaps, lag behind as they take the time for in-depth planning.
Now, while Japan's industry and technology are highly developed, they have not replaced thefundamental force of human energy and motivation. By that I mean that the Japanese take great pridein doing a job well and getting it done no matter how much time is required. There is a commitment andsense of responsibility which have not yet been discarded in this age of machines.
In my field — finance and securities — I am often asked by Westerners how Nomura Securities hasmanaged to escape the paper traffic jam that American firms have faced. We, too, have had thatproblem. The Tokyo Stock Exchange often has between 200 and 300 million transactions a day. Thisvolume is many times more than that of the New York Stock Exchange. How can it be feasible to handlethis load?
First, we have very sophisticated computers. Second, and most important, the operational personnelresponsible for processing all these transactions stay and stay until the job is done. Perhaps in 20 years— or sooner — they will be more Westernized and insist on going home at five o'clock. But today, still,most insist on staying until the job is done. There is a sincere concern for quality.
This willingness to help in a pinch is an important aspect of Japanese problem-solving, and you find itat every level. Some years ago, the Matsushita company was having a very bad time. Among the manymeasures taken, Mr. Matsushita, the founder17 and then chairman, became the manager of the salesdepartment.
Also, when we at Nomura converted to computers about five years ago, the new system eliminatedthe jobs of 700 people. We did not dismiss these people; rather, we converted them to securities salespeople18 and some of these are now our leading sales people. Provided there is intelligence and awillingness to exert yourself, there is a place within the company to try and to succeed. In Japan, aperson's capabilities19 are not forced into an inflexible20 area. And we feel the company owes a workersomething for loyalty21 and commitment.  

  Words: 900
New Words
complex a. 1.复合的,复杂的 2.难以理解的,复杂的
grip n. 1.控制,支配 2.紧握,抓牢
vt 1.握紧,抓牢 2.吸引……的注意力或想像力等
extreme a. 1.最高限度的,极度的 2.尽可能远的;遥远的
n. 极端,过分
analyze vt. 分析,细查
▲stability n. 稳定,稳固
mobile a. 活动的,易于移动的,流动的
mobility n. 流动性,移动性,易变性
differ vi. 1.不同,有异 2.(在意见方面)发生分歧
superior a. 1.优于,强于 2.优良的,卓越的 3.(在职位、地位方面)较高的
n. 上级,上司
inferior a. 级别低的,社会地位低的;次要的,次等的
n. 下级,下属
negotiate v. 谈判,磋商
negotiation3 n. 商议,谈判,洽谈
thereby ad. 因此,从而
harmony n. 和谐,融洽,和睦,一致
▲consensus n. 共同看法,(意见等的)一致
consideration n. 1.考虑,思考 2.体谅,照顾
enterprise n. 1.企业单位,商业公司 2.(艰巨的)事业,计划
ministry22 n. (政府的)部
unity n. 和睦,协调,团结,统一
parliament n. 议会,国会
consult vt. 1.请教,咨询,找……商量 2.查阅,查看
vi. 交换意见,商议
delicate a. 1.巧妙的,需技巧的,敏感的 2.易损的,娇嫩的
delicately ad. 巧妙地,细致地
owing a. 应付的,未付的
successive a. 继续的,连续的
lag vi. 走得慢,落后
n. 时间间隔;滞后
fundamental a. 基本的,基础的,主要的
n. 基本原则,基本法则
discard vt. 丢弃,抛弃
▲transaction n. 交易,业务
volume n. 1.量,份量,额 2.(书的)卷,册 3.音量,响度 4.体积,容积,容量
feasible a. 可行的,可能的,行得通的
sophisticated a. 1.复杂的,尖端的 2.世故的,老练的,精通的
operational a. 1.操作(上)的;经营的 2.即可使用的,即可行动的
sincere a. 真诚的,诚实的
pinch n. 1.捏,掐,拧 2.一撮,微量
v. 捏,掐,拧
aspect n. 部分,方面
dismiss vt. 1.解雇,开除 2.放弃(想法、感情等),不再考虑 3.解散,遣散
provided conj. 如果,假若
exert vt. 1.努力,用力,尽力 2.运用(能力或技巧),发挥
flexible a. 1.灵活的,可变通的,可适应的 2.易弯曲的,柔韧的
inflexible a. 不可改变的,不受影响的,不屈服的
loyalty n. 忠诚,忠心
Phrases and Expressions
come to grips with 着手解决(问题)或对付(挑战)
work for 为... ...工作,受雇于... ...
in contrast to 对比,比照
in some way 在某种意义上;有一点,有些
be related to 与... ...相关,与... ...有联系
distinguish from 与... ...相区别
set up 造成,产生
fall through 失败,成为泡影
owing to 因为,由于
press for 反复请求,紧急要求
wonder at 对... ...感到惊讶,惊叹
lag behind 走得慢,落后
in a pinch 必要时
exert oneself 努力
Proper Names
Nomura Securities 野村证券
Tokyo Stock Exchange 东京证券交易所
New York Stock Exchange 纽约证券交易所
Matsushita (company) 松下(公司)
Matsushita 松下幸之助(松下公司创始人)


1 analyze RwUzm     
vt.分析,解析 (=analyse)
  • We should analyze the cause and effect of this event.我们应该分析这场事变的因果。
  • The teacher tried to analyze the cause of our failure.老师设法分析我们失败的原因。
2 mobility H6rzu     
  • The difference in regional house prices acts as an obstacle to mobility of labour.不同地区房价的差异阻碍了劳动力的流动。
  • Mobility is very important in guerrilla warfare.机动性在游击战中至关重要。
3 negotiation FGWxc     
  • They closed the deal in sugar after a week of negotiation.经过一星期的谈判,他们的食糖生意成交了。
  • The negotiation dragged on until July.谈判一直拖到7月份。
4 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
5 distinguished wu9z3v     
  • Elephants are distinguished from other animals by their long noses.大象以其长长的鼻子显示出与其他动物的不同。
  • A banquet was given in honor of the distinguished guests.宴会是为了向贵宾们致敬而举行的。
6 confrontation xYHy7     
  • We can't risk another confrontation with the union.我们不能冒再次同工会对抗的危险。
  • After years of confrontation,they finally have achieved a modus vivendi.在对抗很长时间后,他们最后达成安宁生存的非正式协议。
7 thereby Sokwv     
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我从未去过那座城市,因此对它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英国公民,因而得到了投票权。
8 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
9 mutual eFOxC     
  • We must pull together for mutual interest.我们必须为相互的利益而通力合作。
  • Mutual interests tied us together.相互的利害关系把我们联系在一起。
10 consensus epMzA     
  • Can we reach a consensus on this issue?我们能在这个问题上取得一致意见吗?
  • What is the consensus of opinion at the afternoon meeting?下午会议上一致的意见是什么?
11 ministries 80c65392682fb821af91521513be1259     
(政府的)部( ministry的名词复数 ); 神职; 牧师职位; 神职任期
  • Local authorities must refer everything to the central ministries. 地方管理机构应请示中央主管部门。
  • The number of Ministries has been pared down by a third. 部委的数量已经减少了1/3。
12 unity 4kQwT     
  • When we speak of unity,we do not mean unprincipled peace.所谓团结,并非一团和气。
  • We must strengthen our unity in the face of powerful enemies.大敌当前,我们必须加强团结。
13 eventual AnLx8     
  • Several schools face eventual closure.几所学校面临最终关闭。
  • Both parties expressed optimism about an eventual solution.双方对问题的最终解决都表示乐观。
14 indirectly a8UxR     
  • I heard the news indirectly.这消息我是间接听来的。
  • They were approached indirectly through an intermediary.通过一位中间人,他们进行了间接接触。
15 frustrated ksWz5t     
adj.挫败的,失意的,泄气的v.使不成功( frustrate的过去式和过去分词 );挫败;使受挫折;令人沮丧
  • It's very easy to get frustrated in this job. 这个工作很容易令人懊恼。
  • The bad weather frustrated all our hopes of going out. 恶劣的天气破坏了我们出行的愿望。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 implement WcdzG     
  • Don't undertake a project unless you can implement it.不要承担一项计划,除非你能完成这项计划。
  • The best implement for digging a garden is a spade.在花园里挖土的最好工具是铁锹。
17 Founder wigxF     
  • He was extolled as the founder of their Florentine school.他被称颂为佛罗伦萨画派的鼻祖。
  • According to the old tradition,Romulus was the founder of Rome.按照古老的传说,罗穆卢斯是古罗马的建国者。
18 salespeople xjuz25     
n.售货员,店员;售货员( salesperson的名词复数 )
  • The shop usually employs additional salespeople for the Christmas toy trade. 这家商店通常雇一些临时售货员来做圣诞节玩具生意。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Under our new system, salespeople sit down with each of our dealers. 根据新的制度,销售人员应逐个地同承销商洽商。 来自辞典例句
19 capabilities f7b11037f2050959293aafb493b7653c     
n.能力( capability的名词复数 );可能;容量;[复数]潜在能力
  • He was somewhat pompous and had a high opinion of his own capabilities. 他有点自大,自视甚高。 来自辞典例句
  • Some programmers use tabs to break complex product capabilities into smaller chunks. 一些程序员认为,标签可以将复杂的功能分为每个窗格一组简单的功能。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
20 inflexible xbZz7     
  • Charles was a man of settled habits and inflexible routine.查尔斯是一个恪守习惯、生活规律不容打乱的人。
  • The new plastic is completely inflexible.这种新塑料是完全不可弯曲的。
21 loyalty gA9xu     
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
22 ministry kD5x2     
  • They sent a deputation to the ministry to complain.他们派了一个代表团到部里投诉。
  • We probed the Air Ministry statements.我们调查了空军部的记录。
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