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VOA慢速英语2003年-发展与科学 Food Crisis

时间:2005-06-03 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:vipnoble   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

Two Women and a Deadly Complication of Childbirth
Broadcast: September 9, 2003
(THEME)
VOICE ONE:
I'm Bob Doughty1 with Sarah Long, and this is the VOA Special English program, SCIENCE IN THE NEWS.
VOICE TWO:
This week -- the problem of 1)malaria2 in Ethiopia gets worse ... Questions about whether any amount of lead in children's blood is safe ... And a further look at a problem that can be deadly for women during childbirth.
(THEME)
VOICE ONE:
Ethiopia faces new problems as it tries to fight the spread of malaria at the same time as a food crisis. The malaria 2)parasite3 has become resistant4 to the medicines being given to kill it. Malaria is caused by a parasite insect that mosquitoes inject into the people they bite.
The United Nations says there was a slow response to unexpected emergency needs in Ethiopia. Also, U-N agencies say there has been what they call a "lack of clarity" on who should receive free drugs.
The problem is greatest in the Southern Nations and Nationalities People's Region of Ethiopia. This highland5 area has not had a big problem with malaria in the past. Now the U-N says there are high death rates.
Malaria was already one of the biggest killers6 in Ethiopia. Each year about one hundred-thousand people die of malaria in that country. U-N officials say the malaria crisis is expected to reach its height sometime this month.
Ethiopia was already struggling with a lack of food because of dry weather. Now that rains have come, the World Food Program says the malaria crisis will affect harvests. It says the high risk of malaria in many parts of the country will limit the productivity of farmers.
VOICE TWO:
Diseases like malaria can be hard to identify when people are already sick from hunger. As a result, U-N officials say areas where people have malaria and diseases spread by dirty water are being wrongly reported as food crisis areas.
Aid groups have intervened with shipments of food. But U-N officials say a good emergency reaction in the area of food aid is being threatened by a lack of support in health and other areas. They say more non-food help is needed to make sure water and health centers are clean and that people can get treatment.
U-N officials say feeding centers are not able to provide the treatment that thousands of children need. The Office for the Coordination7 of Humanitarian8 Affairs says the number of deaths is unknown. Young children and pregnant women are at greatest risk of death from malaria.
The U-N Children's Fund says water supplies are being taken to areas around Ethiopia to help women and children. So is equipment to make dirty water safe. UNICEF estimates that more than four-million people are in urgent need of clean, safe water.
(MUSIC)
VOICE ONE:
For years, scientists have known that lead can damage the brain. Lead is a soft metal with a number of industrial uses. It may be found in paint and fuel. Lead is especially dangerous to children. In the most severe cases, a child can die. In less severe cases, children can develop learning difficulties.
Lead poisoning can be hard to recognize, except through blood tests. Blood tests can identify a problem early when it may be possible to treat. Lead is measured in 3)micrograms per 4)deciliter of blood.
In the United States, federal officials consider levels below ten micrograms per deciliter acceptable. The government established this level in nineteen-ninety-one. Before nineteen-seventy, children were considered to have lead poisoning at levels above sixty micrograms per deciliter. By nineteen-eighty-five, officials had reduced that to twenty-five micrograms per deciliter.
But a study reported earlier this year suggested that even the current level is not safe. In fact, in the study, levels below ten micrograms per deciliter appeared to cause the greatest damage to intelligence.
VOICE TWO:
Two scientists from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, reported the findings in The New England Journal of Medicine. The study followed one-hundred-seventy-two children from the Rochester, New York, area. Scientists did blood tests on the children a number of times between the ages of six months and five years. The children also took tests to measure their intelligence.
The researchers say most of the damage to intelligence happened at blood levels below ten micrograms per deciliter. They found that higher levels produced only small additional reductions in intelligence. They also noted9 that the findings will need to be repeated in further studies.
VOICE ONE:
In the United States, lead has been banned from paint and fuel. As a result, levels of lead in children's blood have dropped more than eighty percent in the past thirty years. However, the researchers say lead poisoning is still a problem among children in poor families. Many of these children live in older housing, which is more likely to still contain lead paint. Lead 5)particles can fall onto floors and onto children's toys.
Children who touch lead dust can get the material in their systems if they put their hands into their mouths. Babies often put objects into their mouth, and can also get lead into their blood that way.
(MUSIC)
VOICE TWO:
Last month we talked about some of the problems that can happen during childbirth. One of the most serious is too much bleeding. To continue our report, we present the story of two new mothers: one from India, the other from Nicaragua. One story has a happy ending. The other does not. Together, they show the importance of knowing what to do in case there is a problem when a woman gives birth.
VOICE ONE:
From India, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood tells the story of Sunita. She was pregnant with her second child. Her pregnancy10, for the most part, was normal. Sunita gave birth to a healthy baby boy.
But just after the baby arrived, Sunita became cold and could not move her body. A small loss of blood is normal during childbirth. But there was a large amount of blood around her body. The local health worker said Sunita needed to be taken to a hospital right away. It took an hour for the family to get ready to leave. When they arrived at the hospital hours later, it was too late.
Sunita died of shock. She had lost too much blood. She was twenty-two years old.
VOICE TWO:
From the other side of the world, the Population Reference Bureau relates the story of Leonor in Nicaragua. The story was told by a visitor to a project that worked to improve birth care in several health centers in that country.
Leonor was at her home in a small village. She was giving birth to her first child. A woman known as a traditional birth attendant was with her to help. This woman saw that the 6)placenta had not come out within thirty minutes after the baby was born. The placenta is the organ that connects the baby to the mother's uterus by way of the 7)umbilical cord.
VOICE ONE:
The woman assisting Leonor knew there was a problem. When the placenta does not come out, there is a risk of too much bleeding. The Population Reference Bureau says this problem is the leading cause of death among women during childbirth in Nicaragua.
So Leonor's brother walked to a highway near the village. He stopped a driver and rode to the local health center to get help. An emergency vehicle went to bring Leonor to the center. She arrived within ninety minutes of giving birth, and a doctor treated her immediately. Soon, Leonor was resting, and was able to breastfeed her baby son.
VOICE TWO:
Even if a woman has one pregnancy without problems, the next one could be different. This is why health experts say it is important for a skilled person to be present when a baby is born, to identify any problems quickly. And they say families should know when, where and how they will take the mother to get help if there are problems.
The White Ribbon Alliance says that in every case the cord that connects the baby to the mother should be cut and tied. Cutting the umbilical cord helps the woman's 8)uterus get smaller, so there is less bleeding.
And, finally, the alliance says new mothers should begin to breastfeed their babies immediately. A mother's first milk is very healthy for newborns, and breastfeeding helps protect babies from disease.
(THEME)
VOICE ONE:
SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Karen Leggett and George Grow. Our producer was Cynthia Kirk. This is Bob Doughty.
VOICE TWO:
And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

注释:
1) malaria [mE5lZEriE] n.疟疾,瘴气
2) parasite [5pArEsait] n.寄生虫
3) microgram [5maikrEu^rAm] n.微观图,显微照片
4) deciliter [5desili:tE(r)] n.1/10公升
5) particle [5pB:tikl] n.微粒,粒子
6) placenta [plE5sentE] n.胎盘,胎座
7) umbilical [7Qmbi5laikEl] adj.脐带的
8) uterus [5ju:tErEs] n.(解)子宫
 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 doughty Jk5zg     
adj.勇猛的,坚强的
参考例句:
  • Most of successful men have the characteristics of contumacy and doughty.绝大多数成功人士都有共同的特质:脾气倔强,性格刚强。
  • The doughty old man battled his illness with fierce determination.坚强的老人用巨大毅力与疾病作斗争。
2 malaria B2xyb     
n.疟疾
参考例句:
  • He had frequent attacks of malaria.他常患疟疾。
  • Malaria is a kind of serious malady.疟疾是一种严重的疾病。
3 parasite U4lzN     
n.寄生虫;寄生菌;食客
参考例句:
  • The lazy man was a parasite on his family.那懒汉是家里的寄生虫。
  • I don't want to be a parasite.I must earn my own way in life.我不想做寄生虫,我要自己养活自己。
4 resistant 7Wvxh     
adj.(to)抵抗的,有抵抗力的
参考例句:
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
5 highland sdpxR     
n.(pl.)高地,山地
参考例句:
  • The highland game is part of Scotland's cultural heritage.苏格兰高地游戏是苏格兰文化遗产的一部分。
  • The highland forests where few hunters venture have long been the bear's sanctuary.这片只有少数猎人涉险的高山森林,一直都是黑熊的避难所。
6 killers c1a8ff788475e2c3424ec8d3f91dd856     
凶手( killer的名词复数 ); 消灭…者; 致命物; 极难的事
参考例句:
  • He remained steadfast in his determination to bring the killers to justice. 他要将杀人凶手绳之以法的决心一直没有动摇。
  • They were professional killers who did in John. 杀死约翰的这些人是职业杀手。
7 coordination Ho8zt     
n.协调,协作
参考例句:
  • Gymnastics is a sport that requires a considerable level of coordination.体操是一项需要高协调性的运动。
  • The perfect coordination of the dancers and singers added a rhythmic charm to the performance.舞蹈演员和歌手们配合得很好,使演出更具魅力。
8 humanitarian kcoxQ     
n.人道主义者,博爱者,基督凡人论者
参考例句:
  • She has many humanitarian interests and contributes a lot to them.她拥有很多慈善事业,并作了很大的贡献。
  • The British government has now suspended humanitarian aid to the area.英国政府现已暂停对这一地区的人道主义援助。
9 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
10 pregnancy lPwxP     
n.怀孕,怀孕期
参考例句:
  • Early pregnancy is often accompanied by nausea.怀孕早期常有恶心的现象。
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage.怀孕期吸烟会增加流产的危险。
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TAG标签:   voa  发展与科学  malaria  add  crisis
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