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新视野大学英语 读写教程第三册 unit4-a

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  Unit 4
Section (A)
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
The Statue of Liberty
In the mid-1870s, French artist Frederic Auguste Bartholdi was working on an enormous projectcalled Liberty Enlightening the World, a monument celebrating US independence and the France-America alliance. At the same time, he was in love with a woman whom he had met in Canada. Hismother could not approve of her son's affection for a woman she had never met, but Bartholdi wentahead and married his love in 1876.
That same year Bartholdi had assembled the statue's right arm and torch, and displayed them inPhiladelphia. It is said that he had used his wife's arm as the model, but felt her face was too beautifulfor the statue. He needed someone whose face represented suffering yet strength, someone moresevere than beautiful. He chose his mother.
The Statue of Liberty was dedicated1 on an island in Upper New York Bay in 1886. It had his mother'sface and his wife's body, but Bartholdi called it "my daughter, Liberty".
BarbieBefore all the different types of Barbie dolls for sale now, there was just a single Barbie. Actually, hername was Barbara.
Barbara Handler was the daughter of Elliot and Ruth Handler, co-founders of the Mattel ToyCompany. Ruth came up with the idea for Barbie after watching her daughter play with paper dolls.
The three-dimensional model for Barbie was a German doll — a joke gift for adults described as havingthe appearance of "a woman who sold sex". Mattel refashioned the doll into a decent, all-American —although with an exaggerated breast size — version and named it after Barbara, who was then ateenager.
Since her introduction in 1959, Barbie has become the universally recognized Queen of the Dolls.
Mattel says the average American girl owns ten Barbie dolls, and two are sold somewhere in the worldevery second.
Now more than sixty years old, Barbara — who declines interviews but is said to have loved the doll -may be the most famous unknown figure on the planet.
Barbie's boyfriend, Ken2, was introduced in 1961 and named after Barbara's brother. The real Ken,who died in 1994, was disgusted by the doll that made his family famous. "I don't want my children toplay with it," he said in 1993.
American GothicGrant Wood instantly rose to fame in 1930 with his painting American Gothic, an often-copiedinterpretation of the solemn pride of American farmers. The painting shows a serious-looking man anda woman standing4 in front of a farmhouse5. He was strongly influenced by medieval artists and inspiredby the Gothic window of an old farmhouse, but the faces in his composition were what captured theworld's attention.
Wood liked to paint faces he knew well. For the grave farmer he used his dentist, a sour-looking man.
For the woman standing alongside him, the artist chose his sister, Nan. He stretched the models' necksa bit, but there was no doubt who posed for the portrait.
Nan later remarked that the fame she gained from American Gothic saved her from a very boringlife.  

  The Buffalo6 Nickel

  Today, American coins honor prominent figures of the US government — mostly famous formerpresidents. But the Buffalo nickel, produced from 1913 to 1938, honored a pair of connected tragediesfrom the settlement of the American frontier — the destruction of the buffalo herds8 and the AmericanIndians.
While white people had previously9 been used as models for most American coins, famed artist JamesEarle Fraser went against tradition by using three actual American Indians as models for his creation.
For the buffalo on the other side, since buffalo no longer wandered about the great grasslands10, Fraserwas forced to sketch11 an aging buffalo from New York City's Central Park Zoo. Two years later, in 1915,this animal was sold for $100 and killed for meat, a hide, and a wall decoration made from its horns.
Uncle SamFourteen-year-old Sam Wilson ran away from home to join his father and older brothers in the fightto liberate12 the American colonies from the British during the American Revolution. At age 23, hestarted a meatpacking business and earned a reputation for being honest and hard working.
During a later war in 1812, Wilson gained a position inspecting meat for US Army forces, workingwith a man who had signed a contract with the government to provide meat to the army. Barrels ofmeat supplied to the army were stamped "EA-US", identifying the company (EA) and country of origin(US). According to one story, when a government official visited the plant and asked about the letters, acreative employee told him "US" was short for "Uncle Sam" Wilson. Soon soldiers were saying all Armysupplies were from "Uncle Sam".
After the war, a character called Uncle Sam began appearing in political cartoons, his form evolvingfrom an earlier cartoon character called Brother Jonathan that was popular during the AmericanRevolution. Uncle Sam soon replaced Brother Jonathan as American's most popular symbol. The mostenduring portrait of Uncle Sam was created by artist James Montgomery Flagg in his famous armyrecruiting posters of World Wars I and II. That version — a tall man with white hair and a small whitebeard on his chin, a dark blue coat and a tall hat with stars on it — was a self-portrait of Flagg.
Words: 900  New Words
statue n. 雕像,塑像,铸像
liberty n. 1.自由,自由权 2.许可,准许 3.放肆,无礼,冒昧行为
▲enlighten vt. 启发,开导
monument n. 纪念碑,纪念馆
alliance n. 同盟,联盟
approve vi. 赞成,称许
vt. 批准,同意
affection n. 1.喜爱 2.爱情,爱慕之情
assemble vt. 组装,装配
v. (使)集合,(使)聚集
torch n. 1.火炬 2.手电筒
bay n. (海或湖泊的)湾
exaggerate v. 夸张,夸大
breast n. 1.乳房 2.前胸,胸部
version n. 1.版本;型号 2.叙述,说法
universal a. 1.全体的,一致的,普遍的 2.通用的,广泛的,万能的 3.宇宙的,全世界的
Universally ad. 全体地,普遍地,无例外地
sixty num. 六十,六十个
fame n. 名誉,名望
interpretation3 n. 1.解释,说明,描述 2.(表演、演奏的)艺术处理
solemn a. 1.庄严的,肃穆的 2.严肃的
▲medieval a. 中古的,中世纪的
inspire vt. 1.给……以灵感 2.鼓舞,激励
grave a. 1.(指人)表情严肃的,端庄的 2.严重的
n. 坟墓,墓穴
▲dentist n. 牙科医生
alongside prep. 在... ...旁边,和... ....一起
ad. 在旁边,并排地
stretch vt. 1.拉长,拉紧,伸展 2.使尽全力,到(超过)... ... 的极限
vi. 扩展,延伸,延续
portrait n. 肖像,画像
◆buffalo n. 水牛,野牛
▲nickel n. (美国或加拿大的)五分镍币,五分钱
tragedy n. 1.悲剧,惨案,不幸的事件 2.悲剧(艺术)
settlement n. 1.殖民,移民,拓居 2.解决;协议
frontier n. 1.边境,边界,(美国靠近未开发地带的)边远地区 2.前沿,新领域
herd7 n. 兽群, 牧群
vt. 使集中在一起,把……赶在一起
horn n. 1.(牛、羊、鹿等的)角 2.喇叭,号角,警报器
liberate vt. 解放,释放
reputation n. 名声,名望
inspect vt. 1.检查 2.视察
contract n. 合同,契约
v. 订合同,订契约
evolve v. (使)演变,(使)演化,(使)发展
recruit vt. 招募,征兵,吸收(新成员)
n. 新兵,新成员
poster n. 招贴(画),海报,布告
beard n. 胡子,胡须
chin n. 下巴
Phrases and Expressions
work on sth. 从事于,致力于
be in love with sb. 与……恋爱,相爱
approve of sth. 赞成,称许,满意
go ahead 继续;进行
for sale 出售,待售
come up with 找到,想出(答案、解决办法等)
rise to fame 成名
name after sb. 以某人姓名命名
save sb. from 拯救,使免于
go against 与... ... 相反,违背
run away from 突然离开,逃离
Proper Names
the Statue of Liberty 自由女神像
Frederic Auguste Bartholdi 弗里德里克·奥古斯特·巴托尔迪(1834-1904,法国雕塑家)
Liberty Enlightening the World "自由照耀世界"
Philadelphia 费城(美国宾夕法尼亚州东南部港市)
New York Bay 纽约湾(靠美国纽约州东南岸和新泽西州东北岸,临哈得逊河)
Barbie 芭比娃娃(一种十分畅销的金发碧眼玩具娃娃的商标名)
Barbara Handler 芭芭拉·汉德勒
Elliot Handler 艾略特·汉德勒
Ruth Handler 鲁思·汉德勒
Mattel Toy Company 马特尔玩具公司
Ken 肯(人名)
American Gothic 《美国哥特式》(格兰特·伍德的名画)
Grant Wood 格兰特·伍德
Nan 南(人名)
Indian 印第安人
James Earle Fraser 詹姆斯·厄尔·弗雷泽
Central Park Zoo (纽约)中央公园动物园
Uncle Sam 山姆大叔(指美国政府或美国人)
Sam Wilson 山姆·威尔逊
the American Revolution 美国独立战争(1775-1783)
US Army 美国陆军
Brother Jonathan 乔纳森大哥(原为18世纪英国兵对美国民兵的谑称,现可指美国或典型的美国男人

James Montgomery Flagg 詹姆斯·蒙哥马利·弗拉格(1877-1960,美国插图和广告画家)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 dedicated duHzy2     
adj.一心一意的;献身的;热诚的
参考例句:
  • He dedicated his life to the cause of education.他献身于教育事业。
  • His whole energies are dedicated to improve the design.他的全部精力都放在改进这项设计上了。
2 ken k3WxV     
n.视野,知识领域
参考例句:
  • Such things are beyond my ken.我可不懂这些事。
  • Abstract words are beyond the ken of children.抽象的言辞超出小孩所理解的范围.
3 interpretation P5jxQ     
n.解释,说明,描述;艺术处理
参考例句:
  • His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  • Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
4 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
5 farmhouse kt1zIk     
n.农场住宅(尤指主要住房)
参考例句:
  • We fell for the farmhouse as soon as we saw it.我们对那所农舍一见倾心。
  • We put up for the night at a farmhouse.我们在一间农舍投宿了一夜。
6 buffalo 1Sby4     
n.(北美)野牛;(亚洲)水牛
参考例句:
  • Asian buffalo isn't as wild as that of America's. 亚洲水牛比美洲水牛温顺些。
  • The boots are made of buffalo hide. 这双靴子是由水牛皮制成的。
7 herd Pd8zb     
n.兽群,牧群;vt.使集中,把…赶在一起
参考例句:
  • She drove the herd of cattle through the wilderness.她赶着牛群穿过荒野。
  • He had no opinions of his own but simply follow the herd.他从无主见,只是人云亦云。
8 herds 0a162615f6eafc3312659a54a8cdac0f     
兽群( herd的名词复数 ); 牧群; 人群; 群众
参考例句:
  • Regularly at daybreak they drive their herds to the pasture. 每天天一亮他们就把牲畜赶到草场上去。
  • There we saw herds of cows grazing on the pasture. 我们在那里看到一群群的牛在草地上吃草。
9 previously bkzzzC     
adv.以前,先前(地)
参考例句:
  • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point.自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
  • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously.让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
10 grasslands 72179cad53224d2f605476ff67a1d94c     
n.草原,牧场( grassland的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Songs were heard ringing loud and clear over the grasslands. 草原上扬起清亮激越的歌声。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Grasslands have been broken and planted to wheat. 草原已经开垦出来,种上了小麦。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 sketch UEyyG     
n.草图;梗概;素描;v.素描;概述
参考例句:
  • My sister often goes into the country to sketch. 我姐姐常到乡间去写生。
  • I will send you a slight sketch of the house.我将给你寄去房屋的草图。
12 liberate p9ozT     
v.解放,使获得自由,释出,放出;vt.解放,使获自由
参考例句:
  • They did their best to liberate slaves.他们尽最大能力去解放奴隶。
  • This will liberate him from economic worry.这将消除他经济上的忧虑。
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