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THE MAKING OF A NATION 203 - Harry Truman's Second Term

时间:2005-09-29 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:wbnewbie   字体: [ ]
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THE MAKING OF A NATION - July 25, 2002: Harry1 Truman's Second Term

By Jeri Watson
VOICE 1:

This is Doug Johnson.

VOICE 2:

And this is Phil Murray with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history
of the United States.

(Theme)

VOICE 1:

Before the election of nineteen-forty-eight, Harry Truman sometimes was called an "accidental" president. That
meant the citizens had not elected him to lead the nation. He became America's thirty-third president because he
was vice2 president when Franklin Roosevelt died. Today, we tell about President Truman and events during his
second term in office.

VOICE 2:

In nineteen -forty-eight, Harry Truman had been America's leader for more than three years. The people now
voted for his return to office. They chose him over Republican Party candidate, Thomas Dewey, governor of
New York. The voters also elected a Congress with a majority from Mister Truman's Democratic Party.

The president might have expected such a Congress to support his policies. It did
not, however, always support him. Time after time, Democrats3 from the southern
part of the United States joined with conservative Republicans in voting. Together,
these lawmakers defeated some of Truman's most important proposals. This
included a bill for health care insurance for every American.

VOICE 1:

Fear of communism was a major issue during Truman's second term. After World
War Two, Americans watched as communists took control of one east European nation after another. They
watched as China became communist. They watched as the leader of the Soviet4 Union, Josef Stalin, made it clear
that he wanted communists to rule the world.

(Photos -Library of Congress)
At this tense time, there were charges that communists held important jobs in the
government of the United States. Many citizens accepted the charges. The fear of
communism, real or imagined, threatened the American legal tradition that a person is
innocent until proven guilty.

VOICE 2:

A Republican senator from Wisconsin, Joseph McCarthy, led the search for communists in
America. In speeches and congressional hearings, he accused hundreds of people of being
communists or communist supporters. His targets included the Department of State, the
Army, and the entertainment industry in Hollywood.

Senator McCarthy often had little evidence to support his accusations5. Many of his
charges would not have been accepted in a court of law. But the rules governing
congressional hearings were different. So, he was able to make his accusations freely.



Some people denounced as communists lost their jobs. Some had to use false names to
get work. A few went to jail briefly6 for refusing to cooperate with him.

Joseph McCarthy continued his anti-communist investigations7 for several years. By
the early nineteen-fifties, more people began to question his methods. Critics said he
had violated democratic traditions. In nineteen-fifty-four, the Senate voted to condemn8
his actions. Soon after, he became sick with cancer, and his political life ended. He
died in nineteen-fifty-seven.

((bridge Music))

VOICE 1:

In addition to the problems caused by the fear of communism at home, President Truman had to deal with the
threat of communism in other countries.

He agreed to send American aid to Greece and Turkey. He also supported continuing the Marshall Plan. This
plan had helped rebuild the economies of western Europe after World War Two. Historians agree that it
prevented western Europe from becoming communist.

VOICE 2:

The defense9 of western Europe against communism led president Truman to support the North Atlantic Treaty.
This treaty formed NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, in nineteen-forty-nine. In the beginning,
NATO included the United States, Britain, Canada, France, and eight other nations. More nations joined later.

The NATO treaty stated that a military attack on any member would be considered an attack on all of them.

Truman named General Dwight Eisenhower to be supreme10 commander of the new organization. General
Eisenhower had been supreme commander of Allied11 forces in Europe in World War Two.

VOICE 1:

President Truman believed that other problems in the world could be settled by
cooperative international efforts. In his swearing-in speech in nineteen-forty-nine, he
urged the United States to lend money to other countries to aid their development. He also
wanted to share American science and technology.

Months later, Congress approved twenty-five thousand-million dollars for the first part of
this program.


In nineteen -fifty-one, President Truman asked Congress to establish a new foreign aid program. The aid was for
some countries in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, East Asia and South Asia, and Latin America.
These countries were threatened by communist forces. President Truman believed the United States would be
stronger if its allies were stronger.

((Music))

VOICE 2:

Harry Truman supported and used military power throughout his presidency12.

On June twenty-fifth, nineteen-fifty, forces from North Korea invaded South Korea. Two days later, the united
nations security council approved a resolution on the conflict. It urged U-N members to help South Korea resist
the invasion. President Truman approved sending American planes and ships. Then he approved sending
American ground forces.

The president knew his decision could start World War Three if the Soviet Union entered the war on the side of
North Korea. Yet he felt the United States had to act. Later, he said it was the most difficult decision he made as
president.


VOICE 1:

General Douglas MacArthur was named commander of all United Nations forces in South Korea. By the autumn
of nineteen -fifty, the U-N forces had pushed the North Koreans back across the border. People talked hopefully
of ending the war by the Christmas holiday on December twenty-fifth.


In late November, however, troops from China joined the North Koreans. Thousands of
Chinese soldiers helped push the U-N troops south. General MacArthur wanted to attack
Chinese bases in Manchuria. President Truman said no. The fighting must not spread
outside Korea. Again he feared that such a decision might start another world war.

VOICE 2:

General MacArthur believed he could end the war quickly if he could do what he wanted.
So, he publicly denounced the American policy. In April, nineteen-fifty-one, the president
dismissed him.

Some citizens approved. They believed a military leader must obey his commander in chief. Others, however,
supported General MacArthur. Millions greeted him when he returned to the United States.

VOICE 1:

Most of the fighting in the Korean war took place along the geographic13 line known as the thirty-eighth parallel.
This line formed the border between the north and south. Many victories were only temporary. One side would
capture a hill. Then the other side would recapture it.

Ceasefire talks began in July, nineteen-fifty-one. But the negotiations14 failed to make progress. By the time the
conflict ended two years later, millions of soldiers on both sides had been killed or wounded.

VOICE 2:

Nineteen-fifty-two would be a presidential election year in the United States. Harry Truman was losing
popularity because of the Korean War. At the same time, the military hero of World War Two, General Dwight
Eisenhower, was thinking about running for president.

The need to make difficult choices had made Harry Truman's presidency among the most decisive in American
history. In March, he made another important decision. He announced that he would not be a candidate for reelection.


Truman said, "I have served my country. I do not think it my duty to spend another four years in the White
House."

(Theme)

VOICE 1:

This program of THE MAKING OF A NATION, was written by Jeri Watson and produced by Paul Thompson.
This is Doug Johnson.

VOICE 2:

And this is Phil Murray. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of
the United States.


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点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 harry heBxS     
vt.掠夺,蹂躏,使苦恼
参考例句:
  • Today,people feel more hurried and harried.今天,人们感到更加忙碌和苦恼。
  • Obama harried business by Healthcare Reform plan.奥巴马用医改掠夺了商界。
2 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
3 democrats 655beefefdcaf76097d489a3ff245f76     
n.民主主义者,民主人士( democrat的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The Democrats held a pep rally on Capitol Hill yesterday. 民主党昨天在国会山召开了竞选誓师大会。
  • The democrats organize a filibuster in the senate. 民主党党员组织了阻挠议事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 Soviet Sw9wR     
adj.苏联的,苏维埃的;n.苏维埃
参考例句:
  • Zhukov was a marshal of the former Soviet Union.朱可夫是前苏联的一位元帅。
  • Germany began to attack the Soviet Union in 1941.德国在1941年开始进攻苏联。
5 accusations 3e7158a2ffc2cb3d02e77822c38c959b     
n.指责( accusation的名词复数 );指控;控告;(被告发、控告的)罪名
参考例句:
  • There were accusations of plagiarism. 曾有过关于剽窃的指控。
  • He remained unruffled by their accusations. 对于他们的指控他处之泰然。
6 briefly 9Styo     
adv.简单地,简短地
参考例句:
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
7 investigations 02de25420938593f7db7bd4052010b32     
(正式的)调查( investigation的名词复数 ); 侦查; 科学研究; 学术研究
参考例句:
  • His investigations were intensive and thorough but revealed nothing. 他进行了深入彻底的调查,但没有发现什么。
  • He often sent them out to make investigations. 他常常派他们出去作调查。
8 condemn zpxzp     
vt.谴责,指责;宣判(罪犯),判刑
参考例句:
  • Some praise him,whereas others condemn him.有些人赞扬他,而有些人谴责他。
  • We mustn't condemn him on mere suppositions.我们不可全凭臆测来指责他。
9 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保卫;[pl.]防务工事;辩护,答辩
参考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
10 supreme PHqzc     
adj.极度的,最重要的;至高的,最高的
参考例句:
  • It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  • He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
11 allied iLtys     
adj.协约国的;同盟国的
参考例句:
  • Britain was allied with the United States many times in history.历史上英国曾多次与美国结盟。
  • Allied forces sustained heavy losses in the first few weeks of the campaign.同盟国在最初几周内遭受了巨大的损失。
12 presidency J1HzD     
n.总统(校长,总经理)的职位(任期)
参考例句:
  • Roosevelt was elected four times to the presidency of the United States.罗斯福连续当选四届美国总统。
  • Two candidates are emerging as contestants for the presidency.两位候选人最终成为总统职位竞争者。
13 geographic tgsxb     
adj.地理学的,地理的
参考例句:
  • The city's success owes much to its geographic position. 这座城市的成功很大程度上归功于它的地理位置。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Environmental problems pay no heed to these geographic lines. 环境问题并不理会这些地理界限。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
14 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
参考例句:
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
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