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VOA慢速英语2003年-发展与科学 Possible Treatm

时间:2005-06-03 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:vipnoble   字体: [ ]


Broadcast: September 16, 2003
I'm Bob Doughty1 with Sarah Long, and this is the VOA Special English program, SCIENCE IN THE NEWS.
This week -- reports about tuberculosis2 ... smoking ... a new birth control pill ... and, from the mouth of a lizard3, a possible treatment for diabetes4.

In Peru, a health worker supervises as a 1)tuberculosis patient takes his medicine.
(Photo - Jad Davenport/WHO)
Very often, people who have tuberculosis do not take all their medicine. Maybe they get some side effect they do not like. Or they start to feel better. So they do not take their medicine for the full six months.
The result is what doctors call multi-drug resistant5 T-B. The 2)bacteria that caused the lung disease become stronger. People who develop this form must often spend two years on special drugs that cost a lot more.
Mario Raviglione is director of T-B operations for the World Health Organization. He says countries that do a good job of controlling T-B with regular medicines do not have a big problem with the multi-drug resistant kind. He says Chile and Cuba are examples.
Health experts say countries with the highest rates of multi-drug resistant T-B include Estonia, Yemen, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Pakistan and Sudan. Right now the problem is not as great in Africa. But experts worry that it could become much greater because H-I-V is so widespread. H-I-V is the virus that causes AIDS. The virus weakens the body's defenses against disease.
The most successful treatment program for T-B is called DOTS, or Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course. A health care worker watches a patient take every dose of medicine. A six-month supply costs eleven dollars. When DOTS is followed correctly, experts say ninety-five percent of patients are cured. They say this is true even in the poorest countries.
When a person with multi-drug resistant T-B coughs, it spreads the bacteria in the air. Now other people who breath the infected air can get sick.
People infected with H-I-V are much more likely to become sick. Experts say H-I-V is the single biggest reason that a T-B infection becomes active tuberculosis. That is why health care organizations say it is important to fight both T-B and H-I-V together.
It is also important to fight smoking and tuberculosis together. Researchers in India have shown a connection between people who smoke and people who get tuberculosis. Indian, British and Canadian researchers published their study in the British medical magazine, The Lancet.
The study says smoking causes about seven-hundred-thousand deaths each year just in India. Most of the victims are men under seventy years old. The researchers say these men lost about twenty years of life because of smoking.
Besides tuberculosis, people who smoke or breathe other people's smoke may get lung cancer, heart disease and other disorders6. Tobacco is also dangerous to the unborn children of women who smoke during pregnancy7.
The study from India found that smokers8 were four times as likely to die from tuberculosis as non-smokers.
The study looked at men who died of T-B before they were seventy years old. It found that nearly eighty percent had been smokers.
The researchers say smoking can lead to tuberculosis whether a person smokes regular cigarettes or smaller, handmade ones known as 3)bidis.
Tuberculosis can sometimes stay in a person's lungs for a long time without making them sick. This is called latent T-B. Smoking can cause latent T-B to become active.
If tuberculosis has already damaged the lungs, experts say smoking will make that person feel even worse. If a person is being treated for T-B, smoking will also make the treatment take longer.
Doctor Richard Chaisson is a researcher at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. He says 4)antibiotic9 medicines may be able to cure T-B in smokers. But smokers may continue to cough and have a hard time breathing even after their T-B is gone.
Doctor Thomas Frieden is a tuberculosis researcher in New York City. He told the New York Times newspaper that Asian women are now the number one market for the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies use posters and other public messages to urge more women to smoke.
World health officials worry that diseases caused by smoking will increase as more women start. These officials say countries should ban advertising10 messages for tobacco.
The researchers in India studied men, because mostly men smoke in that country. This is true in most developing countries.
But the situation is changing. A new report says young girls now smoke cigarettes almost as much as boys. The results also show that girls and boys use other tobacco products at similar rates. These include spit tobacco, bidis and water pipes. In fact, girls and boys often use these products at rates as high or higher than cigarettes.
The findings are from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. That study involved over one million young people from more than one-hundred-fifty countries. The report came out during a conference in Helsinki, Finland, last month.
And, just last week, a study published in The Lancet said smoking killed almost five-million people in two-thousand. Researchers said most of the deaths were from heart and lung diseases.
The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved a new birth control pill. It is called Seasonale. Drugs to prevent pregnancy have traditionally been designed for a normal 5)menstrual cycle of twenty-eight days. But women who use Seasonale will have a period of bleeding about every three months instead.
They will take pills that contain 6)hormones12 for eighty-four days. Then for seven days they will take pills that contain no hormones. Their period will happen during this time.
Seasonale is expected to go on sale at the end of October. It contains 7)progestin and 8)estrogen. Birth control drugs commonly use these two hormones. Barr Laboratories makes the new drug.
The Food and Drug Administration says possible side effects of Seasonale are similar to those of traditional birth control drugs. These include an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
Warnings on Seasonale say that smoking increases the possibility of serious side effects. Doctors say women who use birth control pills should not smoke. This is especially true of women older than thirty-five.
The Federal and Drug Administration says women should discuss any use of birth control drugs with their doctors.
The Gila (HE-luh) monster is a poisonous 9)lizard. It lives in the desert of the American Southwest and in Mexico. Gila monsters eat as few as four times a year.
A chemical in the liquid produced in their mouth stops their hunger at other times. Now researchers say this chemical may also work in people, to treat 10)diabetes.
Two companies, Amylin Pharmaceutical13 and Eli Lilly, have made their own version. They call the experimental drug exenatide.
People with diabetes have high levels of sugar in the blood. Their bodies lack 11)insulin or cannot use this hormone11 effectively. Insulin helps the sugar, called glucose14, enter cells for use as fuel.
Too much glucose in the blood damages the kidneys, eyes and nerves. It stops blood flow to the legs. And it increases the chance of heart disease and stroke.
The researchers tested exenatide on one-hundred-fifty-five patients with type two diabetes. Type two develops in adults and children when the body is not able to use the insulin it produces. The patients received two injections of exenatide every day for twenty-four weeks.
The researchers say sugar levels dropped to within target levels in forty-four percent of the patients. These people also lost more than three kilograms each. The scientists say the chemical suppressed hunger. They say it also caused the body to produce insulin in reaction to high sugar levels.
The researchers reported their work at the International Diabetes Federation15 Congress in Paris. If the drug passes more tests, the two companies say they could ask as early as next year for government approval.
SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Karen Leggett, Jerilyn Watson and Nancy Steinbach. Our producer was Cynthia Kirk. This is Bob Doughty.
And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.

1) tuberculosis [tju7bE:kju5lEusis] n.肺结核
2) bacteria [bAk5tiEriE] n.细菌
3) bidi [5bi:di] n.一种印度产两端尖的雪茄烟
4) antibiotic [7Antibai5Ctik] n.抗生素
5) menstrual [5menstruEl] adj.(生理)月经的
6) hormone [5hC:mEun] n.荷尔蒙,激素
7) progestin [prEu5dVestin] n.(生化)孕酮,黄体酮
8) estrogen [5estrEdVEn] n.(生化)雌激素
9) lizard [5lizEd] n.(动)蜥蜴
10) diabetes [7daiE5bi:ti:z, -ti:s] n.(医)糖尿病
11) insulin [5insjulin] n.胰岛素


1 doughty Jk5zg     
  • Most of successful men have the characteristics of contumacy and doughty.绝大多数成功人士都有共同的特质:脾气倔强,性格刚强。
  • The doughty old man battled his illness with fierce determination.坚强的老人用巨大毅力与疾病作斗争。
2 tuberculosis bprym     
  • People used to go to special health spring to recover from tuberculosis.人们常去温泉疗养胜地治疗肺结核。
  • Tuberculosis is a curable disease.肺结核是一种可治愈的病。
3 lizard P0Ex0     
  • A chameleon is a kind of lizard.变色龙是一种蜥蜴。
  • The lizard darted out its tongue at the insect.蜥蜴伸出舌头去吃小昆虫。
4 diabetes uPnzu     
  • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar.对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
  • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body.糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
5 resistant 7Wvxh     
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
6 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 pregnancy lPwxP     
  • Early pregnancy is often accompanied by nausea.怀孕早期常有恶心的现象。
  • Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage.怀孕期吸烟会增加流产的危险。
8 smokers d3e72c6ca3bac844ba5aa381bd66edba     
吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 )
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不容易把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼似乎不在乎吸烟带来的种种危害。
9 antibiotic KNJzd     
  • The doctor said that I should take some antibiotic.医生说我应该服些用抗生素。
  • Antibiotic can be used against infection.抗菌素可以用来防止感染。
10 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
11 hormone uyky3     
  • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters.激素植入物被用作生长辅助剂。
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body.这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
12 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
13 pharmaceutical f30zR     
  • She has donated money to establish a pharmaceutical laboratory.她捐款成立了一个药剂实验室。
  • We are engaged in a legal tussle with a large pharmaceutical company.我们正同一家大制药公司闹法律纠纷。
14 glucose Fyiyz     
  • I gave him an extra dose of glucose to pep him up.我给他多注射了一剂葡萄糖以增强他的活力。
  • The doctor injected glucose into his patient's veins.医生将葡萄糖注入病人的静脉。
15 federation htCzMS     
  • It is a federation of 10 regional unions.它是由十个地方工会结合成的联合会。
  • Mr.Putin was inaugurated as the President of the Russian Federation.普京正式就任俄罗斯联邦总统。
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