[00:02.14]第五单元  课文A
[00:04.28]Fallacies about Food
[00:08.72]Many primitive peoples believed
[00:13.37]that by eating an animal they could get some of the good qualities of that animal for themselves.
[00:21.52]They thought, for example,
[00:25.36]that eating deer would make them runas fast as the deer.
[00:31.74]Some savage tribes believed that eating enemies
[00:38.30]that had shown bravery in battle would make them brave.
[00:44.54]Man-eating may have started because
[00:49.29]people were eager to become as strong and brave as their enemies.
[00:55.95]Among civilized people
[01:00.32]it was once thought that ginger root by come magical power
[01:07.08] could improve the memory.
[01:11.44]Eggs were thought to make the voice pretty.
[01:17.19]Tomatoes also were believed to have magicai powers.
[01:23.85]They were called love apples
[01:28.40]and were supposed to make people who ate them fall in love.
[01:34.56]Later another wrong idea about tomatoes grew up--
[01:41.51]the idea that they were poisonous.
[01:46.48]How surprised the people who thought tomatoes poisonous would be
[01:53.03]if they could know that millions of pounds of tomatoes
[02:00.19]were supplied to soldiers overseas during World War II.
[02:06.25]Even today there are a great many wrong ideas about food.
[02:13.51]Some of them are very widespread.
[02:18.68]One such idea is that fish is the best brain food.
[02:25.03]Fish is good brain food just as it is good muscle food and skin food and bone food.
[02:34.59]But no one has been able to prove
[02:37.11]但还没有 人能够证明,
[02:39.63] that fish is any better for the brain than many other kinds of food.
[02:46.50]Another such idea is that you should not drink water with meals.
[02:53.45]Washing food down with water as a substitute for chewing is not a good idea,
[03:01.21]but some water with meals has been found to be helpful.
[03:07.38]It makes the digestive juices flow more freely and helps to digest the food.
[03:15.32]Many of the ideas which scientists tell us have no foundation
[03:22.27] have to do with mixtures of foods.
[03:27.41]A few years ago the belief became general that orange juice and milk
[03:35.14] should never be drunk at the same meal.
[03:40.00]The reason given was that the acid in the orange juice
[03:46.06] would make the milk curdle and become indigestible.
[03:52.02]As a matter of fact,milk always meets in the stomach a digestive juice which curdles it;
[04:02.60]the curdling of the milk is the first step in its digestion. [04:05.83]牛奶的凝结是其被消化的第一步。
[04:09.05]A similar wrong idear is that fish and ice cream
[04:12.32]另一种类似 的错误观点是,
[04:15.58]when eaten at the same meal form a poisonous combination.
[04:22.56]Still another wrong idea about mixing foods
[04:29.11]is that proteins and carbohydrates should never be eaten at the same meal.
[04:36.77]Many people think of'bread, for example,as a carbohydrate food.
[04:43.04]It is chiefly a carbohydrate food, but it also contains proteins[04:47.41]面包主要是碳水化合物食品,但它也含有蛋白质。
[04:51.79]In the same way,milk, probably the best single food,
[04:58.06] contains both proteins and carbohydrates.
[05:03.70]It is just as foolish to say that one should never eat meat and potatoes together
[05:11.75]as it is to say that one should never eat bread or drink milk.
[05:18.41]Text B
[05:21.67]Do Animals Think?
[05:25.33]The question has often been asked,Do animals think?
[05:31.39]I believe that some of them think a great deal.
[05:36.54]Many of them are like children in their sports.
[05:41.81]We notice this to be true very often with dogs and cats;
[05:47.56]but it is true with other animals as well.
[05:52.71]Some birds are very lively in their sports;
[05:58.58]and the same is true with some insects.
[06:03.62]The ants,hardworking as they are,have their times for play.
[06:10.89]They run races;they wrestle;and sometimes they have mock fights together.
[06:18.83]Very busy must be their thoughts while engaged in these sports.
[06:25.31]There are many animals, however,
[06:29.98]that never play;their thoughts seem to be of the more sober kind.
[06:37.04]We never see frogs engaged in sport.
[06:42.00]They all the time appear to be very grave.
[06:47.25]The same is true of the owl,
[06:51.92]who always looks as if he were considering some important question.
[06:57.99]Animals think much while building their houses.
[07:03.94]The bird searches for what it can use in building its nest,
[07:10.18]and in doing this it thinks.
[07:14.63]The beavers think as they build their dams and their houses.
[07:21.00]They think in getting their materials,
[07:25.86]and also in arranging them,and in plastering them together with mud.
[07:32.41]Some spiders build houses
[07:36.78]which could scarcely have been made except by some thinking creature.
[07:42.94]As animals think, they learn.Some learn more than others.
[07:49.71]The parrot learns to talk,though in some other respects it is quite stupid.
[07:57.88]The mocking bird learns to imitate a great many different sounds.
[08:00.97]反舌鸟能学会模仿很多不同的声音。 [08:04.05]The horse is not long in learning many things connected
[08:09.80] with the work which he has to do.
[08:14.16]The shepherd dog does not know as much about most things as some other dogs,
[08:20.92]and yet he understands very well how to take care of sheep.
[08:26.98]Though animals think and learn,
[08:30.82]they do not make any real improvement in their ways of doing things,as men do.
[08:37.59]Each kind of bird has its own way of building a nest,
[08:43.34] and it is always the same way.
[08:47.60]And so of other animals.
[08:51.75]They have no new fashions,and learn none from each other.
[08:57.50]But men,as you know,are always finding new ways of building houses,
[09:04.76]and improved methods of doing almost all kinds of labor.
[09:10.43]Many of the things that animals know how to do[09:13.21]有许多事情动物知道怎么做,
[09:15.99] they seem to know either without learning,
[09:20.43]or in some way which we cannot understand.
[09:25.50]They are said to do such things by instinct;
[09:30.75]but no one can tell what instinct is.
[09:35.61]It is by this instinct that birds build their nests
[09:41.28] and beavers their dams and huts.
[09:45.72]If these things were all planned and thought out just as men plan new houses,
[09:53.08]there would be some changes in the fashions of them,and some improvements.
[09:59.56]I have spoken of the building instinct of beavers.
[10:02.54]我已经谈过海狸 的建筑本能。
[10:05.52]An English gentleman caught a young one and put him at first in a cage.
[10:12.88]After a while he let him out in a mom
[10:18.45] where there was a great variety of things.
[10:22.89]As soon as he was let out he began to exercise his building instinct.
[10:30.26]He gathered together whatever he could find,
[10:34.98]brushes,baskets,boots,clothes,sticks,bits of coal,etc.,
[10:44.52] and arranged them as if to build a dam.
[10:49.38]Now,if he had had his wits about him,
[10:55.26]he would have known that there was no use in building a dam
[11:00.71]where there was no water.
[11:04.27]It is plain that,
[11:07.61]while animals learn about things by their senses as we do,
[11:13.88]they do not think nearly as much about what they learn,
[11:19.52]and this is the reason why they do not improve more rapidly.
[11:25.48]Even the wisest of them, as the elephant and the dog,
[11:31.64]do not think very much about what they see and hear.
[11:37.29]Nor is this all.
[11:40.92]There are some things that we understand,
[11:45.75]but about which animals know nothing.
[11:50.19]They have no knowledge of anything that happens outside of their own observation . 11:53.87]它们不了解发生在自己观察范围之外的事情。
[11:57.56]Their minds are so much unlike ours
[12:02.42]that they do not know the difference between right and wrong.