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大学英语精读第六册 Unit 1

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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

             Unit One

Text
    Writing research reports for college or work is often found far more difficult than it need so be. The following article offers some excellent advice on how to make the task easier and the report more impressive and effective. Whether you write a research report for a college professor or for a demanding boss in your profession, the author's advice will put you well on your way to becoming a skillful report writer.

   RESEARCH REPORTS FOR BUSINESS AND-           THECNICAL WRITING
 
                           Wayne Losano
    A surprising amount of one's time as a student and professional is spent reporting the results of one's research projects for presentation to teachers, managers, and clients. Indeed, without basic research skills and the ability to present research results clearly and completely, an individual will encounter many obstacles in school and on the job. The need for some research-writing ability is felt nearly equally by college students in all fields, engineering and science as well as business and the humanities. Graduate study often makes great demands on the student's research-writing skills, and most professions continue the demand; education, advertising1 and marketing2, economics and accounting3, science and engineering, psychology4, anthropology5, the arts, and agriculture may all require regular reporting of research data.
   
ELEMENTS OF THE RESEARCH PAPER
    The standard research report, regardless of the field or the intended reader, contains four major sections. These sections may be broken down into a variety of subsections, and they may be arranged in a variety of ways, but they regularly make up the core of the report.
    Problem Section. The first required section of a research report is the statement of the problem with which the research project is concerned. This section requires a precise statement of the underlying6 question which the researcher has set out to answer. In this same section there should be an explanation of the significance -- social, economic, medical, psychological, educational, etc. -- of the question; in other words, why the investigation7 was worth conducting. Thus, if we set out, for example, to answer the question "What is the effect of regular consumption of fast foods on the health of the American teenager?" we must explain that the question is thought to have significant relevance8 to the health of this segment of the population and might lead to some sort of regulations on such foods.
    A frequent subsection of this problem section is a review of past research on the topic being investigated. This would consist of summaries of the contributions of previous researcher to the question under consideration with some assessment9 of the value of these contributions. This subsection has rhetorical usefulness in that it enhances the credibility of the researcher by indicating that the data presented is based on a thorough knowledge of what has been done in the field and, possibly, grows out of some investigative tradition.
    Procedures Section. The second major section of the research report details, with as much data as possible, exactly how the study was carried out. This section includes description of any necessary equipment, how the subjects were selected if subjects were used, what statistical10 technique was used to evaluate the significance of the findings, how many observations were made and when, etc. An investigation of the relative effectiveness of various swim-strokes would have to detail the number of swimmers tested, the nature of the tests conducted, the experience of the swimmers, the weather conditions at the time of the test, and any other factors that contributed to the overall experiment. The goal of the procedures section is to allow the reader to duplicate the experiment if such were desired to confirm, or refute, your findings.
    Results Section. The third, and perhaps most important, section of the research report is the presentation of the results obtained from the investigation. The basic rule in this section is to give all data relevant to the research question initially11 asked. Although, of course, one's natural tendency might be to suppress any findings which do not in some way support one's hypothesis, such dishonesty is antithetical to good research reporting in any field. If the experiments undertaken fail to prove anything, if the data was inadequate12 or contrary to expectations, the report should be honestly written and as complete as possible, just as it would be if the hypothesis were totally proven by the research.
    Discussion Section. The final required section of a research report is a discussion of the results obtained and a statement of any conclusions which may be drawn13 from those results. Of primary interest in business and technical research reports is the validity of the results as the bases for company decisions: Will our planned construction project meet federal environmental guidelines and be approved for building? Will this new program attract skilled personnel to our company? Will this new oil recovery technique be financially feasible? Thus, the discussion section of the research report must evaluate the research results fully14: were they validly15 obtained, are they complete or limited, are they applicable over a wide range of circumstances? The discussion section should also point out what question remain unanswered and perhaps suggest directions for further research.

STYLE OF RESEARCH REPORTS
    Research reports are considered formal professional communication. As such, there is little emphasis on a lively style, although, of course, there is no objection to writing that is pleasing and interesting. The primary goals of professional communication are accuracy, clarity, and completeness. The rough draft of any research report should be edited to ensure that all data is correctly presented, that all equipment is listed, that all results are properly detailed16. As an aid to the reader, headings indicating at least the major section of the report should be used, and all data should be presented under the proper headings. In addition to their function of suggesting to the reader the contents of each section, headings enhance the formal appearance and professional quality of the report, increase to some degree the writer's credibility by reflecting a logical and methodical approach to the reporting process, and eliminate the need for wordy transitional devices between sections.
    Research data should be presented in a way that places proper emphasis on major aspect of the project. For different readers different aspects will take on different degrees of importance, and some consideration should be given to structuring research reports differently for different audiences. Management, for example, will be most concerned with the results of a research project, and thus the results section should be emphasized, probably by presenting it immediately after the problem section and before the procedures section. Other researchers would be most interested in the procedures section, and this should be highlighted in writing up research projects for publication in professional journals or for presentation at professional conferences. For non-technical readers and federal agencies, the implications of the results might be the most important consideration, and emphasis should be placed on the discussion of the report for this readership.
    For additional clarity and emphasis, major results should be presented in a visual format17 -- tables, charts, graphs, diagrams -- as well as in a verbal one.
    Beyond checking the report for clarity and accuracy in the presentation of technical data, the author of a research report should review for basic grammatical and mechanical accuracy. Short sentences are preferable to long in the presentation of complex information. Listings should be used to break up long passages of prose and to emphasize information. The research writer should try to use the simplest possible language without sacrificing the professional quality of the report. Although specialized18 terms can be used, pretentious19 jargon20 should be avoided. A finished research report should be readable and useful document prepared with the reader in mind.

CONCLUSION
    Although we struggle with research reports in high school, dread21 them in college, and are often burdened by them in our professional live, learning to live comfortably with them is a relatively22 easy task. A positive attitude (i.e. one that seem the oral or written presentation of research results as of equal importance to the data-gathering process); an orderly approach which includes prewriting (i.e., before any actual research is done, the researcher should try to get down on paper as much about the subject under investigation as possible) and a formal research report structure as the framework for the investigation; and a reasonable approach to the actual writing process including editing for accuracy and clarity, will help one to produce effective research reports efficiently23.

             NEW WORDS
    presentation
n.  the act of presenting; a talk, usu. to a group of people 提出,呈递;介绍,报告

    client
n.  a person who gets help or advice from a professional, e.g. a lawyer, an accountant, an architect, etc.; a person who buys goods or services 委托人,当事人,顾客

    obstacle
n.  sth. which prevents action, movement or success

    marketing
n.  the branch of business concerned with advertising, publicity24, etc. 营销

    economics
n.  the science that deals with money, goods and services and how they are related to each other 经济学

    accounting
n.  the art, practice or system of keeping, analyzing25 and interpreting business accounts 会计学

    anthropology
n.  the scientific study of man, including his physical characteristics, the origin and development of races, and the cultures, customs and beliefs of mankind 人类学

    data
n.  facts; information

    element
n.  a basic part of which sth. is made up

    intend
vt. have in mind as a goal; plan

    precise
a.  clearly expressed; exact; accurate

    significance
n.  importance; meaning

    economic
a. connected with trade, industry and the management of money; of economics

    consumption
n.  the act of consuming or an amount consumed 消费(量)

    teenager
n.  a young person of between 13 and 19 year old

    relevance
n.  importance or significance to the matter at hand

    relevant
a.

    segment
n.  a part into which a whole is or can be divided; section

    regulation
n.  a law or a set of rules by which sth. is regulated

    investigate
v.  examine carefully in a search for facts, knowledge, or information

    investigative
a.

    summary
n.  a short statement of the main points of a report, etc.

    consideration
n.  careful thought

    assessment
n.  the act of calculating or deciding the value or amount; the value or amount at which sth. is calculated

    rhetorical
a.  in using a style designed to impress or persuade 修辞(学)的

    enhance
vt. make greater; improve 增加,提高

    thorough
a.  complete in all respects

    tradition
n.  ideas, customs, beliefs that have been passed down from generation to generation

    description
n.  the act of describing sth.; an account in words describing sth.

    subject
n.  a person or thing that is an object of study or experiment 实验对象,试验品

    evaluate
vt. judge the value of

    stroke
n.  a single complete movement that is repeated often, as in swimming

    factor
n.  sth. that helps bring about a result 因素

    overall
a.  including everything; containing all

    duplicate
vt. make an exact copy of

    tendency
n.  an inclination26 to think or behave in a certain way

    hypothesis
n.  idea or suggestion put forward as a staring point for reasoning or explanation 假设

    antithetical
a.  opposite to and unable to exist together with 对立(面)的

    expectation
n.  the act of expecting sth. or sth. that is expected

    validity
n.  truth or soundness; state of legally acceptable 正确(性);合法(性),有效

    valid
a.

    construction
n.  the act of constructing sth. or sth. that is constructed

    federal
a.  of the central government of the USA(美国)联邦政府的

    guideline
n.  (pl.) informal rules or instruction on how sth. should be done

    approve
v.  have a favorable opinion (of); give permission or consent (to)

    skilled
a.  having skill; requiring training and skill

    personnel
n.  all the people who work for a company or organization

    applicable
a.  that can be applied27 (to)

    formal
a.  (of words or style of writing or speaking) suitable for official occasions, serious writing, etc.

    emphasis
n.  special importance given to sth. 强调

    objection
n.  disapproval28 or opposition29; a reason for being against sth.

    pleasing
a.  likable; giving delight or enjoyment30

    accuracy
n.  the condition of being correct and exact.

    clarity
n.  clearness

    draft
n.  a rough sketch31, plan or outline 草稿,草图, 草案

    edit
vt. prepare for publication by checking, correcting and revising 编辑

    ensure
vt. make sure or certain; guarantee

    aid
n.  help; assistance

    heading
n.  a title at the top of a page, chapter, or letter

    methodical
a.  arranged or done according to a clear plan or method; orderly and systematic32

    eliminate
vt. get rid of; remove

    wordy
a.  using too many words

    transitional
a.  of change from one condition, activity or topic to another

    transition  n.

    publication
n.  (the printing and selling of) books, newspapers and magazines

    agency
n.  (esp. AmE) department of a government or an international body

    readership
n.  the particular number or type of people who read a book, newspaper or magazine

    visual
a.  of, relating to, or used in seeing

    format
n.  the way or order in which sth. is arranged or presented

    graph
n.  a mathematical diagram which shows the relationship between two or more sets of numbers or measurement (曲线)图

    diagram
n.  a simple drawing consisting mainly of lines used, for example, to explain how a machine works 简图,图表

    mechanical
a.  concerned with small technical detail 技巧上的,细节上的

    preferable
a.  more desirable or suitable

    listing
n.  an act or instance of making a list

    prose
n.  ordinary written language, in contrast to poetry

    sacrifice
vt. give up, usu. for obtaining sth. for oneself or for others

    specialized
a.  suitable or developed for one particular use

    specialize
v.  adapt for a particular purpose

    pretentious
a.  claming (in an unpleasant way) to have importance, artistic33 value or social rank that one does not really possess 矫饰的,做作的

    jargon
n.  technical words expert use to discuss their subjects 行话

    readable
a.  easy and enjoyable to read

    orderly
a.  arranged in good order, in a well organized and controlled way

    framework
n.  a structure that shapes or supports sth. 框架

              Phrase & Expressions
  on the job
  while working; at work

  break down into
  separate into different kinds; divide into types

  a variety (of)
  a number or collection of different sorts of the same general type

  make up
  form as a whole; constitute

  under consideration
  being discussed; begin given thoughtful attention

  as such
  as being what is indicated or suggested; in itself or in themselves
 
  take on
  begin to have; assume

  write up
  rewrite in a fuller, better organized way; give a full written account of

  get down
  write, record (usu. quickly or with difficulty)

            Proper Names
  Wayne Losano
  韦恩.洛桑诺


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
2 marketing Boez7e     
n.行销,在市场的买卖,买东西
参考例句:
  • They are developing marketing network.他们正在发展销售网络。
  • He often goes marketing.他经常去市场做生意。
3 accounting nzSzsY     
n.会计,会计学,借贷对照表
参考例句:
  • A job fell vacant in the accounting department.财会部出现了一个空缺。
  • There's an accounting error in this entry.这笔账目里有差错。
4 psychology U0Wze     
n.心理,心理学,心理状态
参考例句:
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
5 anthropology zw2zQ     
n.人类学
参考例句:
  • I believe he has started reading up anthropology.我相信他已开始深入研究人类学。
  • Social anthropology is centrally concerned with the diversity of culture.社会人类学主要关于文化多样性。
6 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
7 investigation MRKzq     
n.调查,调查研究
参考例句:
  • In an investigation,a new fact became known, which told against him.在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
  • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation.他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
8 relevance gVAxg     
n.中肯,适当,关联,相关性
参考例句:
  • Politicians' private lives have no relevance to their public roles.政治家的私生活与他们的公众角色不相关。
  • Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法与现代社会完全脱节。
9 assessment vO7yu     
n.评价;评估;对财产的估价,被估定的金额
参考例句:
  • This is a very perceptive assessment of the situation.这是一个对该情况的极富洞察力的评价。
  • What is your assessment of the situation?你对时局的看法如何?
10 statistical bu3wa     
adj.统计的,统计学的
参考例句:
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。
11 initially 273xZ     
adv.最初,开始
参考例句:
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首先遭到美国的反对。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
12 inadequate 2kzyk     
adj.(for,to)不充足的,不适当的
参考例句:
  • The supply is inadequate to meet the demand.供不应求。
  • She was inadequate to the demands that were made on her.她还无力满足对她提出的各项要求。
13 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,紧张的
参考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
14 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
15 validly 30c460913345d1e942a71678193a7cf7     
正当地,妥当地
参考例句:
  • There are many ways of doing science validly appropriate in different situations. 在不同场合有很多种方式正当地搞科学。
  • This may not validly be done. 这个也许得不到有效的处理。
16 detailed xuNzms     
adj.详细的,详尽的,极注意细节的,完全的
参考例句:
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我们的出版物有一份详细的目录备索。
17 format giJxb     
n.设计,版式;[计算机]格式,DOS命令:格式化(磁盘),用于空盘或使用过的磁盘建立新空盘来存储数据;v.使格式化,设计,安排
参考例句:
  • Please format this floppy disc.请将这张软盘格式化。
  • The format of the figure is very tasteful.该图表的格式很雅致。
18 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
19 pretentious lSrz3     
adj.自命不凡的,自负的,炫耀的
参考例句:
  • He is a talented but pretentious writer.他是一个有才华但自命不凡的作家。
  • Speaking well of yourself would only make you appear conceited and pretentious.自夸只会使你显得自负和虚伪。
20 jargon I3sxk     
n.术语,行话
参考例句:
  • They will not hear critics with their horrible jargon.他们不愿意听到评论家们那些可怕的行话。
  • It is important not to be overawed by the mathematical jargon.要紧的是不要被数学的术语所吓倒.
21 dread Ekpz8     
vt.担忧,忧虑;惧怕,不敢;n.担忧,畏惧
参考例句:
  • We all dread to think what will happen if the company closes.我们都不敢去想一旦公司关门我们该怎么办。
  • Her heart was relieved of its blankest dread.她极度恐惧的心理消除了。
22 relatively bkqzS3     
adv.比较...地,相对地
参考例句:
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
23 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
adv.高效率地,有能力地
参考例句:
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
24 publicity ASmxx     
n.众所周知,闻名;宣传,广告
参考例句:
  • The singer star's marriage got a lot of publicity.这位歌星的婚事引起了公众的关注。
  • He dismissed the event as just a publicity gimmick.他不理会这件事,只当它是一种宣传手法。
25 analyzing be408cc8d92ec310bb6260bc127c162b     
v.分析;分析( analyze的现在分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析n.分析
参考例句:
  • Analyzing the date of some socialist countries presents even greater problem s. 分析某些社会主义国家的统计数据,暴露出的问题甚至更大。 来自辞典例句
  • He undoubtedly was not far off the mark in analyzing its predictions. 当然,他对其预测所作的分析倒也八九不离十。 来自辞典例句
26 inclination Gkwyj     
n.倾斜;点头;弯腰;斜坡;倾度;倾向;爱好
参考例句:
  • She greeted us with a slight inclination of the head.她微微点头向我们致意。
  • I did not feel the slightest inclination to hurry.我没有丝毫着急的意思。
27 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
28 disapproval VuTx4     
n.反对,不赞成
参考例句:
  • The teacher made an outward show of disapproval.老师表面上表示不同意。
  • They shouted their disapproval.他们喊叫表示反对。
29 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
30 enjoyment opaxV     
n.乐趣;享有;享用
参考例句:
  • Your company adds to the enjoyment of our visit. 有您的陪同,我们这次访问更加愉快了。
  • After each joke the old man cackled his enjoyment.每逢讲完一个笑话,这老人就呵呵笑着表示他的高兴。
31 sketch UEyyG     
n.草图;梗概;素描;v.素描;概述
参考例句:
  • My sister often goes into the country to sketch. 我姐姐常到乡间去写生。
  • I will send you a slight sketch of the house.我将给你寄去房屋的草图。
32 systematic SqMwo     
adj.有系统的,有计划的,有方法的
参考例句:
  • The way he works isn't very systematic.他的工作不是很有条理。
  • The teacher made a systematic work of teaching.这个教师进行系统的教学工作。
33 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  精读  第六册  unit
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