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时间:2005-06-08 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:幽幽草   字体: [ ]



 Now let's briefly1 discuss consonants3. Much of the clarity of your speech depends upon your pronunciation of the 25 consonants in the English language. Consonants are speech sounds formed by first 1)blocking air off at some point in the vocal4 2)tract5. And then releasing the air stream at another point in the tract.

 Briefly there are at least three ways to classify consonants. But let's look at one of the simplest classifications, whether the consonants are voiced or unvoiced. For example consider the consonant2 [b] as in the word BABY and [p] as in PAPA, both sounds are formed in exactly the same way. The breath is first blocked by the lips then released as a quick puff6 of air. The difference is that the vocal chords vibrate or produce 3)phonation when [b] is produced, but they don't when [p] is formed.

 If you listen closely as you carefully produce the consonant [b] as in BABY, you'll heara small 4)grunting noise before the [b] sound is formed. That 5)buzzing noise was produced by the vocal chords. So [b] is a voiced consonant. Now once again form the consonant sound [p] as in PAPA. It's a puff of air. No phonation is present.

   As Betty said these speech sounds are classified according to several systems. Another 6)classification system involves the ways in which sounds are produced by the 7)articulators. [b] and [p] are also classified as 8)plosive consonants. Think of them as explosives, and you'll get the idea. They can sound like 9)miniature explosions especially if you are speaking into a microphone. And well give you some tips about speaking in the microphones later in this programme. Suffice it to say, spoken, face to face plosive consonants can also produce a mini shower.

   So work on producing plosives in a less dramatic manner. That's simply involves releasing the air in a more controlled way.

   The consonant sound s [s] as in the word SNAKE is called a civilent. Make a 10)hissing sound with me, now [s]. That sound is produced by 11)friction as the air stream passes through the articulators, in this case your teeth. Notice that as you produce an [s] the tongue is slightly 12)cupped, with its tip very close to the front teeth. The teeth are almost touching7, and the lips are slightly spread.

   Another group of consonants are called 13)semivowels because they include a vowel8 sound, but are used in speech as consonants. Produce the semivowel r[r] as in ROUGH, produce it again slowly, youll discover that this sound is actually [aur], a vowel sound starts it. However the speech sound [r] is used as a consonant. The alphabet letter w, the speech sound [w] as in WATER is classified as a consonant, but it uses as a vowel sound. Pronounce it slowly [w], WATER, WATER. You see the [w] sound actually starts with a vowel sound [u].

 And watch out for 14)nasals. There are only three primary nasals in the English language. [m], [n] and the -ing [] ending of any words, SWINGING, RUNNING. They may cause excess nasality if you prolong them.

The inaccurate9 or incorrect production of the consonant sounds of standard American English are omitting consonants from certain words also can lead to speaking in accented form of American English. For example a speaker may say [fa:m] instead of [farm] or [bidnis] instead of [biznis]. But it's also important to add that the educational level attained10 by a speaker, his or her social background, ethnic11 heritage and even age or 15)gender can lead to speaking standard American English with an accent or a dialect. In a study of working class laborers12 in America, woman were found to use the -ing ending on words more frequently than men. Another study found that people whose income fell below a certain level were more likely to omit the [r] from words.











   注意鼻音,英语中只有三个鼻音:[m],[n]和以-ing结尾的词的[],如SWINGING, RUNNING。如果你拖长发音,就会有额外的鼻音。



 1) block   v. 阻碍    

2) tract   n. 行迹

3) phonation   n.(语音)为(某个连续浊辅音或元音)发音

4) grunt   v. 咕哝,嘟囔 

5) buzz   v. 嘤嘤声,嗡嗡声 

6)classification  n. 分类

7) articulator   n. 发音的人或物;(语音)发音器官   8) plosive   a. 爆破音的

9) miniature  a. 小规模的;小型的   10) hiss   v. 发出嘶嘶声  

11) friction  n. 摩擦

12) cup   v. 使成杯形  

13) semivowel  n. 半元音

14) nasal n.(语音)鼻音   

15) gender   n. (男性,女性的)性


1 briefly 9Styo     
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
2 consonant mYEyY     
  • The quality of this suit isn't quite consonant with its price.这套衣服的质量和价钱不相称。
  • These are common consonant clusters at the beginning of words.这些单词的开头有相同辅音组合。
3 consonants 6d7406e22bce454935f32e3837012573     
n.辅音,子音( consonant的名词复数 );辅音字母
  • Consonants are frequently assimilated to neighboring consonants. 辅音往往被其邻近的辅音同化。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Vowels possess greater sonority than consonants. 元音比辅音响亮。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
4 vocal vhOwA     
  • The tongue is a vocal organ.舌头是一个发音器官。
  • Public opinion at last became vocal.终于舆论哗然。
5 tract iJxz4     
  • He owns a large tract of forest.他拥有一大片森林。
  • He wrote a tract on this subject.他曾对此写了一篇短文。
6 puff y0cz8     
  • He took a puff at his cigarette.他吸了一口香烟。
  • They tried their best to puff the book they published.他们尽力吹捧他们出版的书。
7 touching sg6zQ9     
  • It was a touching sight.这是一幅动人的景象。
  • His letter was touching.他的信很感人。
8 vowel eHTyS     
  • A long vowel is a long sound as in the word"shoe ".长元音即如“shoe” 一词中的长音。
  • The vowel in words like 'my' and 'thigh' is not very difficult.单词my和thigh中的元音并不难发。
9 inaccurate D9qx7     
  • The book is both inaccurate and exaggerated.这本书不但不准确,而且夸大其词。
  • She never knows the right time because her watch is inaccurate.她从来不知道准确的时间因为她的表不准。
10 attained 1f2c1bee274e81555decf78fe9b16b2f     
(通常经过努力)实现( attain的过去式和过去分词 ); 达到; 获得; 达到(某年龄、水平、状况)
  • She has attained the degree of Master of Arts. 她已获得文学硕士学位。
  • Lu Hsun attained a high position in the republic of letters. 鲁迅在文坛上获得崇高的地位。
11 ethnic jiAz3     
  • This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。
  • The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.这一方案很有可能只会加剧种族冲突。
12 laborers c8c6422086151d6c0ae2a95777108e3c     
n.体力劳动者,工人( laborer的名词复数 );(熟练工人的)辅助工
  • Laborers were trained to handle 50-ton compactors and giant cranes. 工人们接受操作五十吨压土机和巨型起重机的训练。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. 雇佣劳动完全是建立在工人的自相竞争之上的。 来自英汉非文学 - 共产党宣言
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