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VOA慢速英语2009-SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - World of Sports Doping: Fr

时间:2009-03-13 03:17来源:互联网 提供网友:love小k   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

VOICE ONE:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Bob Doughty1. Our subject this week is sports doping.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Sports have long been part of popular culture. In the United States, some players are as famous as movie stars or rock musicians. The lives of famous athletes are described not only in the news media, but in films and literature.

Sports also have found their way into everyday sayings. One such example says: "It's not whether you win or lose, but how you play the game." That expression has been used for many years to define honor in sports. But today, many people question the honor of some athletes.

VOICE TWO:
 
Alex Rodriguez

Last week, a star of North American baseball announced he had used a banned substance to improve his performance. Alex Rodriguez apologized for using the substance during a three-year period beginning in two thousand one.

Rodriguez is the highest-paid player in Major League Baseball. His comments came two days after a magazine reported that he failed a test for performance-improving drugs, also known as anabolic steroids. Sports Illustrated2 reported that Rodriguez failed the test in two thousand three. That same year, he won the first of his three most valuable player awards. The report said more than one hundred other players also failed the test.

Major League Baseball did not begin punishing its players for using steroids until two thousand four.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Most sports organizations have banned the non-medical use of steroids. But some athletes continue to take them. They believe these substances help them in competition.

Steroids are used to increase muscle strength. But steroids can damage the liver and halt the production of testosterone. They can also cause personality changes.

People who take steroids may become increasingly angry. Some become dependent on steroids and feel they cannot live without them. Users can become depressed3 and, in some cases, even want to kill themselves.

VOICE TWO:

What does it mean to have high levels of testosterone? Testosterone is a steroid hormone4. Hormones5 are chemicals that help keep the body working normally.

The effects of testosterone can be seen in boys when they become young men. They develop muscle power and become stronger. Testosterone is also important for other changes, like a deeper voice and the growth of hair.

Testosterone is produced in the adrenal glands7 and reproductive organs. Both men and women produce testosterone. Men produce much more of it than women do. But not all males produce the same amounts. Some naturally have higher levels than others.

VOICE ONE:

Some people take testosterone supplements. Such products are manufactured in a laboratory for medical purposes. But some athletes use testosterone to strengthen their muscles and improve their performance. These products are banned in many sports.

Researchers who have studied testosterone generally agree that long-term use may increase athletic9 performance. But they disagree about the short-term value. Also, testosterone supplements have risks. Most doctors agree that taking large amounts of testosterone can cause harmful effects. These include an increased risk of heart disease.

VOICE TWO:

Athletes from around the world gathered in China last year for the Beijing Olympic Games. They competed for the honor of being the fastest, strongest or most skilled performer in a sporting event. But did the athletes compete in fairness and truth? Did those who received medals win because of natural ability? Or did they get help from the use of performance-improving drugs?

Recently, the International Olympic Committee announced plans to re-test blood from more than five hundred Olympic competitors. First results are expected in March.

Officials are testing for continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator10, or CERA. This is a new version of the endurance improving hormone erythropoietin, also known as EPO. CERA has a longer lasting11 effect in improving the transport of oxygen in the blood. We will tell more about blood doping later in our program.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Ten years ago, the International Olympic Committee held a conference that led to creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency. This all followed events at the Tour de France. In the summer of nineteen ninety-eight, police carried out a raid and found banned medical substances.

After that, the International Olympic Committee led efforts to create an independent agency to set and enforce common anti-doping rules. The agency has representatives from the Olympic movement and public officials from around the world. WADA, as the agency is known, has its headquarters in Montreal, Canada.

VOICE TWO:

"Doping" is the general term for the use of banned substances or practices to improve athletic performance. The World Anti-Doping Agency says the term probably came from the Dutch word "dop." That was the name for an alcoholic12 drink used by Zulu fighters in Africa to improve their performance in battle.

The agency says the word doping began to be used for athletes in the beginning of the twentieth century. At first, it meant the illegal drugging of racehorses.

The agency notes that athletes have used substances for centuries to improve their performance. Ancient Greeks used special foods and drinks. Nineteenth century cyclists and others used alcohol, caffeine, cocaine13 -- even strychnine, a strong poison. By the nineteen twenties, sports organizations were attempting to stop the use of doping substances. But at the time they lacked scientific ways to test for them.

VOICE ONE:

One method of doping is called blood doping. This is the use of substances like hormones or blood itself to increase the production of red blood cells. That way the blood moves more oxygen to the muscles, increasing their strength and performance.

One such hormone is EPO. It is said to be most useful to athletes in endurance sports such as cycling and distance running. Doctors say hormones used for blood doping thicken the blood and increase the chances of heart disease and stroke. Also, the use of blood from another person can spread viruses. But doctors say even the use of a person's own blood to increase the level of red blood cells in the body can raise the risk of heart disease and stroke.

VOICE TWO:

Another substance that can be used to increase performance is human growth hormone. This hormone is produced naturally by the pituitary gland6 in the brain. Athletes may take injections of human growth hormone, although that can be found with blood tests. Experts say such use of the hormone can cause diabetes14, muscle and bone pain, high blood pressure and other disorders15.

VOICE ONE:

Sports dopers continually look for new substances and technologies. The World Anti-Doping Agency has already banned gene8 doping, although it says it does not believe anyone is doing it yet.

Officials say they want to be ready with a test to find genetic16 changes. For example, imagine an athlete whose body contains genetic material from an animal. In theory, such a person could become a great athlete overnight.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

So what is wrong with doping? That is a question some people ask, even some health experts. These people support the idea of medically supervised doping. They say it would reduce the dangers. They say competitions would be fairer if all the competitors were openly permitted to take part in doping.

The World Anti-Doping Agency published a statement from its medical director. Alain Garnier said doctors should have nothing to do with doping. Doctor Garnier said helping17 athletes perform better is not necessarily good for their health.

And he called it wrong and irresponsible to say that permitting doping would create an equal playing field. To accept doping, he said, would permit economic resources and scientific expertise18 to decide competition. And, he said, only those with the resources and the expertise would win.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Lawan Davis. Brianna Blake was our producer. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Bob Doughty. Read and listen to our programs at voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 doughty Jk5zg     
adj.勇猛的,坚强的
参考例句:
  • Most of successful men have the characteristics of contumacy and doughty.绝大多数成功人士都有共同的特质:脾气倔强,性格刚强。
  • The doughty old man battled his illness with fierce determination.坚强的老人用巨大毅力与疾病作斗争。
2 illustrated 2a891807ad5907f0499171bb879a36aa     
adj. 有插图的,列举的 动词illustrate的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • His lecture was illustrated with slides taken during the expedition. 他在讲演中使用了探险时拍摄到的幻灯片。
  • The manufacturing Methods: Will be illustrated in the next chapter. 制作方法将在下一章说明。
3 depressed xu8zp9     
adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
参考例句:
  • When he was depressed,he felt utterly divorced from reality.他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
  • His mother was depressed by the sad news.这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
4 hormone uyky3     
n.荷尔蒙,激素,内分泌
参考例句:
  • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters.激素植入物被用作生长辅助剂。
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body.这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
5 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
参考例句:
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
6 gland qeGzu     
n.腺体,(机)密封压盖,填料盖
参考例句:
  • This is a snake's poison gland.这就是蛇的毒腺。
  • Her mother has an underactive adrenal gland.她的母亲肾上腺机能不全。
7 glands 82573e247a54d4ca7619fbc1a5141d80     
n.腺( gland的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • a snake's poison glands 蛇的毒腺
  • the sebaceous glands in the skin 皮脂腺
8 gene WgKxx     
n.遗传因子,基因
参考例句:
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
9 athletic sOPy8     
adj.擅长运动的,强健的;活跃的,体格健壮的
参考例句:
  • This area has been marked off for athletic practice.这块地方被划出来供体育训练之用。
  • He is an athletic star.他是一个运动明星。
10 activator 976ea5525b03c6bf418795490584daca     
催化剂,触媒剂
参考例句:
  • In a separate archive is the official localization and universal activator. 在单独的存档是正式的本地化和普遍激活。
  • From a certain angle, affections are the activator to carve out successfully. 从某种角度看,爱心是创业成功的“催化剂”。
11 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
12 alcoholic rx7zC     
adj.(含)酒精的,由酒精引起的;n.酗酒者
参考例句:
  • The alcoholic strength of brandy far exceeds that of wine.白兰地的酒精浓度远远超过葡萄酒。
  • Alcoholic drinks act as a poison to a child.酒精饮料对小孩犹如毒药。
13 cocaine VbYy4     
n.可卡因,古柯碱(用作局部麻醉剂)
参考例句:
  • That young man is a cocaine addict.那个年轻人吸食可卡因成瘾。
  • Don't have cocaine abusively.不可滥服古柯碱。
14 diabetes uPnzu     
n.糖尿病
参考例句:
  • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar.对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
  • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body.糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
15 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
17 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
18 expertise fmTx0     
n.专门知识(或技能等),专长
参考例句:
  • We were amazed at his expertise on the ski slopes.他斜坡滑雪的技能使我们赞叹不已。
  • You really have the technical expertise in a new breakthrough.让你真正在专业技术上有一个全新的突破。
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TAG标签:   VOA慢速英语  World  Sports  Doping
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