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Tribal Traditions Clash with Modern Technocratic Society in

时间:2005-05-25 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:chirie   字体: [ ]
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By Zlatica Hoke

Monday's terror attack on the U.S. Consulate1 in the Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah is the latest violents against Westerners in the kingdom since last year. Zlatica Hoke report the country where Islam was born is torn by tensions between tribal2 traditions and the modern technocratic3 world.

Oil-rich Saudi Arabia has seen more change in the past six decades than in the previous 13 centuries. Jeddah, once a sleepy village mid-way down the country's Red Sea coast, is today a bustling4 port and industrial city. Like most developments in this wealthiest of Arab nations, Jeddah's dramatic transformation5 was financed by the oil industry, which boomed in the 1970's.

Thanks to its vast natural oil deposits, one quarter of the world's total reserves, the kingdom was able to develop exemplary health and welfare systems, free education and a modern military force. But in terms of social developments, the oil wealth has had little impact. Much of Saudi Arabia has remained a tribal society, ruled by a royal family with seemingly complete power over its people.

Anthony Cordesman, a Middle East analyst6 at the Center for Strategic and International studies and author of a book titled "Saudi Arabia Enters the 21st Century," says the country is full of contrasts. "If you go to the area along the Gulf7 Coast where the oil industry is concentrated, it's very modern and people there have more exposure to other states in the west, says Mr. Cordesman. "It is perhaps more liberal. The area around Riyadh and most of the internal areas in Saudi Arabia are less exposed to the West and more conservative."

Saudi Arabia's role as the keeper of the Muslim holy shrines8 in Mecca and Medina is one reason many Saudis strictly9 adhere to Islamic social and religious customs and serve as model to 1.3-billion Muslims worldwide. "It is an intensely conservative, puritanical10 Islamic country. It is a country of tribes and extended families," says Mr. Cordesman. "It is still a nation of people who do not have, good contact with either the West or indeed, to the extent that other Arab countries do, the Middle East as a whole."

High oil revenues have enabled many Saudis to have a lifestyle that rivals or surpasses many in the West. This in turn has lured11 some six-million foreign workers to the country.

Walter Cutler, former U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia, says this Western influence has outraged12 many traditionalists. "I think one of the sources of unhappiness among these people is that: look, when you have this vast oil income and you develop your country, what has happened is you have a lot of western technology and a lot of westerners coming in to help develop the country. In other words, you have a very large foreign presence there," says Ambassador Cutler.

Analysts13 say the cause of Saudi discontent is economic as well as political. There is growing unemployment as oil revenues decline and the population grows. The average Saudi woman bears six children so the population has quadrupled in the past three decades. More than a half the population is under the age of 20. Joseph Kechichian, author of the book "Succession in Saudi Arabia," says most young men are educated in Islamic theology, culture and history but not in the skills needed for today's technological14 industry.

"So therefore, you have a pool of unemployed15 young men, religiously educated and well motivated, some of whom have military training because they've served at one point or another in the armed forces, who are venting16 their frustrations17 against the establishment, the large business holders18, the established religious scholars and so forth," says Mr. Kechichian.

Joseph Kechichian says these unemployed and youths are targeted by recruiters for terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaida. But Mr. Kechichian adds that many also grew up with satellite television, foreign music broadcasts and Internet and want a more open and democratic society.

The royal house has responded to the discontent by implementing19 limited changes, says Walter Cutler. "What I've noticed is a greater openness in dialogue -- here I am talking about the media in particular -- a discussion of social issues that one would not have expected to find in the media when I was there in the 1980's," says Ambassador Cutler.

But for some Saudis, the improvements are not taking place quickly enough. Analysts say the Saudi leadership must address the concerns of all the segments of its diverse society, especially the young and unemployed man.

For focus, I'm Zlatica Hoke.

注释:
consulate 领事馆
Jeddah 吉达(沙特阿拉伯西部港市)
tribal 部族的,部落的
technocratic 专家政治论者的
bustling 熙熙攘攘的
finance 供给……经费
deposit 沉积物
reserves 储量
exemplary 可做模范的
concentrated 集中的
holy 神圣的
shrine 圣地
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦地那
puritanical 清教徒的
revenue 收入
lure 吸引
outrage 引起……义愤
discontent 不满
quadruple 使成四倍
and so forth 等等
recruiter 征兵人员
segment 部分

 

 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 consulate COwzC     
n.领事馆
参考例句:
  • The Spanish consulate is the large white building opposite the bank.西班牙领事馆是银行对面的那栋高大的白色建筑物。
  • The American consulate was a magnificent edifice in the centre of Bordeaux.美国领事馆是位于波尔多市中心的一座宏伟的大厦。
2 tribal ifwzzw     
adj.部族的,种族的
参考例句:
  • He became skilled in several tribal lingoes.他精通几种部族的语言。
  • The country was torn apart by fierce tribal hostilities.那个国家被部落间的激烈冲突弄得四分五裂。
3 technocratic dd957e96c7b0d90a69a67074fe6d0189     
adj.由技术专家官员组成的;受技术官僚影响的
参考例句:
  • But there is method in Europe's technocratic madness, the official went on. 但欧洲的专家政治论者的愤怒是有原因的,这个位官员接着说道。 来自互联网
  • Mr Juppé was floored in part by his contemptuous, technocratic attitude towards union leaders. 朱佩对工会领导蛮横与不屑,是导致他一败涂地的部分原因。 来自互联网
4 bustling LxgzEl     
adj.喧闹的
参考例句:
  • The market was bustling with life. 市场上生机勃勃。
  • This district is getting more and more prosperous and bustling. 这一带越来越繁华了。
5 transformation SnFwO     
n.变化;改造;转变
参考例句:
  • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook.上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
  • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband.他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
6 analyst gw7zn     
n.分析家,化验员;心理分析学家
参考例句:
  • What can you contribute to the position of a market analyst?你有什么技能可有助于市场分析员的职务?
  • The analyst is required to interpolate values between standards.分析人员需要在这些标准中插入一些值。
7 gulf 1e0xp     
n.海湾;深渊,鸿沟;分歧,隔阂
参考例句:
  • The gulf between the two leaders cannot be bridged.两位领导人之间的鸿沟难以跨越。
  • There is a gulf between the two cities.这两座城市间有个海湾。
8 shrines 9ec38e53af7365fa2e189f82b1f01792     
圣地,圣坛,神圣场所( shrine的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • All three structures dated to the third century and were tentatively identified as shrines. 这3座建筑都建于3 世纪,并且初步鉴定为神庙。
  • Their palaces and their shrines are tombs. 它们的宫殿和神殿成了墓穴。
9 strictly GtNwe     
adv.严厉地,严格地;严密地
参考例句:
  • His doctor is dieting him strictly.他的医生严格规定他的饮食。
  • The guests were seated strictly in order of precedence.客人严格按照地位高低就座。
10 puritanical viYyM     
adj.极端拘谨的;道德严格的
参考例句:
  • He has a puritanical attitude towards sex.他在性问题上主张克制,反对纵欲。
  • Puritanical grandfather is very strict with his children.古板严厉的祖父对子女要求非常严格。
11 lured 77df5632bf83c9c64fb09403ae21e649     
吸引,引诱(lure的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  • The child was lured into a car but managed to escape. 那小孩被诱骗上了车,但又设法逃掉了。
  • Lured by the lust of gold,the pioneers pushed onward. 开拓者在黄金的诱惑下,继续奋力向前。
12 outraged VmHz8n     
a.震惊的,义愤填膺的
参考例句:
  • Members of Parliament were outraged by the news of the assassination. 议会议员们被这暗杀的消息激怒了。
  • He was outraged by their behavior. 他们的行为使他感到愤慨。
13 analysts 167ff30c5034ca70abe2d60a6e760448     
分析家,化验员( analyst的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • City analysts forecast huge profits this year. 伦敦金融分析家预测今年的利润非常丰厚。
  • I was impressed by the high calibre of the researchers and analysts. 研究人员和分析人员的高素质给我留下了深刻印象。
14 technological gqiwY     
adj.技术的;工艺的
参考例句:
  • A successful company must keep up with the pace of technological change.一家成功的公司必须得跟上技术变革的步伐。
  • Today,the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements.当今, 随着科技进步,生活节奏不断增快。
15 unemployed lfIz5Q     
adj.失业的,没有工作的;未动用的,闲置的
参考例句:
  • There are now over four million unemployed workers in this country.这个国家现有四百万失业人员。
  • The unemployed hunger for jobs.失业者渴望得到工作。
16 venting bfb798c258dda800004b5c1d9ebef748     
消除; 泄去; 排去; 通风
参考例句:
  • But, unexpectedly, he started venting his spleen on her. 哪知道,老头子说着说着绕到她身上来。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
  • So now he's venting his anger on me. 哦,我这才知道原来还是怄我的气。
17 frustrations 7d9e374b9e145ebadbaa8704f2c615e5     
挫折( frustration的名词复数 ); 失败; 挫败; 失意
参考例句:
  • The temptation would grow to take out our frustrations on Saigon. 由于我们遭到挫折而要同西贡算帐的引诱力会增加。
  • Aspirations will be raised, but so will frustrations. 人们会产生种种憧憬,但是种种挫折也会随之而来。
18 holders 79c0e3bbb1170e3018817c5f45ebf33f     
支持物( holder的名词复数 ); 持有者; (支票等)持有人; 支托(或握持)…之物
参考例句:
  • Slaves were mercilessly ground down by slave holders. 奴隶受奴隶主的残酷压迫。
  • It is recognition of compassion's part that leads the up-holders of capital punishment to accuse the abolitionists of sentimentality in being more sorry for the murderer than for his victim. 正是对怜悯的作用有了认识,才使得死刑的提倡者指控主张废除死刑的人感情用事,同情谋杀犯胜过同情受害者。
19 implementing be68540dfa000a0fb38be40d32259215     
v.实现( implement的现在分词 );执行;贯彻;使生效
参考例句:
  • -- Implementing a comprehensive drug control strategy. ――实行综合治理的禁毒战略。 来自汉英非文学 - 白皮书
  • He was in no hurry about implementing his unshakable principle. 他并不急于实行他那不可动摇的原则。 来自辞典例句
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