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THE MAKING OF A NATION 200 - THE MAKING OF A NATON - Marshal

时间:2005-09-29 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:wbnewbie   字体: [ ]
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THE MAKING OF A NATON - July 4, 2002: Marshall Plan

By David Jarmul
VOICE 1:

THE MAKING OF A NATION -- a program in Special English by the Voice of America.

(Theme)

Throughout history, power passes from one nation to another. Persia, for example, was the world's most powerful
nation at the time of Alexander the Great. Rome became a great power under Julius Caesar. And France was so
under Napoleon.

Through the middle of the twentieth century, Britain was the most powerful nation in the world. Britain,
however, suffered terribly during World War Two. And, after the war, power passed to the United States.

VOICE 2:

One can almost name the day when this happened. It was February twenty-first, nineteen-forty-seven. Officials at
the British Embassy in Washington called the American State Department. They had two messages from their
government.

The first was about Greece. The situation there was critical. Greece had been occupied by Germany during the
war. Now it was split by a bitter civil war. On one side of the fighting was the royal family supported by Britain.
On the other side were communist-led rebels supported by Yugoslavia and the Soviet1 Union.

British forces had helped keep Greece from becoming communist during nineteen-forty-four and nineteen-fortyfive.
A few years later, Britain could no longer help. It needed all its strength to rebuild from the world war. So,
on that February day in nineteen-forty-seven, Britain told the United States it would soon end all support for
Greece.

VOICE 1:

Britain's second message that day was about Turkey. Turkey was stronger than Greece. But it, too, might become
communist unless it received outside help.

Britain warned the United States that the Soviet Union would soon extend its control all the way across eastern
Europe to the eastern Mediterranean2. It called on President Harry3 Truman to provide strong American support to
help Greece and Turkey resist the communist threat.

Britain, in effect, was asking the United States to take over leadership of the Western world. The United States
was ready to accept its new position.

VOICE 2:

For months, relations between the United States and the Soviet Union had been growing worse. The two
countries had fought together as allies in the Second World War.

But Soviet actions after the war shocked the American people.

The Soviet Union wanted to block western political and economic influence in central and eastern Europe. It
wanted to extend its own influence, instead. So, after the war, it forced the establishment of communist
governments in a number of countries. In Hungary, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia, it sent troops to make sure its
political demands were met.

Britain's wartime prime minister, Winston Churchill, spoke4 about the situation in a


speech at a college in the American state of Missouri. Churchill warned that the Soviet
Union was trying to expand its power. He described it as an "iron curtain" falling across
the middle of Europe. The Iron Curtain divided Europe into a communist east and a
democratic west.

VOICE 1:

The situation was made even more tense by news coming from China. China was a
divided nation at the end of World War Two. The forces of Nationalist leader Chiang
Kai-shek controlled the southwest part of the country. Communist forces under Mao
Tse-Tung controlled the north. Soviet leader Josef Stalin

tries to block a ball labeled
''Marshall Plan'' from a

Both the United States and the Soviet Union expected that Chiang Kai-shek would be basket labeled ''European

Recovery'' in this Americanable to unite China. cartoon by Edwin Marcus.

(Image - Library of
VOICE 2: Congress)

Chiang and the Nationalists won several early victories over the Communists. But Mao and his forces used the
people's growing hatred5 of the Nationalist government to win support. Slowly, they began to win battles and
capture arms.

Early in nineteen-forty-nine, communist forces took control of Beijing and Tientsin. Then they captured
Shanghai and Canton. By the end of the year, Chiang and his Nationalist forces had to flee to the island of
Taiwan.

VOICE 1:

The fall of the Nationalist government in China caused a bitter political debate in America. Some critics of the
Truman administration charged that the United States had not done enough to help the Nationalists.

The Truman administration rejected the charges. It said Chiang caused his own defeat by failing to reform and
win the support of the Chinese people. Secretary of State Dean Acheson described the defeat this way:

"Nothing that the United States did, or could have done, within the limits of its powers, could have changed the
result. It was the product of forces within China. It was the product of forces which the United States tried to
influence, but could not."

VOICE 2:

The United States was more successful in its policies toward Europe.

The British warnings about the communist threat in Greece and Turkey caused President Truman to speak to the
Congress. He said, "I believe it must be our policy to support free people who are fighting attempted overthrow6
by armed minorities or outside pressures."

Truman called on the Congress to give him four-hundred-million dollars in aid for Greece and Turkey. After a
brief but intense national debate, the Congress agreed. Truman then launched an effort to save the Greek
economy and reorganize the Greek army. Soon after that, Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union ended their aid to
Greek rebels. the Civil War in Greece ended.

VOICE 1:

American help for Greece and Turkey was the first step in what became known as the "Truman doctrine7." The
goal of this policy was to stop Soviet aggression8 anywhere in the world.

Truman was willing to use military force to stop the spread of communism. But he also believed it was equally
important to build up western European nations so they would be strong enough to defend themselves.

VOICE 2:


Europe was suffering terribly after World War Two. There were severe shortages of
food and fuel. Crops were destroyed. Many Europeans were beginning to look to the
communists -- to anybody --to save them.

This is one reason why Truman and his advisers9 developed a plan to rebuild the
economies of Europe.

Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the idea. It soon became known as the

"Marshall Plan."

VOICE 1:

President Truman explained why there had to be a Marshall Plan. People were
starving, he said. There had been food riots in France and Italy. People were cold.
There was not enough fuel. And people were sick. Tuberculosis10 was breaking out.

"Something had to be done," Truman said later. "The British had no money. They
were pulling out of Greece and Turkey. They could not help. The United States had
to do it, had to do it all."

VOICE 2:

Marshall Plan aid was offered to all countries in Europe. The Soviet Union and its allies refused help. Sixteen
other countries, however, welcomed the aid.

From nineteen-forty-eight to nineteen-fifty-two, the economic cooperation administration of the Marshall Plan
worked with these countries. It spent thirteen thousand-million dollars.

The plan worked. Agricultural production in Marshall Plan countries increased by ten percent. Overall industrial
production increased by thirty-five percent. Production in some industries, such as steel, increased by much more.

There were political results, too. Stronger economies helped prevent communists from gaining control of the
governments in France and Italy.

Some Europeans criticized the Marshall Plan. They said it increased tensions between the United States and the
Soviet Union in the years after the war. Yet few people could argue that the plan was one of the most successful
international economic programs in history.

(Theme)

VOICE 1:

You have been listening to THE MAKING OF A NATION, a program in Special English by the Voice of
America. Your narrators have been Rich Kleinfeldt and Ray Freeman. Our program was written by David Jarmul.
Join us again next week at this same time for another program about the history of the United States.


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点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 Soviet Sw9wR     
adj.苏联的,苏维埃的;n.苏维埃
参考例句:
  • Zhukov was a marshal of the former Soviet Union.朱可夫是前苏联的一位元帅。
  • Germany began to attack the Soviet Union in 1941.德国在1941年开始进攻苏联。
2 Mediterranean ezuzT     
adj.地中海的;地中海沿岸的
参考例句:
  • The houses are Mediterranean in character.这些房子都属地中海风格。
  • Gibraltar is the key to the Mediterranean.直布罗陀是地中海的要冲。
3 harry heBxS     
vt.掠夺,蹂躏,使苦恼
参考例句:
  • Today,people feel more hurried and harried.今天,人们感到更加忙碌和苦恼。
  • Obama harried business by Healthcare Reform plan.奥巴马用医改掠夺了商界。
4 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
5 hatred T5Gyg     
n.憎恶,憎恨,仇恨
参考例句:
  • He looked at me with hatred in his eyes.他以憎恨的眼光望着我。
  • The old man was seized with burning hatred for the fascists.老人对法西斯主义者充满了仇恨。
6 overthrow PKDxo     
v.推翻,打倒,颠覆;n.推翻,瓦解,颠覆
参考例句:
  • After the overthrow of the government,the country was in chaos.政府被推翻后,这个国家处于混乱中。
  • The overthrow of his plans left him much discouraged.他的计划的失败使得他很气馁。
7 doctrine Pkszt     
n.教义;主义;学说
参考例句:
  • He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine.他不得不宣扬他的教义。
  • The council met to consider changes to doctrine.宗教议会开会考虑更改教义。
8 aggression WKjyF     
n.进攻,侵略,侵犯,侵害
参考例句:
  • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我们紧密地团结,就不必惧怕外来侵略。
  • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她认为攻击性是人类本性的一部份。
9 advisers d4866a794d72d2a666da4e4803fdbf2e     
顾问,劝告者( adviser的名词复数 ); (指导大学新生学科问题等的)指导教授
参考例句:
  • a member of the President's favoured circle of advisers 总统宠爱的顾问班子中的一员
  • She withdrew to confer with her advisers before announcing a decision. 她先去请教顾问然后再宣布决定。
10 tuberculosis bprym     
n.结核病,肺结核
参考例句:
  • People used to go to special health spring to recover from tuberculosis.人们常去温泉疗养胜地治疗肺结核。
  • Tuberculosis is a curable disease.肺结核是一种可治愈的病。
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