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EXPLORATIONS - Lessons Learned From the Atomic Bombings of H

时间:2006-03-16 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:z75531   字体: [ ]
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EXPLORATIONS - Lessons Learned From the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
By Jill Moss1

Broadcast: Wednesday, August 24, 2005

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

 
 
And I'm Faith Lapidus with Explorations in VOA Special English. Sixty years ago, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Today we tell about those two events that ended World War Two.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Earlier this month, tens of thousands of people in Japan and around the world marked the sixtieth anniversary of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The United States dropped an atomic bomb on the southern Japanese city of Hiroshima on August sixth, nineteen forty-five. More than seventy thousand people died as a result of the world's first use of an atomic weapon. Three days later, a second bomb dropped on the city of Nagasaki killed an estimated eighty thousand civilians2. Tens of thousands of Japanese died later from radiation poisoning and other atomic-related diseases.

VOICE TWO:

To honor victims of the attacks, more than fifty thousand people gathered in Hiroshima on August sixth. Japanese officials and foreign diplomats3 also attended the early morning ceremony. All mourners lowered their heads for a moment of silence at the exact moment of the Hiroshima bombing. The mayor of Hiroshima, Tadatoshi Akiba, called on the United Nations to take steps to put an end to nuclear weapons. He criticized the countries with such weapons as threatening human survival. A similar ceremony was held in Nagasaki on August ninth. At both events, Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi promised to keep Japan free of nuclear weapons.

VOICE ONE:

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to the end of World War Two. Japan informed the Allied4 Powers that it would surrender on August fourteenth, nineteen forty-five. One day later, Emperor Hirohito officially announced the surrender on Japanese national radio.

Sixty years after the atomic bombings, historians are still debating if they were necessary to end the war. At the time, fierce fighting in the Pacific continued and United States President Harry5 Truman was considering an invasion of Japan.

VOICE TWO:

Some historians argue that millions of Japanese and American troops would have died in such an invasion. Retired6 history professor Robert James Maddox wrote the book "Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision." He says America's use of the atomic bomb was never in question. Instead, President Truman had to decide when the bomb would be dropped.

VOICE ONE:

Other historians, however, question the morality of the decision. Kai Bird wrote a book about American scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, who is considered the father of the atomic bomb. He says even Mister Oppenheimer questioned the morality of the decision to use the bomb. Some critics believe that Japan was about to surrender when President Truman decided7 to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They say the real reason for the bombings was to send a message about America's military strength to the Soviet8 Union.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

Historians say war survivors9 in Asia remain angry over Japan's fierce occupation during World War Two. For almost four years, Japanese forces occupied much of Asia, from China to the Pacific islands. Experts say Japanese soldiers killed many Asians unnecessarily. Soldiers also sexually attacked many Asian women or used others as sex slaves.

Japan argued that its occupation was necessary to regain10 control of Asia from European and American governments.

VOICE ONE:

Brian Farrell is a historian at the National University of Singapore. He told VOA reporter Heda Bayron that many survivors are still angry at Japan. In addition, Mister Farrell says Japan's apparent lack of caring about its past cruelty has hurt its relations with other Asian nations.

On August second, the Japanese parliament passed a resolution expressing deep regret for the suffering that Japan caused during the war. Prime Minister Koizumi released a similar statement on August fifteenth, the official day of Japan's surrender. The statement said Japan caused great damage and pain to the people of Asia through its colonization11 and aggression12. The statement expressed deep sadness and heartfelt apology.

VOICE TWO:

Other recent issues have harmed Japanese ties with Asian nations. Earlier this year, Japan approved new schoolbooks for history classes. Critics say the books do not correctly describe the nation's actions during World War Two. Tensions have also increased over visits by Japanese officials to the Yasukuni memorial in Tokyo. The memorial honors Japanese soldiers who died during military service. Critics say the memorial includes convicted war criminals.

VOICE ONE:

After the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings in nineteen forty-five, Japan became a strong anti-nuclear nation. The attacks created a common feeling of opposition13 against atomic weapons. Since nineteen fifty-six, it has been national policy not to have, manufacture or permit nuclear weapons in Japan.

However, the country has a successful nuclear energy industry. And lawmakers are starting to question whether Japan should create a nuclear defense14 system. Kazuhiro Haraguchi is a Parliament member from the opposition Democratic Party. He told VOA reporter Steve Herman that North Korea's nuclear ability may soon force Japan to create its own nuclear weapons.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

The world came very close to a nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis in nineteen sixty-two. For several days, the United States Navy blocked Cuba after discovering the Soviet Union had been shipping15 nuclear missiles to the country. The crisis led to the nineteen sixty-eight Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Today, about one hundred ninety countries have signed the international agreement. In exchange for giving up nuclear weapons, they have promised to work toward nuclear disarmament.

They also have agreed not to pass nuclear weapons to countries that do not have them. And they have agreed to share nuclear technology for peaceful energy purposes only.

VOICE ONE:

Today, seven nations in the world are known to have nuclear weapons -- Russia, China, India, Pakistan, France, Britain and the United States. Most experts believe that Israel and North Korea also have nuclear weapons.

Many of these nations have reduced their nuclear weapons. They include the United States, Russia, Britain and France. China is working to modernize16 its weapons program. Libya has ended its program to develop nuclear weapons. The International Atomic Energy Agency has taken apart Iraq's program.

VOICE TWO:

But some experts question whether the world is any safer. In two thousand two, North Korea expelled inspectors17 from the International Atomic Energy Agency. It has since admitted that it has a small number of nuclear weapons. Talks among six nations urging North Korea to end its nuclear program have produced little progress.

The situation in Iran is also tense. Earlier this month, Iran refused to honor international demands that it halt its nuclear program. Iran restarted uranium-processing activities at its Isfahan nuclear center. The International Atomic Energy Agency has called on Iran to suspend its nuclear activities. If it fails to do so, the IAEA could report Iran to the United Nations Security Council, which could order restrictions18 against the country. Western nations suspect Iran is secretly trying to build nuclear weapons. But Iran says it wants nuclear technology only to produce electricity.

VOICE ONE:

Some experts say the most frightening situation does not involve nations with nuclear weapons. They say it involves terrorists with nuclear material. Experts say terrorists could create a so-called "dirty bomb" with small amounts of radioactive and explosive material. A more dangerous situation would involve a terrorist bomb fueled with a small amount of plutonium or highly enriched uranium.

This kind of weapon loaded into a small truck or boat could destroy a city and kill large numbers of people. Such an event could be like a second Hiroshima or Nagasaki.

These two Japanese cities have been largely rebuilt today. But the lessons learned from their destruction sixty years ago remain. J. Robert Oppenheimer may have described atomic weapons best. He called them a great danger, but also the world's greatest hope for lasting19 peace. Only time will tell if he was right.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This program was written by Jill Moss. It was produced by Mario Ritter. I'm Faith Lapidus.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. Join us again next week for Explorations in VOA Special English.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 moss X6QzA     
n.苔,藓,地衣
参考例句:
  • Moss grows on a rock.苔藓生在石头上。
  • He was found asleep on a pillow of leaves and moss.有人看见他枕着树叶和苔藓睡着了。
2 civilians 2a8bdc87d05da507ff4534c9c974b785     
平民,百姓( civilian的名词复数 ); 老百姓
参考例句:
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians 对无辜平民的血腥屠杀
  • At least 300 civilians are unaccounted for after the bombing raids. 遭轰炸袭击之后,至少有300名平民下落不明。
3 diplomats ccde388e31f0f3bd6f4704d76a1c3319     
n.外交官( diplomat的名词复数 );有手腕的人,善于交际的人
参考例句:
  • These events led to the expulsion of senior diplomats from the country. 这些事件导致一些高级外交官被驱逐出境。
  • The court has no jurisdiction over foreign diplomats living in this country. 法院对驻本国的外交官无裁判权。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 allied iLtys     
adj.协约国的;同盟国的
参考例句:
  • Britain was allied with the United States many times in history.历史上英国曾多次与美国结盟。
  • Allied forces sustained heavy losses in the first few weeks of the campaign.同盟国在最初几周内遭受了巨大的损失。
5 harry heBxS     
vt.掠夺,蹂躏,使苦恼
参考例句:
  • Today,people feel more hurried and harried.今天,人们感到更加忙碌和苦恼。
  • Obama harried business by Healthcare Reform plan.奥巴马用医改掠夺了商界。
6 retired Njhzyv     
adj.隐退的,退休的,退役的
参考例句:
  • The old man retired to the country for rest.这位老人下乡休息去了。
  • Many retired people take up gardening as a hobby.许多退休的人都以从事园艺为嗜好。
7 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
8 Soviet Sw9wR     
adj.苏联的,苏维埃的;n.苏维埃
参考例句:
  • Zhukov was a marshal of the former Soviet Union.朱可夫是前苏联的一位元帅。
  • Germany began to attack the Soviet Union in 1941.德国在1941年开始进攻苏联。
9 survivors 02ddbdca4c6dba0b46d9d823ed2b4b62     
幸存者,残存者,生还者( survivor的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The survivors were adrift in a lifeboat for six days. 幸存者在救生艇上漂流了六天。
  • survivors clinging to a raft 紧紧抓住救生筏的幸存者
10 regain YkYzPd     
vt.重新获得,收复,恢复
参考例句:
  • He is making a bid to regain his World No.1 ranking.他正为重登世界排名第一位而努力。
  • The government is desperate to regain credibility with the public.政府急于重新获取公众的信任。
11 colonization fa0db2e0e94efd7127e1e573e71196df     
殖民地的开拓,殖民,殖民地化; 移殖
参考例句:
  • Colonization took place during the Habsburg dynasty. 开拓殖民地在哈布斯堡王朝就进行过。
  • These countries took part in the colonization of Africa. 这些国家参与非洲殖民地的开发。
12 aggression WKjyF     
n.进攻,侵略,侵犯,侵害
参考例句:
  • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我们紧密地团结,就不必惧怕外来侵略。
  • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她认为攻击性是人类本性的一部份。
13 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
14 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保卫;[pl.]防务工事;辩护,答辩
参考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
15 shipping WESyg     
n.船运(发货,运输,乘船)
参考例句:
  • We struck a bargain with an American shipping firm.我们和一家美国船运公司谈成了一笔生意。
  • There's a shipping charge of £5 added to the price.价格之外另加五英镑运输费。
16 modernize SEixp     
vt.使现代化,使适应现代的需要
参考例句:
  • It was their manifest failure to modernize the country's industries.他们使国家进行工业现代化,明显失败了。
  • There is a pressing need to modernise our electoral system.我们的选举制度迫切需要现代化。
17 inspectors e7f2779d4a90787cc7432cd5c8b51897     
n.检查员( inspector的名词复数 );(英国公共汽车或火车上的)查票员;(警察)巡官;检阅官
参考例句:
  • They got into the school in the guise of inspectors. 他们假装成视察员进了学校。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Inspectors checked that there was adequate ventilation. 检查员已检查过,通风良好。 来自《简明英汉词典》
18 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
参考例句:
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
19 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
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TAG标签:   exploration  lesson  learn  atomi
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