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VOA慢速英语20061227b

时间:2007-01-14 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

VOICE ONE:

I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:


William Wilhelmi's porcelain1 cowboy boots



And I'm Barbara Klein with EXPLORATIONS in VOA Special English.

At the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, D.C. you might see two cowboy boots. They are painted with a design of clouds and stars. They look like boots that you could wear on your feet. But they are really made out of carefully formed clay material.

The artist William Wilhelmi made these ceramic2 pieces. How did he make these colorful boots? Today, we answer that question as we explore the world of clay art.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Clay is one of the most universal materials known to humans. Throughout history and around the world, people have developed the art of forming clay to make ceramic objects, or pottery3. Clay is made of water and earth. It is formed into different shapes. Then high levels of heat harden4 it to produce many kinds of ceramics5.

Different kinds of clay contain different minerals such as silicon6 or iron dioxide. The kinds of minerals in clay affect how soft or hard it is to work with. The mineral content of clay also affects the temperature level at which it hardens7.

VOICE TWO:

Earthenware8 is one of the earliest kinds of clay used by humans. Earthenware hardens at a lower temperature than another clay called stoneware. Porcelain is yet another kind of clay. It is very fine and smooth. All these clays need to be fired at high temperatures. Early pottery was heated in the sun or by a fire. Later, potters developed heated devices10 called kilns12 to control the necessary firing conditions.

VOICE ONE:

The development of ceramics has had an important effect on human history. Ceramic objects permitted early cultures to make containers that could hold water. This means they could cook foods like vegetables and meats. Improving food production methods meant larger populations could survive. Pottery is an art form that grew out of the daily needs of life.

Ceramics are also important for historians13 and archeologists. Pieces of ceramics found at archeological areas help tell about ancient cultures. These pieces can last for tens of thousands of years. They help answer questions about cultures we know little about.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

There are many different ways to form clay. The earliest methods involved shaping it by hand. People form containers by pressing a ball of clay into a given shape. Or, they place long thin rolls of clay on top of each other and then make them smooth. Another method is called slab-construction. A ceramist creates several flat pieces of clay that can be joined together to make the sides of the container.

Later, ceramists developed the method of throwing clay on a wheel. A ball of clay is placed on a flat wheel device9 that turns quickly. The potter holds the clay firmly and guides it while the wheel and clay turn. Using different amounts of upward14 pressure the potter can build up the sides of a container. This method permits a potter to make similar pieces quickly. But it takes a great deal of skill to become an expert at wheel throwing.

VOICE ONE:

Slip casting is another method. A ceramist pours liquid clay into a hard form or mold15. As the clay dries, it takes the shape of the form. This method is useful for making very detailed16 objects. It is also useful because the mold can be used over and over again to make exact copies of the ceramic form.

There are also many ways to add decoration to ceramics. These methods can be as simple as scratching designs and images into the clay. Or, they can be more complex such as using liquid glazes17 to change the color or shininess of the clay surface.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Pottery provides important examples of cultural exchange. For example, native traditions of pottery in Mexico changed greatly in the fifteenth century. After the arrival of people from Spain, Mexican ceramists stopped making their own religious figures. They started making Christian18 religious forms instead. Also, the Spanish introduced materials and methods used in Europe, including the potter's wheel.

Trade exchanges spread ceramics all over the world. As early as the tenth century, the Chinese traded their ceramics throughout the Middle East and southeast Asia. Chinese ceramics later had a great influence on Europe. Europeans started to copy the fine traditions of Japanese and Chinese ceramics as early as the eighteenth century.

VOICE ONE:

Ceramics also demonstrate19 the depth of human creativity. This art shows the local needs and materials of a group of people. Pottery is often very different from country to country. But it can also be very different within areas of the same country. For example, in Mexico, every area has a different clay tradition. In one part of the state of Oaxaca, potters have been making black clay containers in the same way for centuries.

In another area of this state, pottery for cooking is made with a shiny green coating. Nearby, artists make female20 figures out of orange clay.


A ceramic pineapple container from Mexico.

In the Mexican state of Michoacán potters make white clay containers painted with line drawings of fish and other animals. In another part of this state, artists make green painted containers in the shape of the pineapple fruit.

In the state of Mexico, artists make clay candle holders21 covered with clay animals, plants, and people. They are painted in bright colors. These traditions are just a few of the examples of Mexican ceramics.

Imagine how many different kinds of clay traditions exist in other areas of the world. What kinds of ceramics are made where you live?

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

In the United States, W Studio is on a quiet street in Corpus Christi, Texas. This is where the potter William Wilhelmi makes his art. Let us go back to the ceramic cowboy boots we talked about earlier. Listen as Wilhelmi describes why he made these special boots in porcelain:

I'm William Wilhelmi and I made the porcelain cowboy boots at the Smithsonian in Washington DC. That's the only pair of porcelain boots. We use here a low temperature fired clay, which is very easy to work with. The reason the ones at the Smithsonian are porcelain is they were having a show called American Porcelain. I was asked if I would enter a pair of boots in the show. They said, are they out of porcelain? And I said 'Why, sure!'

VOICE ONE:

William Wilhelmi made these boots with the slip cast method. He took two real cowboy boots and made a hard form using their shape. Then, he poured liquid clay into the forms. Once the boot forms dried, he added clay details to the shoes to represent leather shoe material. Later, he painted a Texas night sky on the sides of the boots. And he made the points of the shoes a shiny gold.


An example of William Wilhelmi's clay monster creatures and his eucalyptus22 tree design

Wilhelmi is also known for his clay monster creatures. He adds these friendly little creatures to many of his ceramics forms. He says they add humor23 and a sense of activity. Another design Wilhelmi likes to use is the eucalyptus tree. He paints these trees in black on many of his clay dishes, bowls, and cups.

VOICE TWO:

William Wilhelmi says being a potter can be difficult. You do not always know if a clay object will survive being fired at high temperatures. You can spend a great deal of time making an object only for it to break in the kiln11. But he says it is also very pleasant working with clay. And it permits him to use his sense of design, color and shape in many ways.

William Wilhelmi's work can be found in museums all over the United States. Many important people collect his work. For example, the president of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez, owns some of these clay boots. So does Vicente Fox, the former president of Mexico. To see a large collection of the artist's work, you can visit the Wilhelmi/Holland Gallery next to W Studio. Here, people can buy Wilhelmi's work as well as the work of other artists.

Or, visitors can watch Wilhelmi at work in his studio. This large room is filled with interesting objects like photographs, art and books. There are many worktables covered with tools, color glazes and clay forms. In one area of the room there are three kilns as well as a potter's wheel.

VOICE ONE:

William Wilhelmi finds new artistic24 ideas by traveling and reading books. He tells about how clay art is both universal and personal.

The thing about clay is every culture knows clay, because they use it. That is one of the advantages of working in clay. Everyone can relate to clay. It's been part of our human evolution. And it goes from very basic to extremely baroque things. And also as one lives one's life, you take in all your experiences. Then when I sit down to work, these things come out. It is the experiences of life you reflect in your work.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written and produced by Dana Demange. I'm Barbara Klein.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. You can read this program and download audio25 on our Web site, www.unsv.com. Join us again next week for Explorations in VOA Special English.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 porcelain USvz9     
n.瓷;adj.瓷的,瓷制的
参考例句:
  • These porcelain plates have rather original designs on them.这些瓷盘的花纹很别致。
  • The porcelain vase is enveloped in cotton.瓷花瓶用棉花裹着。
2 ceramic lUsyc     
n.制陶业,陶器,陶瓷工艺
参考例句:
  • The order for ceramic tiles has been booked in.瓷砖的订单已登记下来了。
  • Some ceramic works of art are shown in this exhibition.这次展览会上展出了一些陶瓷艺术品。
3 pottery OPFxi     
n.陶器,陶器场
参考例句:
  • My sister likes to learn art pottery in her spare time.我妹妹喜欢在空余时间学习陶艺。
  • The pottery was left to bake in the hot sun.陶器放在外面让炎热的太阳烘晒焙干。
4 harden rQpzB     
v.(使)变硬;(使)变得坚强,(使)变得冷酷
参考例句:
  • They harden clay by putting it in a fire.他们把粘土坯放在炉火里使其变硬。
  • Don't harden your heart against him.别对他硬心肠。
5 ceramics 0a6d841bb40f677207869b9f856b3b21     
n.制陶业;陶器
参考例句:
  • an exhibition of ceramics by Picasso 毕加索陶瓷作品展
  • The ceramics bore the imprint of Luca della Robbia. 陶器上印有卢卡·德拉·罗比亚的字样。
6 silicon dykwJ     
n.硅(旧名矽)
参考例句:
  • This company pioneered the use of silicon chip.这家公司开创了使用硅片的方法。
  • A chip is a piece of silicon about the size of a postage stamp.芯片就是一枚邮票大小的硅片。
7 hardens 8a7cf60b82ead90fe6a83796aa89686f     
v.(使)变硬( harden的第三人称单数 );(使)坚固;(使)硬化;(使)变得坚强
参考例句:
  • Mould the mixture into shape while hot, before it hardens. 在混合物还没有变硬之前,趁热将它塑成形。 来自辞典例句
  • Clay hardens when it becomes dry. 粘土干了的时候就变硬了。 来自辞典例句
8 earthenware Lr5xL     
n.土器,陶器
参考例句:
  • She made sure that the glassware and earthenware were always spotlessly clean.她总是把玻璃器皿和陶器洗刷得干干净净。
  • They displayed some bowls of glazed earthenware.他们展出了一些上釉的陶碗。
9 device Bv8x6     
n.器械,装置;计划,策略,诡计
参考例句:
  • The device will be in production by the end of the year.该装置将于年底投入生产。
  • The device will save much time and effort for us.这种装置会使我们节省大量时间和气力。
10 devices e0212e54ec3a2a120ca0d321b3a60c78     
n.设备;装置( device的名词复数 );花招;(为实现某种目的的)计划;手段
参考例句:
  • electrical labour-saving devices around the home 节省劳力的各种家用电器
  • modern labour-saving devices such as washing machines and dishwashers 诸如洗衣机和洗碗机之类的现代化省力设备
11 kiln naQzW     
n.(砖、石灰等)窑,炉;v.烧窑
参考例句:
  • That morning we fired our first kiln of charcoal.那天上午,我们烧了我们的第一窑木炭。
  • Bricks are baked in a kiln.砖是在窑里烧成的。
12 kilns a783251ff4c9ad3d87dce8463073429b     
n.窑( kiln的名词复数 );烧窑工人
参考例句:
  • Bricks and earthware articles are baked in kilns. 砖和陶器都是在窑中烧成的。 来自辞典例句
  • The bricks are baking in the kilns. ?里正在烧砖。 来自辞典例句
13 historians aa2dff49e1cda6eb8322970793b20183     
n.历史学家,史学工作者( historian的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Historians seem to have confused the chronology of these events. 历史学家好像把这些事件发生的年代顺序搞混了。
  • Historians have concurred with each other in this view. 历史学家在这个观点上已取得一致意见。
14 upward Sj7wQ     
adj.向上的,上升的;adv.向上,上升
参考例句:
  • The birds flew upward.鸟儿向上飞去。
  • Prices have an upward tendency.价格有上升的趋势。
15 mold YweyG     
n.模子,模型,铸模;vt.造型,浇涛
参考例句:
  • Too often we try to mold our children into something they do not wish to be.我们常常试图把孩子塑造成他们自己不想成为的样子。
  • Try to compact the sand into the mold.设法把这沙土堆积到模子里。
16 detailed xuNzms     
adj.详细的,详尽的,极注意细节的,完全的
参考例句:
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我们的出版物有一份详细的目录备索。
17 glazes be984588a40c607ec1fefa50f4837fa7     
n.上釉的表面( glaze的名词复数 );釉料;(浇在糕点上增加光泽的)蛋浆v.装玻璃( glaze的第三人称单数 );上釉于,上光;(目光)变得呆滞无神
参考例句:
  • Glazes had been used from ancient times in Egypt. 埃及自古代起就使用釉料。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Especially indicated for glazes which contain lead and boron. 尤其适用于含铅、含硼的釉药。 来自互联网
18 Christian KVByl     
adj.基督教徒的;n.基督教徒
参考例句:
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
19 demonstrate VwWxp     
vt.论证,证明;示范;显示;vi.示威游行
参考例句:
  • Let me demonstrate to you how this machine works.我给你演示一下这台机器的运转情况。
  • How can I demonstrate to you that my story is true?我怎样才能向你证明我的话是真实的呢?
20 female 3kSxf     
adj.雌的,女(性)的;n.雌性的动物,女子
参考例句:
  • We only employ female workers.我们只雇用女工。
  • The animal in the picture was a female elephant.照片上的动物是头母象。
21 holders 79c0e3bbb1170e3018817c5f45ebf33f     
支持物( holder的名词复数 ); 持有者; (支票等)持有人; 支托(或握持)…之物
参考例句:
  • Slaves were mercilessly ground down by slave holders. 奴隶受奴隶主的残酷压迫。
  • It is recognition of compassion's part that leads the up-holders of capital punishment to accuse the abolitionists of sentimentality in being more sorry for the murderer than for his victim. 正是对怜悯的作用有了认识,才使得死刑的提倡者指控主张废除死刑的人感情用事,同情谋杀犯胜过同情受害者。
22 eucalyptus jnaxm     
n.桉树,桉属植物
参考例句:
  • Eucalyptus oil is good for easing muscular aches and pains.桉树油可以很好地缓解肌肉的疼痛。
  • The birds rustled in the eucalyptus trees.鸟在桉树弄出沙沙的响声。
23 humor 4crxX     
n.(humour)幽默,诙谐
参考例句:
  • He is distinguished for his sense of humor.他以其幽默感著称。
  • American humor is founded largely on hyperbole.美式幽默主要以夸张为基础。
24 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
25 audio 9yOziJ     
n./adj.音频(响)(的);声音(的),听觉(的)
参考例句:
  • Often,the meeting is recorded on audio or video media for later reference.通常这种会议会以视频或者音频形式记录下来,供以后查阅。
  • You don't even have to pay for audio programs.你大可不必为自己听这些节目付费。
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