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EXPLORATIONS - World Summit in New York Will Mark 60th Anniv

时间:2006-03-16 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:z75531   字体: [ ]
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EXPLORATIONS - World Summit in New York Will Mark 60th Anniversary of the United Nations
By Jerilyn Watson

Broadcast: Wednesday, September 07, 2005

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Faith Lapidus with Explorations in VOA Special English. Today we tell about the sixtieth anniversary of the United Nations.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Nineteen forty-five was a time of hope. World War Two was ending. Many nations wanted to create a new international organization. This organization would not attempt to govern the world. But it would create a center for discussion, negotiation1 and decision about international problems.

Fifty-one nations signed a charter for the United Nations in June of nineteen forty-five in San Francisco, California. This document was based on a desire for security, human rights and a better life for all people. The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations together to work for peace and development. The U.N. came into existence on October twenty-fourth, nineteen forty-five. United Nations Day is celebrated2 on that day each year.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The United Nations will observe its sixtieth anniversary with a World Summit in New York City next week. The conference will take place from September fourteenth through sixteenth at U.N. headquarters. More than one hundred seventy heads of state and governments are expected to attend, including President Bush.

World Summit delegates are expected to announce an international agreement as part of the sixtieth anniversary.

The document will tell how the U.N. will deal with major issues like development, nuclear weapons, anti-terrorism, human rights and U.N. reform. In March, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan made proposals on such issues.

VOICE ONE:

Mister Annan's report contained suggestions for improving the U.N. The report is called "In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All." Representatives have negotiated an agreement to be signed next week.

The document shows how the world organization can reform itself. It states U.N. plans to meet world problems. But recently the United States has raised objections to the proposed document. The United States has asked for many changes, including a stronger statement against terrorism. Other nations also object to parts of the agreement. Much of the document is based on goals for this century that the U.N. announced five years ago.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The U.N. has many organizations and employees to carry out its work. Almost three thousand diplomats3 meet in General Assembly working groups and committees. The General Assembly is the main U.N. group that meets to debate world issues. It includes representatives of all one hundred ninety-one member nations. Each country has one vote. These votes are meant to influence world opinion and action. They do not carry legal force.

VOICE ONE:

The Security Council is a small group that has more power than the General Assembly. It has fifteen members. The Security Council has the main responsibility for keeping international peace and security. Its members present resolutions involving threats to peace. Security Council resolutions can suggest methods for peaceful settlement of conflicts. They can call for economic restrictions4 against countries. And they can call for military intervention5. Thousands of U.N. peacekeeping troops may be deployed6.

Five nations are permanent Security Council members. They are the United States, Britain, the Russian Federation7, France and China. Any one of them can veto a resolution. Member nations elect the other ten Security Council members for two-year terms. At least nine member nations must approve a resolution for it to pass.

Secretary General Annan has proposed that the Security Council add members. He wants the Council to better represent nations of the world. Several countries are competing to join the Security Council.

VOICE TWO:

Another important part of the U.N. is the Economic and Social Council. It makes resolutions affecting economics, culture, education, health, and social welfare. The council also links the U.N. with more than two thousand five hundred non-governmental agencies. These private agencies provide technical help.

The U.N. operates several courts and a Commission on Human Rights. Secretary General Annan has proposed replacing the commission with a smaller council. The General Assembly would choose the members. He says the current commission includes countries that oppose human rights.

VOICE ONE:

The U.N. Secretary General oversees8 diplomacy9 and policy-making. Mister Annan, of Ghana, was re-appointed to a second five-year term in two thousand one.

Many countries have praised his leadership. Mister Annan and the United Nations won the Nobel Peace Prize in two thousand one. But recently he has been accused of poor management. He also has been accused of links to financial wrongdoing. Kofi Annan says he is innocent.

VOICE TWO:

The U.N. has several other important agencies. For example, the U.N. High Commissioner10 for Refugees is currently aiding victims of fighting in Sudan and many other places. Other major U.N. agencies include the Development Program and the Children's Fund, called UNICEF. Still others are the World Food Program, the Population Fund and the Environment Program.

The United Nations has important offices in Canada, Europe, Asia, the Middle East and South America. But its headquarters is in four main buildings along the East River of New York City. The land and buildings are international territory.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Now we will visit the United Nations headquarters in New York. The first building you see is very tall and is made mainly of glass. The glass catches the sunlight. This structure reaches high into the sky. The other three U.N. buildings have different interesting shapes.

You expect to see the flags of the one hundred ninety-one members in front of U.N. headquarters. But the flags are not flying today. Work crews are making much-needed repairs to U.N. buildings and property.

VOICE TWO:

Inside, you pay for a guided visit through the U.N. A guide from Japan takes you and ten others on a tour while she discusses U.N. history and international issues. Members of your group are from China, Japan, Mexico, the United States and Britain. Your guide gives information in English. But tours also are provided in at least fifteen other languages. The official U.N. languages besides English are French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.

The guide explains that each U.N. member nation pays for part of the yearly budget. The share depends on the financial condition of the nation. The United States and Japan pay the largest amount.

VOICE ONE:

You enter the huge General Assembly Hall, the largest room in the United Nations. During a meeting, this room holds more than one thousand eight hundred people. You immediately note the central art object in the room. It is an artistic11 map placed on metal that shines like gold. The map shows the world as seen from the top, at the North Pole. Branches of olive trees that traditionally represent peace are on either side of the circular map. People around the world recognize this logo as representing the United Nations. It shows the world held in the olive branches of peace.

VOICE TWO:

Now you enter the room where the Security Council meets. Artist Per Krogh of Norway created the large wall painting. It shows a phoenix12 bird rising from its ashes. The picture represents the world rebuilding itself after World War Two.

As you stand in this room, your guide lists places where U.N peacekeepers have launched successful operations. Places like Cambodia, East Timor and Mozambique. She notes U.N. activity in two thousand two. The world organization had deployed more than forty-five thousand troops and civilians13 for peacekeeping and other duties around the world.

VOICE ONE:

A visitor from California comments that she is old enough to clearly remember World War Two. She does not want to experience that again. She says that whatever its problems, she hopes the United Nations will gain all of its goals for peace in the future.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written by Jerilyn Watson. It was produced by Mario Ritter. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. Join us again next week for another EXPLORATIONS in VOA Special English.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 negotiation FGWxc     
n.谈判,协商
参考例句:
  • They closed the deal in sugar after a week of negotiation.经过一星期的谈判,他们的食糖生意成交了。
  • The negotiation dragged on until July.谈判一直拖到7月份。
2 celebrated iwLzpz     
adj.有名的,声誉卓著的
参考例句:
  • He was soon one of the most celebrated young painters in England.不久他就成了英格兰最负盛名的年轻画家之一。
  • The celebrated violinist was mobbed by the audience.观众团团围住了这位著名的小提琴演奏家。
3 diplomats ccde388e31f0f3bd6f4704d76a1c3319     
n.外交官( diplomat的名词复数 );有手腕的人,善于交际的人
参考例句:
  • These events led to the expulsion of senior diplomats from the country. 这些事件导致一些高级外交官被驱逐出境。
  • The court has no jurisdiction over foreign diplomats living in this country. 法院对驻本国的外交官无裁判权。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
参考例句:
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
5 intervention e5sxZ     
n.介入,干涉,干预
参考例句:
  • The government's intervention in this dispute will not help.政府对这场争论的干预不会起作用。
  • Many people felt he would be hostile to the idea of foreign intervention.许多人觉得他会反对外来干预。
6 deployed 4ceaf19fb3d0a70e329fcd3777bb05ea     
(尤指军事行动)使展开( deploy的过去式和过去分词 ); 施展; 部署; 有效地利用
参考例句:
  • Tanks have been deployed all along the front line. 沿整个前线已部署了坦克。
  • The artillery was deployed to bear on the fort. 火炮是对着那个碉堡部署的。
7 federation htCzMS     
n.同盟,联邦,联合,联盟,联合会
参考例句:
  • It is a federation of 10 regional unions.它是由十个地方工会结合成的联合会。
  • Mr.Putin was inaugurated as the President of the Russian Federation.普京正式就任俄罗斯联邦总统。
8 oversees 4607550c43b2b83434e5e72ac137def4     
v.监督,监视( oversee的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • She oversees both the research and the manufacturing departments. 她既监督研究部门又监督生产部门。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The Department of Education oversees the federal programs dealing with education. 教育部监管处理教育的联邦程序。 来自互联网
9 diplomacy gu9xk     
n.外交;外交手腕,交际手腕
参考例句:
  • The talks have now gone into a stage of quiet diplomacy.会谈现在已经进入了“温和外交”阶段。
  • This was done through the skill in diplomacy. 这是通过外交手腕才做到的。
10 commissioner gq3zX     
n.(政府厅、局、处等部门)专员,长官,委员
参考例句:
  • The commissioner has issued a warrant for her arrest.专员发出了对她的逮捕令。
  • He was tapped for police commissioner.他被任命为警务处长。
11 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
12 phoenix 7Njxf     
n.凤凰,长生(不死)鸟;引申为重生
参考例句:
  • The airline rose like a phoenix from the ashes.这家航空公司又起死回生了。
  • The phoenix worship of China is fetish worship not totem adoration.中国凤崇拜是灵物崇拜而非图腾崇拜。
13 civilians 2a8bdc87d05da507ff4534c9c974b785     
平民,百姓( civilian的名词复数 ); 老百姓
参考例句:
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians 对无辜平民的血腥屠杀
  • At least 300 civilians are unaccounted for after the bombing raids. 遭轰炸袭击之后,至少有300名平民下落不明。
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TAG标签:   exploration  world  summit  mark
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