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THE MAKING OF A NATION 223 - Election of 1980

时间:2005-09-29 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:wbnewbie   字体: [ ]
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THE MAKING OF A NATION -December 12, 2002: Election of 1980

By Jerilyn Watson


(THEME)
VOICE ONE:
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.
VOICE TWO:
And this is Doug Johnson with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the


history of the United States.
(THEME)
Today, we tell about the campaign for president in Nineteen-Eighty and the election of President Ronald Reagan.
((MUSIC BRIDGE)
)
VOICE ONE:
The president of the United States in Nineteen-Eighty was Jimmy Carter, a Democrat1.


The months before Election Day were difficult for him. Many Americans blamed
Carter for high inflation, high unemployment, and the low value of the United States
dollar. Many blamed him for not gaining the release of American hostages in Iran.

About a year earlier, Muslim extremists had taken the Americans prisoner after seizing
the United States embassy in Tehran. President Carter asked all Americans to support
his administration during the crisis.

As months went by, however, he made no progress in bringing the hostages home. The Iranians rejected
negotiations2 for their release. Sometimes, they did not communicate with the Carter administration at all. The
president appeared powerless.

VOICE TWO:

Carter's political weakness led another Democrat to compete for the party's presidential nomination3. It was
Edward Kennedy, brother of former President John Kennedy. He was a powerful senator from Massachusetts.
Carter was re-nominated. So was his vice4 president, Walter Mondale. Kennedy did not support them very


strongly. So the Democratic Party was divided for the general election.
The Republican Party, however, was united behind a strong candidate. That was Ronald Reagan, a former actor
and former governor of California. Reagan's vice presidential candidate was George Bush. Bush had served in


Congress and as head of the Central Intelligence Agency. He had represented the United States in China and at
the United Nations.
VOICE ONE:
The troubles of the Carter administration caused many Americans to feel that their country was no longer strong.


Ronald Reagan promised to make it strong again.
Several weeks before the election, Carter and Reagan debated each other on television. Some observers said
Carter seemed angry and defensive5. They said Reagan seemed calm and thoughtful. On Election Day, voters gave
Reagan a huge victory. He won by more than eight-million popular votes. Republicans called it the "Reagan



Revolution."

VOICE TWO:

On Inauguration6 Day, the new president spoke7 about the goals of his administration. A major goal was to reduce
the size of the federal government. Reagan and other conservatives believed that the nation's economy was
suffering because of high taxes and unnecessary laws. In this crisis, he said, government was not the solution to
the problem, government was the problem.

He urged Americans to join him in what he called a "new beginning". And he expressed hope that the people
would work with him.

REAGAN: "The economic ills we suffer have come upon us over several decades. They will not go away in days,
weeks, or months. But they will go away. They will go away because we as Americans have the capacity now --
as we have had in the past --to do whatever needs to be done to preserve this last and greatest bastion of
freedom."

VOICE ONE:

Ronald Reagan was born in Nineteen-Eleven, in the little town of Tampico, Illinois. He was a good student and a
good athlete. During the summer, he worked as a lifeguard at a local swimming area. One summer, he saved the
lives of twenty-seven people.

He studied economics and sociology at Eureka College, a small school in Illinois. At the college, he saw a theater
production. When it was over, he said, "More than anything in the world, I wanted to speak the actor's words."

VOICE TWO:

Reagan did not have enough money to go to New York or Hollywood to be an actor. Instead, he tried to get a job
as a sports announcer on radio. To show his abilities, he made a recording8 of an American football game in which
he announced all the plays. There really was no game, however. He had invented all the action.

A radio station in the small city of Davenport, Iowa, was pleased with his creativity. He got the job.

VOICE ONE:

Later, he worked at a radio station in Des Moines, Iowa. And then he moved to the big city of Chicago, Illinois.
There he announced the action of baseball games.

When the team went to California to play, Reagan went, too. This gave him a chance to take a screen test to
become a movie actor. The Warner Brothers Motion Pictures company liked the friendly, handsome young man
and offered him a job.

VOICE TWO:

Before long, Ronald Reagan was a Hollywood star. He appeared in many movies. These included "The Knute
Rockne Story," "Bedtime for Bonzo," and "King's Row." They were not the very best motion pictures made in
Hollywood, but they were popular. During one movie, he met actress Nancy Davis. They married after he was
divorced from his first wife.

Reagan became deeply interested in politics during his years in Hollywood. He was a liberal, but became
increasingly conservative. He served six times as president of a union of movie actors. He was noted9 for his
opposition10 to anyone in the movie industry who supported communism.

VOICE ONE:

By the early Nineteen-Fifties, Reagan had stopped appearing in movies. Instead, he appeared on television. He
made advertisements and also presented a series of dramatic shows.


By Nineteen-Sixty, he was making speeches for conservative Republican candidates. In Nineteen-Sixty-Six, he
became a candidate himself. He ran for governor of California. The Democratics did not think he was a serious
candidate. They told jokes about some of his movies. They made a mistake. When the voting was over, Reagan
had won by almost one-million votes.

As governor, Reagan was praised for reducing the state's huge debt. However, he was criticized for raising taxes.
He also was criticized for his severe policies for controlling unrest at the state's colleges. Yet he won re-election
in Nineteen-Seventy.

VOICE TWO:

Reagan campaigned for the Republican nomination for president in Nineteen-Seventy-Six. He almost defeated
President Gerald Ford11 for the nomination. One of the party's older senators spoke with Reagan after the
convention. He said, "Son, you will be president some day. This just was not your year." Four years later, with
President Jimmy Carter in trouble, Reagan's day had arrived.

VOICE ONE:

Ronald Reagan was sworn-in as America's fortieth president on January Twentieth, Nineteen-Eighty-One. For
many Americans, the day turned out even happier than expected. Iran finally announced that it would free the
hostages in Tehran.

One of President Reagan's earliest proposals made many Americans happy, too. He began to work to get
Congress to reduce taxes. He also began a weekly series of radio broadcasts. In these programs, he commented
on developments in American life and political policy. The broadcasts were similar to those made by President
Franklin Roosevelt during the Nineteen-Thirties. Some people started to call Reagan "The Great Communicator."

VOICE TWO:

Two months after Reagan took office, something unexpected and terrible happened.

The president was leaving a meeting at a hotel in Washington. A gunman began to fire. A man guarding the
president fell to the ground. So did the president's press assistant. Both were seriously wounded.

Other guards quickly helped Reagan into his car. At first, observers did not think the president had been hit. But
he had. There was a bullet in his left lung, close to his heart. Doctors removed the bullet. Reagan fought
courageously12 to get well. . and he did.

We will continue the story of President Ronald Reagan next week.

(THEME)

VOICE ONE:

This program of THE MAKING OF A NATION was written by Jeri Watson and produced by Paul Thompson.
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE TWO:

And this is Doug Johnson. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history
of the United States.


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点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 democrat Xmkzf     
n.民主主义者,民主人士;民主党党员
参考例句:
  • The Democrat and the Public criticized each other.民主党人和共和党人互相攻击。
  • About two years later,he was defeated by Democrat Jimmy Carter.大约两年后,他被民主党人杰米卡特击败。
2 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
参考例句:
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
3 nomination BHMxw     
n.提名,任命,提名权
参考例句:
  • John is favourite to get the nomination for club president.约翰最有希望被提名为俱乐部主席。
  • Few people pronounced for his nomination.很少人表示赞成他的提名。
4 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
5 defensive buszxy     
adj.防御的;防卫的;防守的
参考例句:
  • Their questions about the money put her on the defensive.他们问到钱的问题,使她警觉起来。
  • The Government hastily organized defensive measures against the raids.政府急忙布置了防卫措施抵御空袭。
6 inauguration 3cQzR     
n.开幕、就职典礼
参考例句:
  • The inauguration of a President of the United States takes place on January 20.美国总统的就职典礼于一月二十日举行。
  • Three celebrated tenors sang at the president's inauguration.3位著名的男高音歌手在总统就职仪式上演唱。
7 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
8 recording UktzJj     
n.录音,记录
参考例句:
  • How long will the recording of the song take?录下这首歌得花多少时间?
  • I want to play you a recording of the rehearsal.我想给你放一下彩排的录像。
9 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
10 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
11 Ford KiIxx     
n.浅滩,水浅可涉处;v.涉水,涉过
参考例句:
  • They were guarding the bridge,so we forded the river.他们驻守在那座桥上,所以我们只能涉水过河。
  • If you decide to ford a stream,be extremely careful.如果已决定要涉过小溪,必须极度小心。
12 courageously wvzz8b     
ad.勇敢地,无畏地
参考例句:
  • Under the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the army and civilians in flooded areas fought the floods courageously, reducing the losses to the minimum. 在中共中央、国务院的正确领导下,灾区广大军民奋勇抗洪,把灾害的损失减少到了最低限度。
  • He fought death courageously though his life was draining away. 他虽然生命垂危,但仍然勇敢地与死亡作斗争。
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