Unit 7
Emotions and Health

In-Class Reading

The Secrets of Good Health

I. Word List
Directions: Memorize the words and phrases before class. You will benefit from your effort when you get the passage from your teacher and read it in class.

New Words

bacterium *
n. (plural bacteria) 细菌

adj. of behavior 行为的

belly *
n. 腹部

cancer *
n. 癌症

cell *
n. the smallest part of a living thing that can exist independently 细胞

chemical *
n. 化学物质

chronic *
adj. (especially of a disease) lasting for along time (尤指疾病等)长期的,慢性的
e.g. chronic diseases 慢性病

connection *
n. a link or direct relationship between things or people 联系
e.g. There seems to be a connection between the arrival of the letter and Bill's sudden departure shortly afterwards.

decrease *
v. cause something to become smaller or fewer 减少
e.g. She decreased her speed to 40 kilometers per hour as she approached the bend.

depressed *
adj. feeling very unhappy 沮丧的
e.g. She's very depressed about not winning.

depression *
n. a feeling of sadness that makes one think there is no hope for the future 沮丧,消沉
e.g. I'm just beginning to get over the deep depression I felt about losing my job.

diverse *
adj. of different kinds 多种多样的,不同的
e.g. His interests are very diverse.

document *
v. prove or support something with documents 用文件证实或证明(某事)
e.g. The effects of smoking have been well documented.

energize *
v. give energy to somebody or something 给予(某人或某物)精力、能量
e.g. Food energizes you.

equally *
adv. 相等地;等同地
e.g. Try to get into the habit of eating at least three small meals a day, at equally spaced intervals.

n. short form of influenza 流行性感冒

hostile *
adj. very unfriendly 极不友好的
e.g. Her friendly greeting was met by an unsmiling, hostile stare from the children gathered round the car.

immune *
adj. 免疫的
e.g. It seemed for a while that women were immune to AIDS.

n. 免疫力

n. 免疫传递素

ingredient *
n. (figurative) any of the qualities of which something is made 要素,成分
e.g. Traveling abroad is an essential ingredient in your business career.

insect *
n. 昆虫

loosen *
v. become or make loose or looser 放松
e.g. This tie keeps loosening.

n. 留神;警觉;注意

muscle *
n. 肌肉

network *
n. 网络

n. 神经传递素

adj. 新婚的

nutrition *
n. 营养

optimistic *
adj. believing that good things will happen in the future 乐观主义的
e.g. The president says he is optimistic that an agreement can be worked out soon.

organ *
n. 器官

outlook *
n. a mental attitude (对生活等的)看法,观点
e.g. He has a very strange outlook on life.

pessimistic *
adj. 悲观的

positive *
adj. pleasant and helpful in some way 积极的
e.g. Working abroad should be an exciting and positive experience for all concerned.

n. (生理) 神经末梢,感受器

release *
v. 释放
e.g. Release the hand brake slowly as you accelerate.

n. the process of breathing 呼吸

response *
n. 反应
e.g. There has been no response to his remarks from the government.

reverse *
n. the opposite; the other way round 相反情况
e.g. Children's shoes aren't cheap--quite the reverse.

rhythmic *
adj. having rhythm 有节奏的

risk *
n. the possibility that something bad, unpleasant or dangerous may happen 风险;危险
e.g. You have to accept that there are risks involved in any investment.

strain *
n. 负担,压力
e.g. She's been under terrible strain since her husband became ill.

stressful *
adj. 有压力的
e.g. Being a hospital doctor can be a very stressful job.

substance *
n. a particular type of matter 物质
e.g. Water and ice are the same substance in different forms.

system *
n. a group of things or parts working together as a whole 系统
e.g. the nervous system 神经系统

tension *
n. mental, emotional or nervous strain 心理、情绪或神经方面的紧张

virus *
n. 病毒

n. a state of being healthy, happy, etc. 健康、幸福等状况

whichever * determiner,
e.g. We're going to be late, whichever way we go.

The Secrets of Good Health

1 Exercise. Eat right. Don't smoke. These are some of the most common words of advice to people who wish to stay healthy. But a growing amount of scientific research shows that there is another, equally important, aspect to staying well, peace of mind.
2 Think about how your heart races while you are waiting to be called into the doctor's office or how unhappy a bad headache can make you. There is a two-way connection between mind and body. When one is bothered, the other feels it. At the heart of the communications network are brain chemicals called neurotransmitters which communicate messages not only within the brain, but also within the body. One key receptor, the immune system, is a network of cells and organs that work to fight off viruses and bacteria. When you experience joy, fear, or relaxation, the immune system may increase or decrease production of disease-fighting cells, thus helping you to fight off the flu, or even cancer.
3 By now, how the immune system is affected by stress has been well documented. In one study involving newlywed couples, for example, those who showed hostile behavior during a 30-minute discussion about marriage problems had lower immune functioning for the 24-hour period following the experiment than people who showed less negative behavior. It is not just stress that can do damage. One researcher thought that if the same cold virus was put under two different noses, the person who is depressed or anxious or pessimistic would be more likely to develop the cold.
4 What is it about stress and related emotions that can encourage poor health? These feelings can cause the production of substances that damage or weaken our immune cells. Negative emotions can also cause our bodies to produce fewer immuno-transmitters which ultimately help fight off disease.
5 If stress, depression, anger and other negative feelings can make you more likely to get sick, can the reverse be true? Will you have a stronger immune response and greater health if you are happier, less stressed, and more optimistic? Experts believe that the answer is yes. There are studies showing that by employing certain mind-body techniques that help reduce stress and improve outlook, cancer patients can live longer. But cancer patients aren't the only ones who can benefit. Certain mind-body techniques can help all of us.
6 Research has found that when patients with chronic pain used relaxation therapies and other behavioral techniques to manage discomfort, they reduced their visits to the doctor by 36 percent. Relaxation produces better health through deep, rhythmic breathing, muscle loosening, and a slower heart rate. When some of the tension is taken out of the body, the strain is taken off the entire system. Relaxation decreases blood pressure, heart rate and respiration and increases one's sense of well-being. That is important because a body that is constantly tense will eventually give out.
7 There are dozens of mind-body techniques for you to choose from. The key is to find one you're comfortable with and then do it regularly. Simply writing about negative, unpleasant events may actually boost your immunity according to researchers. Scientists are not completely sure why it works, but they know that when individuals write, it helps them organize events, which in turn gives them more understanding of the situation. When you can give a stressful experience meaning through writing, you don't think about it or worry about it as much. And when you reduce stress, you boost immune functioning. How much you write or how long you write depends upon how much stress you feel about the event. One doctor suggests that people write until they are tired of writing and then read over what they have written. This helps make more sense of it. Also, just talking about a stressful experience with a friend can have the same positive effect.
8 Study after study has shown that people with good support systems-caring, helpful family, friends and co-workers-have better health. Researchers think that the understanding we get from them reduces stress, which in turn helps the immune system. As one psychologist states, "When you have someone who loves you and cares about you to share your problems and feelings with, you don't feel you have to fight your problems, or the world, alone." Another interesting study has shown that the more diverse your social network, the better, that people who have a number of different social relationships have a lower risk of getting colds than those with fewer.
9 There are other fast but effective mind-body relaxation techniques. One could be called "belly breathing." Sit in a comfortable chair in a quiet room. Close your eyes. Breathe through your nose, fill your lungs with air, then slowly release the breath through your mouth. Another technique could be called "mindfulness." Take a slow walk and be aware of exactly what is happening to you at each moment-whether the wind is on your face, an insect is flying near you, or you hear birds singing. Even if you continue thinking about problems, you will become calmer and distance yourself from your problems. If you are at home, you might dance. Put on some fast music, close the door, and let yourself go. The dancing will energize you and that alone will make you feel better.
10 Whichever mind-body techniques work best for you, never rely on them alone to keep you mentally and physically well. Like exercise, good nutrition and proper medical care, methods such as relaxation therapies are only one part of the recipe for good health. Still, they are an important ingredient. (934 words)

Time taken: ____ minutes

Phrases and Expressions

be likely to
very probably
e.g. These services are likely to be available to us all before long.

be tired of 对......不耐烦或感到厌倦
e.g. I'm tired of wearing the same old clothes every day.

depend on /upon
vary according to; be decided by 视......而定;取决于
e.g. The amount you pay depends upon where you live.

fight off
succeed in getting rid of (something) 击退;竭力摆脱
e.g. She took various medicines to try to fight off her cold.

give out
stop working properly
e.g. One of his lungs gave out entirely.

in turn
as a result of something
e.g. Interest rates were cut, and in turn, share prices rose.

let oneself go
no longer restrain one's feelings, desires, etc. 尽情发泄感情、放纵欲望等
e.g. Stop worrying about what you're feeling. Let yourself go.

put on
make something begin to play 使(视听设备)开始播放
e.g. Do you mind if I put some music on?

rely on
trust (especially that something will happen or someone will do something) 指望或依赖某人(某事物)
e.g. You can't rely on the weather.