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EXPLORATIONS - Emperor Penguins Survive in World's Most Extr

时间:2006-03-16 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:z75531   字体: [ ]
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EXPLORATIONS - Emperor Penguins2 Survive in World's Most Extreme Climate
By Dana Demange

Broadcast: Wednesday, August 31, 2005

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Faith Lapidus with Explorations in VOA Special English. Today, we tell about a very special bird called the emperor penguin1. This bird struggles to survive in one of the most extreme climates in the world.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

 
Emperor Penguins are the world's largest kind of penguin
There are seventeen kinds of penguins in the world. All of them live in the southern hemisphere5. Only a few species6 live on the continent of Antarctica at the bottom of the world. The emperor penguins are the largest. They are about one hundred centimeters tall and weigh about thirty kilograms. Their special method of mating makes them different from all other penguins.

For thousands of years the emperor penguins have lived on the freezing continent of Antarctica. These black and white birds live in large groups or colonies7. There are about forty emperor penguin colonies on Antarctica. In total, there are about four hundred thousand birds.

VOICE TWO:

These birds spend the summer swimming in the ocean in search of food such as fish and squid. Penguins are not able to fly, but they are excellent swimmers. They can dive as deep as four hundred and sixty meters and hold their breath for up to twenty minutes. But when summer ends, so does this easy time spent by the water. The penguins jump out of the water and onto the ice. They know it is time to find a mate3 and reproduce8.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In order to mate, the penguins must travel many kilometers inland from the ocean. They do this to find a safe area to spend the many months needed to produce and develop an egg. They must find an area with some shelter from the freezing winds.

Hundreds of penguins walk in a single line for up to seventy kilometers to find a mating place. This trip is a long and cold one. Winter is beginning. The days are getting shorter and temperatures are quickly dropping. The trip takes many days. The birds must walk carefully on their short legs through icy areas. When their feet get tired, they slide themselves on their stomachs across the ice.

VOICE TWO:

Once they arrive at the right place, the mating process begins. Males and females10 walk around and make singing noises as they decide on a mate. They must also memorize their mate's special song. Penguins are unusual because they stay with the same mate for the entire period of producing a baby penguin or chick.

After the female9 produces an egg, she must carefully slide it onto her feet. Then she must pass it to her mate. This can be a very difficult act. If the birds are not careful, the egg will fall on the freezing ice. If the egg touches the ice or breaks, the chick will die. All of their hard work will have been wasted. Once the female passes the egg to the male, he places it on his feet and protects it with his body. Both male and female penguins have a special place on their body to protect their young. A piece of skin under their stomachs forms a pocket or pouch11 where an egg or chick is protected from the cold.

The male penguin incubates the egg for about two months. This means that he keeps it warm while the baby penguin inside the egg develops.

VOICE ONE:

During this time, the mothers must leave the colony12 and walk many kilometers back to the sea. The females are tired from mating and producing an egg. They are also starving from more than one month without food. During this period, female penguins can lose up to one-third of their body weight. Many do not survive the long walk back to the sea. The ones that do survive dive into the ocean to catch fish. They eat for several months to gain weight. They must also get food for their chicks.

While the mothers are feeding, the hundreds of male penguins work together to survive. They stand very close to one another to form a tight group. This helps them keep warm. They continuously change places. The colder penguins on the outside of the group move to the warmer places on the inside of the group.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Winters in Antarctica are difficult for the penguins. There are only a few hours of sunlight a day. Temperatures can drop to minus fifty degrees Celsius13. Air masses called catabatic winds blow over the continent at speeds of up to two hundred kilometers per hour.

The penguins have developed special bodies to survive such freezing temperatures. They can control their body temperature with a special system of blood exchange. The centers of their bodies keep warm, while the outer parts of their bodies stay almost as cold as the outside temperatures.

Another way they survive the cold is by releasing14 a special oil from their skin. This oil helps waterproof15 the feathers that cover their bodies. A layer of air between their skin and the oil provides protection from the cold. Also, they have a thick layer of body fat that further protects them from the cold.

VOICE ONE:

Two months later, the females return to the colony and must find their mates4. Many of the chicks have hatched16 and come out of their eggs. The family is united for the first time. However, the father must leave immediately to go feed in the ocean. He has not eaten for more than three months and has lost a great deal of weight. Before he leaves, though, he must learn the voice of his chick. The chick also memorizes his father's voice. When the father returns, he must be able to identify his chick in order to bring it food.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The male and female penguins continue to take turns caring for their chick and bringing back food from the sea. When the chicks are about one month old, they start to spend time outside their parents' pouch. When they get bigger, the chicks stay together in large groups. Their parents still bring them food. But when they are about five months old, the chicks must feed themselves. They make their first trip to the ocean.

However, not all the chicks survive this long. About twenty-five percent die due to starvation or cold. Some chicks are hunted and killed by large birds called giant petrels. However, if the chicks survive their first year, they generally live through adulthood17. When they reach the age of five years, it is time for the young penguins to mate. A new generation begins this special mating process of travel and survival18.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

In two thousand five, a French filmmaker named Luc Jacquet released19 a film about these special birds. The film is called "March of the Penguins." It beautifully shows how the birds survive in the extreme environment of Antarctica. This rare look at their lives is truly special.

You can see the penguins walking across the white ice of Antarctica. Diving deep into the ocean waters. Moving their egg carefully from the mother's feet to the father's feet. Crowding together to keep warm in a snowstorm20. Kissing their newly21 hatched chicks.

VOICE TWO:

"March of the Penguins" is the first full-length film to show the life of the emperor penguin. The crew chose to film a colony of penguins that was near a scientific research center. This way, the filmmakers had a base where they could live. They were also able to cooperate22 with the nearby Institute for Polar Research.

Producing this film was very difficult. The movie crew had to survive the extreme cold for a whole year of filming. If the weather was too bad, they could not go outside and film. Also, trying to film the birds from very close up was not easy. The filmmakers had to be very careful not to harm the penguins. They made special devices23 that helped them get close to the penguins without interfering24 with them. Luc Jacquet even hired a specialist to film the underwater scenes.

VOICE ONE:

"March of the Penguins" was difficult to make for other technical reasons. The crew had to have special cameras made that could work in extremely cold temperatures. Also, they could not watch what they had filmed. This is because they did not have the equipment to develop the film. So, they had to remember the details of every picture they took and hope they turned out well. When they finished filming, they had more than one hundred twenty hours of film.

Director Luc Jacquet says his film crew had to treat the penguins with care and consideration. He says his movie is a story of bravery and excitement. He also calls his movie about the emperor penguins one of the most beautiful love stories on Earth.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written and produced by Dana Demange. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. Join us again next week for EXPLORATIONS in VOA Special English.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 penguin W3jzf     
n.企鹅
参考例句:
  • The penguin is a flightless bird.企鹅是一种不会飞的鸟。
  • He walked with an awkward gait like a penguin.他走路的步子难看得就像企鹅。
2 penguins fc5bf5a50fd6b440a35d113f324c5e75     
n.企鹅( penguin的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Why can penguins live in cold environment? 为什么企鹅能生活在寒冷的环境中? 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Whales, seals, penguins, and turtles have flippers. 鲸、海豹,企鹅和海龟均有鳍形肢。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
3 mate 2B9xE     
n.伙伴,同事;配偶;大副;v.(使)交配
参考例句:
  • Where is the mate to this glove?这副手套的另一只在哪儿?
  • She has been a faithful mate to him.她一直是他忠实的配偶。
4 mates f0f9bdeefa23cc2a61b2d934b486c33b     
[英]伙伴( mate的名词复数 ); 同伴; (非正式)配偶; (熟练工人的)助手
参考例句:
  • He's out boozing with his mates. 他和他的朋友们喝酒去了。
  • They've been best mates since school. 他们从上学时期以来就是最要好的朋友。
5 hemisphere xy4yd     
n.半球,半球地图
参考例句:
  • This animal is to be found only in the Southern Hemisphere.这种动物只有在南半球才能找到。
  • In most people,the left hemisphere is bigger than the right.多数人的左脑比右脑大。
6 species FTizN     
n.物种,种群
参考例句:
  • Are we the only thinking species in the whole of creation?我们是万物中惟一有思想的物种吗?
  • This species of bird now exists only in Africa.这种鸟现在只存在于非洲。
7 colonies bd09786b76b982261351b68fad9d9e44     
n.殖民地( colony的名词复数 );(侨民等)聚居区;(动植物的)群体;(来自同一地方,职业或兴趣相同的)聚居人群
参考例句:
  • They amassed huge wealth by plundering the colonies. 他们通过掠夺殖民地聚敛了大笔的财富。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • But throughout the colonies, people relied primarily on small farms and self-sufficiency. 但就整个殖民地来说,人们主要依靠小型农场,过着自给自足的生活。 来自英汉非文学 - 政府文件
8 reproduce yVkxZ     
v.生育,繁殖,复制,重做
参考例句:
  • The machine can reproduce a key in two minutes.这机器能在两分钟内复制一把钥匙。
  • The picture will reproduce well.这照片会印得很清楚。
9 female 3kSxf     
adj.雌的,女(性)的;n.雌性的动物,女子
参考例句:
  • We only employ female workers.我们只雇用女工。
  • The animal in the picture was a female elephant.照片上的动物是头母象。
10 females d8698f3558c99e12653404bd3adaa915     
n.雌性动物( female的名词复数 );女人
参考例句:
  • The male birds are more colourful than the females. 这种鸟雄性比雌性更加色彩艳丽。
  • The males in the herd protect the females and the young. 兽中的雄性动物保护雌性动物和幼崽。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 pouch Oi1y1     
n.小袋,小包,囊状袋;vt.装...入袋中,用袋运输;vi.用袋送信件
参考例句:
  • He was going to make a tobacco pouch out of them. 他要用它们缝制一个烟草袋。
  • The old man is always carrying a tobacco pouch with him.这老汉总是随身带着烟袋。
12 colony 7qNzN     
n.殖民地;(同类人的)聚居地
参考例句:
  • There lived a colony of bees on the tree.树上生活着一群蜜蜂。
  • They live in an artists'colony.他们住在艺术家聚居区。
13 Celsius AXRzl     
adj.摄氏温度计的,摄氏的
参考例句:
  • The temperature tonight will fall to seven degrees Celsius.今晚气温将下降到七摄氏度。
  • The maximum temperature in July may be 36 degrees Celsius.七月份最高温度可能达到36摄氏度。
14 releasing 90d2fbbf6b91a58d15ac9bc4eaad611a     
v.释放( release的现在分词 );放开;发布;发行
参考例句:
  • Releasing his arm, she laid her hand upon his shoulder. 她放掉他的胳膊,却把手放到了他的肩上。 来自英汉文学 - 双城记
  • The drag operation is still terminated by releasing the mouse button. 释放鼠标按键时,拖动操作将立即终止。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
15 waterproof Ogvwp     
n.防水材料;adj.防水的;v.使...能防水
参考例句:
  • My mother bought me a waterproof watch.我妈妈给我买了一块防水手表。
  • All the electronics are housed in a waterproof box.所有电子设备都储放在一个防水盒中。
16 hatched 2e6ea2f0c897faab375f05bdc388b8af     
孵化( hatch的过去式和过去分词 ); 孵出,破壳而出; 秘密策划,(尤指)密谋; 使(小鸟、小鱼、小虫等)孵出
参考例句:
  • Silkworms are fed mulberry leaves after they have hatched. 蚕孵出后食桑叶。
  • Ten out of the set of twelve were hatched. 一窝十二个蛋孵出了十个。
17 adulthood vKsyr     
n.成年,成人期
参考例句:
  • Some infantile actions survive into adulthood.某些婴儿期的行为一直保持到成年期。
  • Few people nowadays are able to maintain friendships into adulthood.如今很少有人能将友谊维持到成年。
18 survival lrJw9     
n.留住生命,生存,残存,幸存者
参考例句:
  • The doctor told my wife I had a fifty-fifty chance of survival.医生告诉我的妻子,说我活下去的可能性只有50%。
  • The old man was a survival of a past age.这位老人是上一代的遗老。
19 released 23690fd759f17135ec9879b56ff2600c     
v.释放( release的过去式和过去分词 );放开;发布;发行
参考例句:
  • He was released on bail pending committal proceedings. 他交保获释正在候审。
  • With hindsight it is easy to say they should not have released him. 事后才说他们本不应该释放他,这倒容易。
20 snowstorm IxGwY     
n.雪暴,暴风雪
参考例句:
  • After several weeks of travel,snowstorm hit us first.我们旅行了几个星期,初次碰上了暴风雪。
  • A severe snowstorm blocked up railroads.一场暴风雪使铁路中断。
21 newly cG7xE     
adv.新近,最近;重新,再度;以新的方式
参考例句:
  • Have you reviewed for this newly published novel?你给这本新出版的小说写书评了吗?
  • It is a newly planted tree and it has not established yet.这是一颗新栽的树,还没有扎下根来。
22 cooperate tZByR     
vi.合作,协作,相配合
参考例句:
  • We hope we can cooperate even more closely in the future.希望我们今后能更加密切地合作。
  • I hope you can cooperate on this matter.我希望你在这件事上能给予合作。
23 devices e0212e54ec3a2a120ca0d321b3a60c78     
n.设备;装置( device的名词复数 );花招;(为实现某种目的的)计划;手段
参考例句:
  • electrical labour-saving devices around the home 节省劳力的各种家用电器
  • modern labour-saving devices such as washing machines and dishwashers 诸如洗衣机和洗碗机之类的现代化省力设备
24 interfering interfering     
adj. 妨碍的 动词interfere的现在分词
参考例句:
  • He's an interfering old busybody! 他老爱管闲事!
  • I wish my mother would stop interfering and let me make my own decisions. 我希望我母亲不再干预,让我自己拿主意。
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TAG标签:   exploration  emperor  penguin  su
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