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VOA慢速英语20061207b

时间:2006-12-18 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:sync550b   字体: [ ]
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THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History Series: Life on the Home Front During World War TwoBy David Jarmul

Broadcast: Thursday, December 07, 2006

VOICE ONE:


Norman Rockwell's painting on the May 29, 1943, Saturday Evening Post. ''Rosie,'' with a riveting1 tool, served as an example of how women were aiding the war effort.

THE MAKING OF A NATION -- a program in Special English by the Voice of America.

(MUSIC)

The United States entered the Second World War late in nineteen forty-one after a surprise attack by Japanese forces on Hawaii.

The time and the place of the attack was a surprise. But American military and political leaders had believed that the United States, sooner or later, would be pulled into the fighting. And they began to prepare for war.

VOICE TWO:

President Franklin Roosevelt had been assistant aecretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War One. He remembered how American troops were not ready for that war. Now that he was president, Roosevelt wanted to be sure that the United States would be ready when it had to fight.

Throughout nineteen forty-one, Roosevelt urged American industries to produce more arms and military goods. And he established new government agencies to work with private industry to increase arms production.

Some business leaders resisted Roosevelt's efforts. They felt there was no need to produce more arms while the United States was still at peace. But many others cooperated. And by the time Japan attacked Pearl2 Harbor, the American economy was producing millions of guns and other weapons.

VOICE ONE:

This still was not enough to fight a war. After the Japanese attack, Roosevelt increased his demands on American industry. He called for sixty thousand war planes, forty-five thousand tanks, and twenty thousand anti-aircraft guns. And he wanted all these within one year.

One month after the Pearl Harbor raid3, Roosevelt organized a special committee to direct this military production. He created another group to help companies find men and women for defense4 work. And he established a new office where the nation's best scientists and engineers could work together to design new weapons.

These new government organizations faced several problems. Sometimes factories produced too much of one product and not enough of another. Sometimes tools broke. And some business owners refused to accept government orders. But the weapons were produced. American troops soon had the guns and supplies they needed.

VOICE TWO:


Factory worker making a parachute in 1942

The federal government had to expand its own workforce5 rapidly to meet war needs. Federal spending increased from just six thousand million dollars in nineteen forty to eighty-nine thousand million in nineteen forty-four. This was a fifteen hundred percent increase in just five years.

In fact, total spending by the federal government during the war was twice as much as the government had spent since its beginning in seventeen eighty-seven.

Roosevelt had to take strong steps to get the money for all this spending. He put limits on wages. He increased taxes to as high as ninety-four percent of pay. And he asked the American people to lend money to the federal government. The people answered with almost one hundred thousand million dollars.

VOICE ONE:

The great increase in public spending raised the threat of economic inflation6. There was much more money in the economy just at the time that factories were producing fewer goods for people to buy. More money and fewer goods usually makes prices rise rapidly.

Roosevelt was able to prevent this problem by using taxes and borrowing to reduce the amount of money that people had. But he also created a special office with the power to control prices. Many Americans agreed with the idea of price controls. But everyone wanted somebody else's prices controlled, not their own. Federal officials had to work hard to keep prices and supplies under control. They restricted how much meat and gasoline and other goods people could buy.

The price control program generally worked. Its success kept the American economy strong to support the troops fighting in Europe and Asia.

VOICE TWO:

One reason these strong economic steps worked was because the American people fully7 supported the war effort. One can look at photographs of people of those times and see in their faces how strongly they felt.

In one photograph from the state of North Carolina, a group of men are standing8 in front of old rubber tires collected from automobiles9. They are planning to give the tires to the Army to be fixed10 and used for army vehicles.

Another photo shows a woman visiting a hospital. She is singing a song to a soldier to lift his spirits.

Still another photo shows a man who owns a small food store. He is placing special signs on his meats and cans of food to tell people how much they are allowed to buy.

VOICE ONE:

Radio cannot show the faces in the pictures. But you can get an idea about their feelings by the names of some of the popular songs of the period. One of the most famous was Praise the Lord and Pass the Ammunition11. Another was He Is One-Aye in the Army, and He's One-Aye in My Heart. And one of the most hopeful songs was When the Lights Go on Again All Over the World.

VOICE TWO:

Not all Americans supported the war. A small number of persons refused to fight, because fighting violated12 their religious beliefs. And a few Americans supported the ideas of Hitler and other fascists13. But almost everyone else supported the war effort. They wanted to win the war quickly and return to normal life.


Many Japanese-American families were held in internment14 camps during the war; an assembly center in California in 1942

Japanese-Americans felt the same way. Many of them served with honor in the military forces. But many Americans were suspicious15 of anyone whose family had come from Japan. They refused to trust even Japanese-American families who lived in the United States for more than a century.

Banks refused to lend money to Japanese-Americans. Stores would not sell to them. An American Army general, John Dewitt, spoke16 for many citizens when he said, A Japanese is a Japanese. It makes no difference whether he is an American or not.

The federal government ordered all Japanese-Americans to live in restricted areas for the rest of the war. Only after the war ended did it release them. Years later, people agreed that Japanese-Americans had been badly treated.

VOICE ONE:

Another American minority made progress during the war: black Americans. For years, black American citizens had been kept in low-paying jobs and poor living conditions. But black leaders spoke out to say it was unfair to fight a war for freedom in Europe while blacks at home were not as free as white citizens.

In nineteen forty-one, black leader A. Philip Randolph threatened to lead a giant march on Washington for black rights. President Roosevelt reacted by issuing an order that made it a crime to deny blacks a chance for jobs in defense industries. He also ordered the armed forces to change some of their rules for blacks.

Blacks made progress in these government-controlled areas. But most private industries still refused to give them an equal chance.

Major progress for blacks would come in the years after the war, in the nineteen-fifties and sixties.

VOICE TWO:

Life was busy during the war years with all the changes in the economy, business, music, race relations, and other areas. But in many ways, life continued as it always does.

Americans did what they could during the hard years of World War Two to keep life as normal as possible. But almost everyone understood that the first job was to support the troops overseas and win the war.

This strength of purpose at home gave American soldiers the support they needed. And it also helped President Roosevelt as he negotiated17 with other world leaders during the fighting. Diplomacy18 and foreign relations were extremely complex during the war. That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

You have been listening to THE MAKING OF A NATION, a program in Special English by the Voice of America. Your narrators have been Harry19 Monroe and Jim Tedder20. Our program was written by David Jarmul. The Voice of America invites you to listen again next week to THE MAKING OF A NATION.



点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 riveting HjrznM     
adj.动听的,令人着迷的,完全吸引某人注意力的;n.铆接(法)
参考例句:
  • I find snooker riveting though I don't play myself.虽然我自己不打斯诺克,但是我觉得它挺令人着迷。
  • To my amazement,I found it riveting.但令我惊讶的是,我发现它的吸引人处。
2 pearl 63Zzp     
n.珍珠,珍珠母
参考例句:
  • He bought his girlfriend a pearl necklace.他给他女朋友买了一条珍珠项链。
  • The crane and the mother-of-pearl fight to death.鹬蚌相争。
3 raid XAozr     
v.劫掠,攫取,袭击,突击搜捕;n.突然袭击
参考例句:
  • Our house was blown up in an air raid.在一次空袭中我们的房子被炸掉了。
  • During their raid on the house,the police found a lot of drugs.在对这所房子的搜查中,警方发现了大量的毒品。
4 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保卫;[pl.]防务工事;辩护,答辩
参考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
5 workforce workforce     
n.劳动大军,劳动力
参考例句:
  • A large part of the workforce is employed in agriculture.劳动人口中一大部分受雇于农业。
  • A quarter of the local workforce is unemployed.本地劳动力中有四分之一失业。
6 inflation 4bqz8     
n.胀大,夸张,通货膨胀
参考例句:
  • Gold prices are often seen as an indicator of inflation.黃金价格常常被看作是通货膨胀的指标。
  • The inflation of the airbed took several minutes.给空气床垫充气花了几分钟时间。
7 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
8 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
9 automobiles 760a1b7b6ea4a07c12e5f64cc766962b     
n.汽车( automobile的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • When automobiles become popular,the use of the horse and buggy passed away. 汽车普及后,就不再使用马和马车了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Automobiles speed in an endless stream along the boulevard. 宽阔的林荫道上,汽车川流不息。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
10 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
11 ammunition GwVzz     
n.军火,弹药
参考例句:
  • A few of the jeeps had run out of ammunition.几辆吉普车上的弹药已经用光了。
  • They have expended all their ammunition.他们把弹药用光。
12 violated e9bdc00380e8f8d539ac7e2a7aa6a9c8     
亵渎( violate的过去式和过去分词 ); 违反; 侵犯; 强奸
参考例句:
  • Note that thick, strong angles of tibia are not violated. 注意肥厚、结实的胫骨成角部分未受损坏。
  • The soldiers violated the church by using it as a stable. 士兵们把教堂当马厩,亵渎了教堂。
13 fascists 5fa17f70bcb9821fe1e8183a1b2f4e45     
n.法西斯主义的支持者( fascist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The old man was seized with burning hatred for the fascists. 老人对法西斯主义者充满了仇恨。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Zoya heroically bore the torture that the Fascists inflicted upon her. 卓娅英勇地承受法西斯匪徒加在她身上的酷刑。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 internment rq7zJH     
n.拘留
参考例句:
  • Certainly the recent attacks against the internment camps are evidence enough. 很明显,最近营地遭受到的攻击就是一个足好的证明。 来自互联网
  • The chapters on the internment are Both readaBle and well researched. 这些关于拘留的章节不仅具可读性而且研究得很透彻。 来自互联网
15 suspicious DrLw1     
adj.可疑的,容易引起怀疑的,猜疑的,疑心的
参考例句:
  • A man was hanging about the house in a suspicious manner.一个男人在房子周围可疑地荡来荡去。
  • He's so suspicious he would distrust his own mother.他这个人疑心太重,连自己的母亲也不相信。
16 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
17 negotiated feb94d7f6645e2d1563a11dc68b7ea2f     
谈判,协商,议定( negotiate的过去式和过去分词 ); 兑现(支票等); 通过,越过(险要路段)
参考例句:
  • The government negotiated with the opposition party over the new law. 政府就新法与反对党进行了协商。
  • By careful strategy she negotiated a substantial pay rise. 她精心策划后,谈妥了大幅增加工资的事。
18 diplomacy gu9xk     
n.外交;外交手腕,交际手腕
参考例句:
  • The talks have now gone into a stage of quiet diplomacy.会谈现在已经进入了“温和外交”阶段。
  • This was done through the skill in diplomacy. 这是通过外交手腕才做到的。
19 harry heBxS     
vt.掠夺,蹂躏,使苦恼
参考例句:
  • Today,people feel more hurried and harried.今天,人们感到更加忙碌和苦恼。
  • Obama harried business by Healthcare Reform plan.奥巴马用医改掠夺了商界。
20 tedder 2833afc4f8252d8dc9f8cd73b24db55d     
n.(干草)翻晒者,翻晒机
参考例句:
  • Jim Tedder has more. 吉姆?特德将给我们做更多的介绍。 来自互联网
  • Jim Tedder tells us more. 吉姆?泰德给我们带来更详细的报道。 来自互联网
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