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THE MAKING OF A NATION 215 - The 1960s

时间:2005-09-29 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:wbnewbie   字体: [ ]
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THE MAKING OF A NATION -October 17, 2002: The 1960s

By Jeri Watson


VOICE 1:

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE 2:

And this is Stan Busby with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history
of the United States.

(Theme)

Today, we tell about life in the United States during the nineteen-sixties.

VOICE 1:

The nineteen-sixties began with the election of the first president born in the twentieth century -- John Kennedy.
For many Americans, the young president was the symbol of a spirit of hope for the nation. When Kennedy was
murdered in nineteen-sixty-three, many felt that their hopes died, too. This was especially true of young people,
and members and supporters of minority groups.

VOICE 2:

A time of innocence1 and hope soon began to look like a time of anger and violence.
More Americans protested to demand an end to the unfair treatment of black
citizens. More protested to demand an end to the war in Vietnam. And more
protested to demand full equality for women.

By the middle of the nineteen-sixties, it had become almost impossible for President
Lyndon Johnson to leave the White House without facing protesters against the war
in Vietnam. In March of nineteen-sixty-eight, he announced that he would not run
for another term.

VOICE 1:

In addition to President John Kennedy, two other influential2 leaders were murdered during the nineteen-sixties.
Civil rights leader Martin Luther King was shot in Memphis, Tennessee, in nineteen-sixty-eight. Several weeks
later, Robert Kennedy --John Kennedy's brother --was shot in Los Angeles, California. He was campaigning to
win his party's nomination3 for president. Their deaths resulted in riots4 in cities across the country.

VOICE 2:

The unrest and violence affected5 many young Americans. The effect seemed especially bad because of the time
in which they had grown up. By the middle nineteen-fifties, most of their parents had jobs that paid well. They
expressed satisfaction with their lives. They taught their children what were called "middle class" values. These
included a belief in God, hard work, and service to their country.

VOICE 1:

Later, many young Americans began to question these beliefs. They felt that their
parents' values were not enough to help them deal with the social and racial
difficulties of the nineteen-sixties. They rebelled by letting their hair grow long and
by wearing strange clothes. Their dissatisfaction was strongly expressed in music.

Police in Alabama attack
civil rights marchers, 1965.

Rock-and-roll music had become very popular in
America in the nineteen-fifties. Some people, however,
did not approve of it. They thought it was too sexual6.
These people disliked the rock-and-roll of the nineteen-
sixties even more. They found the words especially
unpleasant.

Bus in Fourth of July

VOICE 2:

parade, New Mexico, 1968.

(Copyright - Lisa Law)

The musicians themselves thought the words were extremely important. As singer and song writer Bob Dylan
said, "There would be no music without the words." Bob Dylan produced many songs of social protest. He wrote
anti-war songs before the war in Vietnam became a violent issue. One was called "Blowin' in the Wind. "

(MUSIC)

VOICE 1:

In addition to songs of social protest, rock-and-roll music continued to be popular in America during the
nineteen-sixties. The most popular group, however, was not American. It was British -- the Beatles -- four rock-
and-roll musicians from Liverpool.

(MUSIC)

That was the Beatles' song "I Want to Hold Your Hand. " It went on sale in the United States at the end of
nineteen-sixty-three. Within five weeks, it was the biggest-selling record in America.

VOICE 2:

Other songs, including some by the Beatles, sounded more revolutionary. They spoke7 about drugs and sex,
although not always openly. "Do your own thing" became a common expression. It meant to do whatever you
wanted, without feeling guilty.

Five-hundred-thousand young Americans "did their own thing" at the Woodstock music festival in nineteen-
sixty-nine. They gathered at a farm in New York state. They listened to musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Joan
Baez, and to groups such as The Who and Jefferson Airplane. Woodstock became a symbol of the young peoples'
rebellion8 against traditional values. The young people themselves were called "hippies." Hippies believed there
should be more love and personal freedom in America.

VOICE 1:

In nineteen-sixty-seven, poet Allen Ginsberg helped lead a gathering9 of hippies in San
Francisco. No one knows exactly how many people considered themselves hippies. But
twenty-thousand attended the gathering.

Another leader of the event was Timothy Leary. He was a former university professor
and researcher. Leary urged the crowd in San Francisco to "tune10 in and drop out". This
meant they should use drugs and leave school or their job. One drug that was used in
the nineteen-sixties was lysergic acid diethylamide, or L-S-D. L-S-D causes the brain
to see strange, colorful images. It also can cause brain damage. Some people say the
Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" was about L-S-D.

(MUSIC BRIDGE)

VOICE 2:

As many Americans were listening to songs about drugs and sex, many others were watching television programs
with traditional family values. These included "The Andy Griffith Show" and "The Beverly Hillbillies. " At the
movies, some films captured the rebellious11 spirit of the times. These included "Doctor Strangelove" and "The
Graduate. " Others offered escape through spy adventures, like the James Bond films.

Musicians in San Francisco,
1967.
(Copyright - Lisa Law)
Allen Ginsberg
(Copyright - Lisa Law)

VOICE 1:

Many Americans refused to tune in and drop out in the nineteen-sixties. They took no part in the social
revolution. Instead, they continued leading normal lives of work, family, and home. Others, the activists12 of
American society, were busy fighting for peace, and racial and social justice. Women's groups, for example, were
seeking equality with men. They wanted the same chances as men to get a good education and a good job. They
also demanded equal pay for equal work.

VOICE 2:

A widely popular book on women in modern America was called the feminine13 mystique. It was written by Betty
Friedan and published in nineteen-sixty-three. The idea known as the feminine mystique was the traditional idea
that women have only one part to play in society. They are to have children and stay at home to raise them. In her
book, Mizz Friedan urged women to establish professional lives of their own.

VOICE 1:

That same year, a committee was appointed to investigate the condition of women. It was led by Eleanor
Roosevelt. She was a former first lady. The committee's findings helped lead to new rules and laws. The
nineteen-sixty-four civil rights act guaranteed equal treatment for all groups. This included women. After the law
went into effect, however, many activists said it was not being enforced. The National Organization for Women

- NOW -- was started in an effort to correct the problem.
VOICE 2:

The movement for women's equality was known as the women's liberation14 movement. Activists were called
"women's libbers." They called each other "sisters." Early activists were usually rich, liberal, white women. Later
activists included women of all ages, women of color, rich and poor, educated and uneducated. They acted
together to win recognition15 for the work done by all women in America.

(Theme)

VOICE 1:

This program of THE MAKING OF A NATION was written by Jeri Watson and produced by Paul Thompson.
This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

VOICE 2:

And this is Stan Busby. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of
the United States.


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点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 innocence ZbizC     
n.无罪;天真;无害
参考例句:
  • There was a touching air of innocence about the boy.这个男孩有一种令人感动的天真神情。
  • The accused man proved his innocence of the crime.被告人经证实无罪。
2 influential l7oxK     
adj.有影响的,有权势的
参考例句:
  • He always tries to get in with the most influential people.他总是试图巴结最有影响的人物。
  • He is a very influential man in the government.他在政府中是个很有影响的人物。
3 nomination BHMxw     
n.提名,任命,提名权
参考例句:
  • John is favourite to get the nomination for club president.约翰最有希望被提名为俱乐部主席。
  • Few people pronounced for his nomination.很少人表示赞成他的提名。
4 riots riots     
n. 暴乱, 骚乱, 暴动 vi. 骚乱, 闹事
参考例句:
  • the instigators of the riots 煽动骚乱的人
  • The riots are a clear manifestation of the people's discontent. 骚乱清楚地表明了人们的不满情绪。
5 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
6 sexual YiLzlw     
adj.性的,两性的,性别的
参考例句:
  • He was a person of gross sexual appetites.他是个性欲旺盛的人。
  • It is socially irresponsible to refuse young people advice on sexual matters.拒绝向年轻人提供性方面的建议是对社会不负责任。
7 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
8 rebellion stVyI     
n.造反,叛乱,反抗
参考例句:
  • The next year they rose up in rebellion.第二年他们就揭竿起义了。
  • The new government quickly suppressed the rebellion.新政府迅速把叛乱镇压下去。
9 gathering ChmxZ     
n.集会,聚会,聚集
参考例句:
  • He called on Mr. White to speak at the gathering.他请怀特先生在集会上讲话。
  • He is on the wing gathering material for his novels.他正忙于为他的小说收集资料。
10 tune NmnwW     
n.调子;和谐,协调;v.调音,调节,调整
参考例句:
  • He'd written a tune,and played it to us on the piano.他写了一段曲子,并在钢琴上弹给我们听。
  • The boy beat out a tune on a tin can.那男孩在易拉罐上敲出一首曲子。
11 rebellious CtbyI     
adj.造反的,反抗的,难控制的
参考例句:
  • They will be in danger if they are rebellious.如果他们造反,他们就要发生危险。
  • Her reply was mild enough,but her thoughts were rebellious.她的回答虽然很温和,但她的心里十分反感。
12 activists 90fd83cc3f53a40df93866d9c91bcca4     
n.(政治活动的)积极分子,活动家( activist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • His research work was attacked by animal rights activists . 他的研究受到了动物权益维护者的抨击。
  • Party activists with lower middle class pedigrees are numerous. 党的激进分子中有很多出身于中产阶级下层。 来自《简明英汉词典》
13 feminine Sgnzv     
adj.女性的,女子气的
参考例句:
  • He has a very feminine voice.他的声音非常像女人。
  • She was a very feminine person.她是个很有女性气质的人。
14 liberation 61SxI     
n.解放,解放运动(为获得平等权利和地位的行为)
参考例句:
  • We should help those who are still struggling for liberation.我们应当帮助那些仍在为独立而斗争的人们。
  • Many people died during famines every year before liberation.解放前每年有许多人在饥荒中死亡。
15 recognition zUYxm     
n.承认,认可,认出,认识
参考例句:
  • The place has changed beyond recognition.这地方变得认不出来了。
  • A sudden smile of recognition flashed across his face.他脸上掠过一丝笑意,表示认识对方。
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