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大学英语精读第六册 Unit 10

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  Unit Ten
Text
Do animals think? How could the earth show so many signs of design and purpose and yet be random1? Our best scientists are heatedly debating both sides of these and other scientific questions. In the following essay, the author takes a look at science education and argues that as well ass2 telling students the facts and theories that have already been proved and accepted, science teacher should spend more time introducing their students to the many mysteries that remain unsolved and the arguments taking place between scientists. What better way, he argues, to stimulate3 their interest in thing scientific?
DEBATING THE UNKNOWABLE
Lewis Thomas
The greatest of all the accomplishment4 of twentieth-century science has been the discovery of human ignorance. We live, as never before, in puzzlement about nature, the universe, and ourselves most of all. It is a new experience for the species. A century ago, after the turbulence5 caused by Darwin and Wallace had subsided7 and the central idea of natural selection had been grasped and accepted, we thought we knew everything essential about evolution. In the eighteenth century there were no huge puzzles; human reason was all you needed in order to figure out the universe. And for most of the earlier centuries, the Church provided both the questions and the answers, neatly8 packaged. Now, for the first time in human history, we are catching9 glimpses of our incomprehension. We can still make up stories to explain the world, as we always have, but now the stories have to be confirmed and reconfirmed by experiment. This is the scientific method, and once started on this line we cannot turn back. We are obliged to grow up in skepticism, requiring proofs for every assertion about nature, and there is no way out except to move ahead and plug away, hoping for comprehension in the future but living in a condition of intellectual instability for the long time.
It is the admission of ignorance that leads to progress, not so much because the solving of a particular puzzle leads directly to a new piece of understanding but because the puzzle -- if it interests enough scientists -- leads to work. There is a similar phenomenon in entomology know as stigmergy, a term invented by Grasse, which means "to incite10 to work." When three or four termites12 are collected together in a chamber13 they wander about aimlessly, but when more termites are added, they begin to build. It is the presence of other termites, in sufficient numbers at close quarters, that produces the work: they pick up each other's fecal pellets and stack them in neat columns, and when the columns are precisely14 the right height, the termites reach across and turn the perfect arches that form the foundation of the termitarium. No single termite11 knows how to do any of this, but as soon as there are enough termites gathered together they become flawless architects, sensing their distances from each other although blind, building an immensely complicated structure with its own air-conditioning and humidity control. They work their lives away in this ecosystem15 built by themselves. The nearest thing to a termitarium that I can think of in human behavior is the making of language, which we do by keeping at each other all our lives, generation after generation, changing the structure by some sort of instinct.
Very little is understood about this kind of collective behavior. It is out of fashion these days to talk of "superorganisms", but there simply aren't enough reductionist details in hand to explain away the phenomenon of termites and other social insects: some very good guesses can be made about their chemical signaling systems, but the plain fact that they exhibit something like a collective intelligence is a mystery, or anyway an unsolved problem, that might contain important implications for social life in general. This mystery is the best introduction I can think of to biological science in college. It should be taught for its strangeness, and for the ambiguity17 of its meaning. It should be taught to premedical students, who need lessons early n their careers about the uncertainties18 in science.
College students, and for that matter high school students, should be exposed very early, perhaps at the outset, to the big arguments currently going on among scientists. Big arguments stimulate their interest, and with luck engage their absorbed attention. Few things in life are as engrossing20 as a good fight between highly trained and skilled adversaries21. But the young students are told very little about the major disagreements of the day; they may be taught something about the arguments between Darwinians and their opponents a century ago, but they do not realize that similar disputes about other matters, many of them touching22 profound issues for our understanding of nature, are still going on and, indeed, are an essential feature of the scientific process. There is, I fear, a reluctance23 on the part of science teachers to talk about such things, based on the belief that before students can appreciate what the arguments are about they must learn and master the "fundamentals". I would be willing to see some experiments along this line, and I have in mind several examples of contemporary doctrinal dispute in which the drift of the argument can be readily perceived without deep or elaborate knowledge of the subject.
There is, for one, the problem of animal awareness24. One school of ethologists devoted25 to the study of animal behavior has it that human beings are unique in the possession of consciousness, differing from al other creatures in being able to think things over, capitalize on past experience, and hazard informed guesses at the future. Other, "lower", animals (with possible exceptions made for chimpanzees, whales, and dolphins) cannot do such things with their minds; they live from moment to moment with brains that are programmed to respond, automatically or by conditioning, to contingencies26 in the environment, Behavioral psychologists believe that this automatic or conditioned response accounts for human mental activity as well, although they dislike that word "mental". On the other side are some ethologists who seems to be more generous-minded, who see no compelling reasons to doubt that animals in general are quite capable of real thinking and do quite a lot of it —— thinking that isn't as dense27 as human thinking, that is sparser29 because of the lack of language and the resultant lack of metaphors31 to help the thought along, but thinking nonetheless.
The point about this argument is not that one side or the other is in possession of a more powerful array of convincing facts; quite the opposite. There are not enough facts to sustain a genuine debate of any length; the question of animal awareness is an unsettled one.
Another debatable question arises when one contemplates32 the whole biosphere33, the conjoined life of the earth. How could it have turned out to possess such stability and coherence34, resembling as it does a sort of enormous developing embryo35, with nothing but chance events to determine its emergence36? Lovelock and Margulis, facing this problem, have proposed the Gaia Hypothesis, which is, in brief, that the earth is itself a form of life, "a complex entity37 involving the Earth's biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and soil; the totality constituting a feedback or cybernetic system which seeks an optimal38 physical and chemical environment for life on this planet." Lovelock postulates40, in addition, that "the physical and chemical condition of the surface of the Earth, of the atmosphere, and of the oceans has been an is actively41 made fit and comfortable by the presence of life itself."
This notion is beginning to stir up a few signs of storm, and if it catches on, as I think it will, we will soon find the biological community split into fuming42 factions44, one side saying that the evolved biosphere displays evidences of design and purpose, the other decrying46 such heresy47. I believe that students should learn as much as they can about the argument.
One more current battle involving the unknown is between sociobiologists and antisociobiologists, and it is a marvel48 for students to behold49. To observe, in open-mouthed astonishment50, one group of highly intelligent, beautifully trained, knowledgeable51, and imaginative scientists maintaining that all behavior, animal and human, is governed exclusively by genes16, and another group of equally talented scientists asserting that all behaviors is set and determined52 by the environment or by culture, is an educational experience that no college student should be allowed to miss. The essential lesson to be learned has nothing to do with the relative validity of the facts underlying53 the argument. It is the argument itself that is the education: we do not yet know enough to settle such questions.
New Words
debate
vt. argue about (sth.) with sb., discuss
n. a discussion about a subject on which people have different views
unknowable
a. beyond comprehension, esp. beyond human comprehension
puzzlement
n. bewilderment, perplexity
turbulence
n. agitation54; great disturbance55 骚动,纷乱
turbulent a.
subside6
vi. sink to a lower or more normal level; become less
package
vt. wrap or seal in a container, wrappings, etc. to attract purchasers
glimpse
n. a quick view or look
incomprehension
n. lack of comprehension; inability to understand
reconfirm
vt. confirm anew
skepticism
n. a doubting state or habit of mind; doubt
assertion
n. a positive statement; firm declaration
assert
vt. state positively56; declare firmly
instability
n. lack of firmness; being unstable57
admission
n. (an) act of accepting the truth (of sth.)
entomology
n. the branch of zoology58 that deals with insects 昆虫学
incite
vt. cause or encourage sb. to a strong feeling or action; provoke
termite
n. an insect that looks somewhat like white ants and eats the wood of buildings and furniture 白蚁
fecal
a. having to do with feces (waste matter discharged from the intestines)粪便的,排泄物的
column
n. a long, thin, upright structure; pillar; post
arch
n. a curved structure capable of bearing the weight of the material above it 拱
termitarium
n. nest of termites
flawless
a. without a flaw; perfect
flaw
n. a fault or weakness that makes sth. imperfect 瑕疵
air-conditioning
n. the system that uses machines to control the temperature of the air in a room or building
humidity
n. moisture, esp. of the air 湿气;湿度
ecosystem
n. an ecological59 system which relates all the plants, animals and people in an area to their surroundings, considered as a whole 生态系(统)
fashion
n. the popular way of dressing60 or behaving at a certain time
superorganism
n. a group of organisms (as of social insects) that function as a social unit
reductionist
a. having to do with a procedure or theory that reduces complex data or phenomena61 to simple terms
reduction n.
insect
n. a small animal with six les, a body divided into three main parts, and often wings 昆虫
exhibit
vt. show demonstrate
mystery
n. sth. that is not known or understood
unsolved
a. not solved or explained
introduction
n. a written or spoken explanation at the beginning of a book or speech
ambiguity
n. the possibility of two or more meanings; vagueness 模棱两可;意义不明确
ambiguous
a. having more than one possible meaning, permitting more than one possible interpretation62 or explanation
premedical
a. preparing for the study of medicine
outset
n. the beginning
engross19
vt. take up all of; absorb
engrossing
a. (not of a person) very interesting
adversary63
n. a person or group to whom one is opposed; opponent or enemy
adverse64
a. hostile; unfavorable
Darwinian
a. of Charles Darwin or his theory of evolution
dispute
n. a quarrel, disagreement
feature
n. an important part or quality
reluctance
n. unwillingness65
reluctant a.
doctrinal
a. of or having to do with doctrine66
doctrine
n. a principle or set of principles (esp. of a religious or political kind) that is taught 主义;教条,学说
readily
ad. without difficulty, easily; without delay, quickly
perceive
vt. become aware of by seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling or touching; get an understanding of
awareness
n. the quality or state of being aware
ethologist
n. a person who studies ethology (the individual and comparative study of animal behavior, including that of man) (个体)生态学家;行为学家
consciousness
n. the condition being aware and able to understand what is happening; awareness
creature
n. a living person or animal
capitalize
vi. (on) profit by; use to one's own advantage included
hazard
vt. venture; risk
exception
n. the fact of being left out; (a cause of) not being included
chimpanzee
n. a small African ape with dark hair黑猩猩
whale
n. a large sea animal that resembles fish but breathes air 鲸
dolphin
n. a sea animal that has a snout like a beak67 海豚
contingency68
n. a chance happening; uncertain event
automatic
a. done or produced by the body without thought or control
automatically ad.
dislike
vt. consider unpleasant; not like
generous
a. willing to give or share; unselfish 慷慨的
generous-minded a.
sparse28
a. thin; thinly scattered69
resultant
a. happening as an effect; resulting
metaphor30
n. a figure of speech in which two things are compared without using "like" or "as"
nonetheless
ad. in spite of that; nevertheless
sustain
vt. maintain or keep (sth.) going; confirm
genuine
a. real or true; not false
unsettled
a. not yet settled
debatable
a. lending itself to formal debate; having strong points on both sides
biosphere
n. the part of the world in which life can exist 生命层;生物圈
conjoin
vt. cause to join together or unite
coherence
n. natural or reasonable connection; consistency70 连贯;一致性
coherent a.
resemble
vt. be like or similar to
embryo
n. the young of any creature in its first state before birth, or before coming out of an egg 胚胎
emergence
n. the act or fact or emerging
entity
n. sth. That has a real and separate existence; being; existence 实体;存在
totality
n. the state of being whole; completeness
feedback
n. a process in which the factors that produce a result are themselves modified, corrected, strengthened, etc. by that result 反馈
cybernetic
a. of, relating to, or involving cybernetics (控制论)
optimal
a. most favorable; best
optimum
n., a.
postulate39
vt. assume without proof as a basis of reasoning; take for granted
notion
n. an idea, belief or opinion in one's mind; concept
fume71
vi. give off vapor72, gas or smoke; show anger or irritation73
faction43
n. a group or party within a large group 派别
evolve
v. develop gradually by a long continuous process 演化
decry45
vt. express strong disapproval74; cry out against
heresy
n. a belief different from the accepted belief of a church, school, profession or other group 异教;异端
sociobiologist
n. one who studies the biological basis for animal and human social behavior
antisociobiologist n.
behold
vt. have in sight; see
astonishment
n. great surprise; amazement75
astonish vt.
imaginative
a. having or showing a strong imagination
govern
vt. direct or manage; rule; control
Phrases & Expressions
move ahead
go forward
plug away
work persistently76
at close quarters
very near or near together
out of fashion
not popular or approved of
explain away
give a satisfactory reason for; remove objection to by means of a convincing argument
at the outset
at the beginning
on the part of
of or by (sb.)
have it (that)
maintain, assert (that)
think over
think carefully about; consider; study
capitalize on
profit by; make full use of (sth.)
in possession of
having; owing
stir up
excite; stimulate; provoke
catch on
become popular or fashionable
Proper Names
Lewis Thomas
刘易斯.托马斯
Darwin
达尔文
Walace
华莱士
Grasse
格拉斯
Lovelock
洛夫洛克
Margulis
马古利斯
Gaia
盖亚


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 random HT9xd     
adj.随机的;任意的;n.偶然的(或随便的)行动
参考例句:
  • The list is arranged in a random order.名单排列不分先后。
  • On random inspection the meat was found to be bad.经抽查,发现肉变质了。
2 ass qvyzK     
n.驴;傻瓜,蠢笨的人
参考例句:
  • He is not an ass as they make him.他不象大家猜想的那样笨。
  • An ass endures his burden but not more than his burden.驴能负重但不能超过它能力所负担的。
3 stimulate wuSwL     
vt.刺激,使兴奋;激励,使…振奋
参考例句:
  • Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  • Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
4 accomplishment 2Jkyo     
n.完成,成就,(pl.)造诣,技能
参考例句:
  • The series of paintings is quite an accomplishment.这一系列的绘画真是了不起的成就。
  • Money will be crucial to the accomplishment of our objectives.要实现我们的目标,钱是至关重要的。
5 turbulence 8m9wZ     
n.喧嚣,狂暴,骚乱,湍流
参考例句:
  • The turbulence caused the plane to turn over.空气的激流导致飞机翻转。
  • The world advances amidst turbulence.世界在动荡中前进。
6 subside OHyzt     
vi.平静,平息;下沉,塌陷,沉降
参考例句:
  • The emotional reaction which results from a serious accident takes time to subside.严重事故所引起的情绪化的反应需要时间来平息。
  • The controversies surrounding population growth are unlikely to subside soon.围绕着人口增长问题的争论看来不会很快平息。
7 subsided 1bda21cef31764468020a8c83598cc0d     
v.(土地)下陷(因在地下采矿)( subside的过去式和过去分词 );减弱;下降至较低或正常水平;一下子坐在椅子等上
参考例句:
  • After the heavy rains part of the road subsided. 大雨过后,部分公路塌陷了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • By evening the storm had subsided and all was quiet again. 傍晚, 暴风雨已经过去,四周开始沉寂下来。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
8 neatly ynZzBp     
adv.整洁地,干净地,灵巧地,熟练地
参考例句:
  • Sailors know how to wind up a long rope neatly.水手们知道怎样把一条大绳利落地缠好。
  • The child's dress is neatly gathered at the neck.那孩子的衣服在领口处打着整齐的皱褶。
9 catching cwVztY     
adj.易传染的,有魅力的,迷人的,接住
参考例句:
  • There are those who think eczema is catching.有人就是认为湿疹会传染。
  • Enthusiasm is very catching.热情非常富有感染力。
10 incite kx4yv     
v.引起,激动,煽动
参考例句:
  • I wanted to point out he was a very good speaker, and could incite a crowd.我想说明他曾是一个非常出色的演讲家,非常会调动群众的情绪。
  • Just a few words will incite him into action.他只需几句话一将,就会干。
11 termite npTwE     
n.白蚁
参考例句:
  • The termite control was also probed into further in this text.本文还进一步探讨了白蚁的防治方法。
  • Termite often destroys wood.白蚁经常破坏树木。
12 termites 8ee357110f82dc8b267190e430924662     
n.白蚁( termite的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Termites are principally tropical in distribution. 白蚁主要分布在热带地区。 来自辞典例句
  • This spray will exterminate the termites. 这种喷剂能消灭白蚁。 来自辞典例句
13 chamber wnky9     
n.房间,寝室;会议厅;议院;会所
参考例句:
  • For many,the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber.对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
  • The chamber was ablaze with light.会议厅里灯火辉煌。
14 precisely zlWzUb     
adv.恰好,正好,精确地,细致地
参考例句:
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
15 ecosystem Wq4xz     
n.生态系统
参考例句:
  • This destroyed the ecosystem of the island.这样破坏了岛上的生态系统。
  • We all have an interest in maintaining the integrity of the ecosystem.维持生态系统的完整是我们共同的利益。
16 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
17 ambiguity 9xWzT     
n.模棱两可;意义不明确
参考例句:
  • The telegram was misunderstood because of its ambiguity.由于电文意义不明确而造成了误解。
  • Her answer was above all ambiguity.她的回答毫不含糊。
18 uncertainties 40ee42d4a978cba8d720415c7afff06a     
无把握( uncertainty的名词复数 ); 不确定; 变化不定; 无把握、不确定的事物
参考例句:
  • One of the uncertainties of military duty is that you never know when you might suddenly get posted away. 任军职不稳定的因素之一是你永远不知道什么时候会突然被派往它处。
  • Uncertainties affecting peace and development are on the rise. 影响和平与发展的不确定因素在增加。 来自汉英非文学 - 十六大报告
19 engross 0ZEzS     
v.使全神贯注
参考例句:
  • I go into bookshops and engross myself in diet books and cookbooks.我走进书店,聚精会神地读关于饮食的书以及食谱。
  • If there was one piece of advice I would offer to improve your reading rate it would be simply to engross yourself in the material you are studying.如果让我给你一个忠告来提高你的阅读速度的话,那就是全神贯注的研究你的资料。
20 engrossing YZ8zR     
adj.使人全神贯注的,引人入胜的v.使全神贯注( engross的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • He told us an engrossing story. 他给我们讲了一个引人入胜的故事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • It might soon have ripened into that engrossing feeling. 很快便会发展成那种压倒一切的感情的。 来自辞典例句
21 adversaries 5e3df56a80cf841a3387bd9fd1360a22     
n.对手,敌手( adversary的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • That would cause potential adversaries to recoil from a challenge. 这会迫使潜在的敌人在挑战面前退缩。 来自辞典例句
  • Every adversaries are more comfortable with a predictable, coherent America. 就连敌人也会因有可以预料的,始终一致的美国而感到舒服得多。 来自辞典例句
22 touching sg6zQ9     
adj.动人的,使人感伤的
参考例句:
  • It was a touching sight.这是一幅动人的景象。
  • His letter was touching.他的信很感人。
23 reluctance 8VRx8     
n.厌恶,讨厌,勉强,不情愿
参考例句:
  • The police released Andrew with reluctance.警方勉强把安德鲁放走了。
  • He showed the greatest reluctance to make a reply.他表示很不愿意答复。
24 awareness 4yWzdW     
n.意识,觉悟,懂事,明智
参考例句:
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人们普遍认识到吸烟有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.这些年来人们的环境意识增强了。
25 devoted xu9zka     
adj.忠诚的,忠实的,热心的,献身于...的
参考例句:
  • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他为祖国的教育事业贡献了一生。
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我们对这个题目进行了长时间的充分讨论。
26 contingencies ae3107a781f5a432c8e43398516126af     
n.偶然发生的事故,意外事故( contingency的名词复数 );以备万一
参考例句:
  • We must consider all possible contingencies. 我们必须考虑一切可能发生的事。
  • We must be prepared for all contingencies. 我们要作好各种准备,以防意外。 来自辞典例句
27 dense aONzX     
a.密集的,稠密的,浓密的;密度大的
参考例句:
  • The general ambushed his troops in the dense woods. 将军把部队埋伏在浓密的树林里。
  • The path was completely covered by the dense foliage. 小路被树叶厚厚地盖了一层。
28 sparse SFjzG     
adj.稀疏的,稀稀落落的,薄的
参考例句:
  • The teacher's house is in the suburb where the houses are sparse.老师的家在郊区,那里稀稀拉拉有几处房子。
  • The sparse vegetation will only feed a small population of animals.稀疏的植物只够喂养少量的动物。
29 sparser d2f0ed212c015018ea678c104b0b1073     
adj.稀疏的,稀少的( sparse的比较级 )
参考例句:
30 metaphor o78zD     
n.隐喻,暗喻
参考例句:
  • Using metaphor,we say that computers have senses and a memory.打个比方,我们可以说计算机有感觉和记忆力。
  • In poetry the rose is often a metaphor for love.玫瑰在诗中通常作为爱的象征。
31 metaphors 83e73a88f6ce7dc55e75641ff9fe3c41     
隐喻( metaphor的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • I can only represent it to you by metaphors. 我只能用隐喻来向你描述它。
  • Thus, She's an angel and He's a lion in battle are metaphors. 因此她是天使,他是雄狮都是比喻说法。
32 contemplates 53d303de2b68f50ff5360cd5a92df87d     
深思,细想,仔细考虑( contemplate的第三人称单数 ); 注视,凝视; 考虑接受(发生某事的可能性); 深思熟虑,沉思,苦思冥想
参考例句:
  • She contemplates leaving for the sake of the kids. 她考虑为了孩子而离开。
  • Beauty in things exists in the mind which contemplates them. 事物的美存在于细心观察它的人的头脑中。
33 biosphere 5Ryyu     
n.生命层,生物圈
参考例句:
  • The entire biosphere was becoming more transparent.整个生物圈越来越透明。
  • The impact of modern technology on the biosphere is evident worldwide.现代技术对生物圈的影响在全世界是明显的。
34 coherence jWGy3     
n.紧凑;连贯;一致性
参考例句:
  • There was no coherence between the first and the second half of the film.这部电影的前半部和后半部没有连贯性。
  • Environmental education is intended to give these topics more coherence.环境教育的目的是使这些课题更加息息相关。
35 embryo upAxt     
n.胚胎,萌芽的事物
参考例句:
  • They are engaging in an embryo research.他们正在进行一项胚胎研究。
  • The project was barely in embryo.该计划只是个雏形。
36 emergence 5p3xr     
n.浮现,显现,出现,(植物)突出体
参考例句:
  • The last decade saw the emergence of a dynamic economy.最近10年见证了经济增长的姿态。
  • Language emerges and develops with the emergence and development of society.语言是随着社会的产生而产生,随着社会的发展而发展的。
37 entity vo8xl     
n.实体,独立存在体,实际存在物
参考例句:
  • The country is no longer one political entity.这个国家不再是一个统一的政治实体了。
  • As a separate legal entity,the corporation must pay taxes.作为一个独立的法律实体,公司必须纳税。
38 optimal zmDzhM     
adj.最适宜的;最理想的;最令人满意的
参考例句:
  • What is the optimal mix of private and public property rights in natural resources?私人和国家的自然资源产权的最适宜的组合是什么?
  • Optimal path planning is a key link for the sailing contest.帆船最优行驶路径规划是帆船比赛取胜的关键环节。
39 postulate oiwy2     
n.假定,基本条件;vt.要求,假定
参考例句:
  • Let's postulate that she is a cook.我们假定她是一位厨师。
  • Freud postulated that we all have a death instinct as well as a life instinct.弗洛伊德曾假定我们所有人都有生存本能和死亡本能。
40 postulates a2e60978b0d3ff36cce5760c726afc83     
v.假定,假设( postulate的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • They proclaimed to be eternal postulates of reason and justice. 他们宣称这些原则是理性和正义的永恒的要求。 来自辞典例句
  • The school building programme postulates an increase in educational investment. 修建校舍的计画是在增加教育经费的前提下拟定的。 来自辞典例句
41 actively lzezni     
adv.积极地,勤奋地
参考例句:
  • During this period all the students were actively participating.在这节课中所有的学生都积极参加。
  • We are actively intervening to settle a quarrel.我们正在积极调解争执。
42 fuming 742478903447fcd48a40e62f9540a430     
愤怒( fume的现在分词 ); 大怒; 发怒; 冒烟
参考例句:
  • She sat in the car, silently fuming at the traffic jam. 她坐在汽车里,心中对交通堵塞感到十分恼火。
  • I was fuming at their inefficiency. 我正因为他们效率低而发火。
43 faction l7ny7     
n.宗派,小集团;派别;派系斗争
参考例句:
  • Faction and self-interest appear to be the norm.派系之争和自私自利看来非常普遍。
  • I now understood clearly that I was caught between the king and the Bunam's faction.我现在完全明白自己已陷入困境,在国王与布纳姆集团之间左右为难。
44 factions 4b94ab431d5bc8729c89bd040e9ab892     
组织中的小派别,派系( faction的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The gens also lives on in the "factions." 氏族此外还继续存在于“factions〔“帮”〕中。 来自英汉非文学 - 家庭、私有制和国家的起源
  • rival factions within the administration 政府中的对立派别
45 decry XnOzV     
v.危难,谴责
参考例句:
  • Some people will decry this,insisting that President Obama should have tried harder to gain bipartisan support.有些人会对此表示谴责,坚持说奥巴马总统原本应该更加努力获得两党的支持。
  • Now you decry him as another Hitler because he is a threat to the controlling interest of oil in the middle east.现在你却因为他对中东石油控制权益构成了威胁而谴责他为另一个希特勒。
46 decrying 1b34819af654ee4b1f6ab02103d1cd2f     
v.公开反对,谴责( decry的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • Soon Chinese Internet users, including government agencies, were decrying the' poisonous panda. 不久,中国网民以及政府机构纷纷谴责“影响极坏的熊猫烧香”。 来自互联网
  • Democratic leaders are decrying President Bush's plan to indefinitely halt troop withdrawals from Iraq after July. 民主党领导公开谴责布什总统七月后无限停止从伊拉克撤兵的举动。 来自互联网
47 heresy HdDza     
n.异端邪说;异教
参考例句:
  • We should denounce a heresy.我们应该公开指责异端邪说。
  • It might be considered heresy to suggest such a notion.提出这样一个观点可能会被视为异端邪说。
48 marvel b2xyG     
vi.(at)惊叹vt.感到惊异;n.令人惊异的事
参考例句:
  • The robot is a marvel of modern engineering.机器人是现代工程技术的奇迹。
  • The operation was a marvel of medical skill.这次手术是医术上的一个奇迹。
49 behold jQKy9     
v.看,注视,看到
参考例句:
  • The industry of these little ants is wonderful to behold.这些小蚂蚁辛勤劳动的样子看上去真令人惊叹。
  • The sunrise at the seaside was quite a sight to behold.海滨日出真是个奇景。
50 astonishment VvjzR     
n.惊奇,惊异
参考例句:
  • They heard him give a loud shout of astonishment.他们听见他惊奇地大叫一声。
  • I was filled with astonishment at her strange action.我对她的奇怪举动不胜惊异。
51 knowledgeable m2Yxg     
adj.知识渊博的;有见识的
参考例句:
  • He's quite knowledgeable about the theatre.他对戏剧很有心得。
  • He made some knowledgeable remarks at the meeting.他在会上的发言颇有见地。
52 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
53 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
54 agitation TN0zi     
n.搅动;搅拌;鼓动,煽动
参考例句:
  • Small shopkeepers carried on a long agitation against the big department stores.小店主们长期以来一直在煽动人们反对大型百货商店。
  • These materials require constant agitation to keep them in suspension.这些药剂要经常搅动以保持悬浮状态。
55 disturbance BsNxk     
n.动乱,骚动;打扰,干扰;(身心)失调
参考例句:
  • He is suffering an emotional disturbance.他的情绪受到了困扰。
  • You can work in here without any disturbance.在这儿你可不受任何干扰地工作。
56 positively vPTxw     
adv.明确地,断然,坚决地;实在,确实
参考例句:
  • She was positively glowing with happiness.她满脸幸福。
  • The weather was positively poisonous.这天气着实讨厌。
57 unstable Ijgwa     
adj.不稳定的,易变的
参考例句:
  • This bookcase is too unstable to hold so many books.这书橱很不结实,装不了这么多书。
  • The patient's condition was unstable.那患者的病情不稳定。
58 zoology efJwZ     
n.动物学,生态
参考例句:
  • I would like to brush up my zoology.我想重新温习一下动物学。
  • The library didn't stock zoology textbooks.这家图书馆没有动物学教科书。
59 ecological IrRxX     
adj.生态的,生态学的
参考例句:
  • The region has been declared an ecological disaster zone.这个地区已经宣布为生态灾难区。
  • Each animal has its ecological niche.每种动物都有自己的生态位.
60 dressing 1uOzJG     
n.(食物)调料;包扎伤口的用品,敷料
参考例句:
  • Don't spend such a lot of time in dressing yourself.别花那么多时间来打扮自己。
  • The children enjoy dressing up in mother's old clothes.孩子们喜欢穿上妈妈旧时的衣服玩。
61 phenomena 8N9xp     
n.现象
参考例句:
  • Ade couldn't relate the phenomena with any theory he knew.艾德无法用他所知道的任何理论来解释这种现象。
  • The object of these experiments was to find the connection,if any,between the two phenomena.这些实验的目的就是探索这两种现象之间的联系,如果存在着任何联系的话。
62 interpretation P5jxQ     
n.解释,说明,描述;艺术处理
参考例句:
  • His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  • Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
63 adversary mxrzt     
adj.敌手,对手
参考例句:
  • He saw her as his main adversary within the company.他将她视为公司中主要的对手。
  • They will do anything to undermine their adversary's reputation.他们会不择手段地去损害对手的名誉。
64 adverse 5xBzs     
adj.不利的;有害的;敌对的,不友好的
参考例句:
  • He is adverse to going abroad.他反对出国。
  • The improper use of medicine could lead to severe adverse reactions.用药不当会产生严重的不良反应。
65 unwillingness 0aca33eefc696aef7800706b9c45297d     
n. 不愿意,不情愿
参考例句:
  • Her unwillingness to answer questions undermined the strength of her position. 她不愿回答问题,这不利于她所处的形势。
  • His apparent unwillingness would disappear if we paid him enough. 如果我们付足了钱,他露出的那副不乐意的神情就会消失。
66 doctrine Pkszt     
n.教义;主义;学说
参考例句:
  • He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine.他不得不宣扬他的教义。
  • The council met to consider changes to doctrine.宗教议会开会考虑更改教义。
67 beak 8y1zGA     
n.鸟嘴,茶壶嘴,钩形鼻
参考例句:
  • The bird had a worm in its beak.鸟儿嘴里叼着一条虫。
  • This bird employs its beak as a weapon.这种鸟用嘴作武器。
68 contingency vaGyi     
n.意外事件,可能性
参考例句:
  • We should be prepared for any contingency.我们应该对任何应急情况有所准备。
  • A fire in our warehouse was a contingency that we had not expected.库房的一场大火是我们始料未及的。
69 scattered 7jgzKF     
adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
参考例句:
  • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散乱的文件收拾起来,塞进文件夹里。
70 consistency IY2yT     
n.一贯性,前后一致,稳定性;(液体的)浓度
参考例句:
  • Your behaviour lacks consistency.你的行为缺乏一贯性。
  • We appreciate the consistency and stability in China and in Chinese politics.我们赞赏中国及其政策的连续性和稳定性。
71 fume 5Qqzp     
n.(usu pl.)(浓烈或难闻的)烟,气,汽
参考例句:
  • The pressure of fume in chimney increases slowly from top to bottom.烟道内压力自上而下逐渐增加,底层住户的排烟最为不利。
  • Your harsh words put her in a fume.你那些难听的话使她生气了。
72 vapor DHJy2     
n.蒸汽,雾气
参考例句:
  • The cold wind condenses vapor into rain.冷风使水蒸气凝结成雨。
  • This new machine sometimes transpires a lot of hot vapor.这部机器有时排出大量的热气。
73 irritation la9zf     
n.激怒,恼怒,生气
参考例句:
  • He could not hide his irritation that he had not been invited.他无法掩饰因未被邀请而生的气恼。
  • Barbicane said nothing,but his silence covered serious irritation.巴比康什么也不说,但是他的沉默里潜伏着阴郁的怒火。
74 disapproval VuTx4     
n.反对,不赞成
参考例句:
  • The teacher made an outward show of disapproval.老师表面上表示不同意。
  • They shouted their disapproval.他们喊叫表示反对。
75 amazement 7zlzBK     
n.惊奇,惊讶
参考例句:
  • All those around him looked at him with amazement.周围的人都对他投射出惊异的眼光。
  • He looked at me in blank amazement.他带着迷茫惊诧的神情望着我。
76 persistently MlzztP     
ad.坚持地;固执地
参考例句:
  • He persistently asserted his right to a share in the heritage. 他始终声称他有分享那笔遗产的权利。
  • She persistently asserted her opinions. 她果断地说出了自己的意见。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  精读  第六册  unit
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