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历年考研英语阅读理解mp3(07-1)

时间:2008-10-13 08:15来源:互联网 提供网友:流畅   字体: [ ]
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[00:00.02]2007年黑暗版阅读历年真题解析第一篇
[00:00.04]在线英语听力室(
www.tingroom.com)
[00:03.02]If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player
[00:07.60]in 2006’s World Cup tournament,
[00:10.55]you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk:
[00:13.48]elite soccer players are more likely to have been born
[00:17.05]in the earlier months of the year than in the later months.
[00:19.34]If you then examined the European national youth teams
[00:24.05]that feed the World Cup and professional ranks,
[00:27.21]you would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced.
[00:31.46]What might account for this strange phenomenon? Here are a few guesses:
[00:37.05]a) certain astrological signs confer superior soccer skills;
[00:44.06]b) winter-born babies tend to have higher oxygen capacity,
[00:50.24]which increases soccer stamina;
[00:52.89]c) soccer-mad parents are more likely to conceive children in springtime,
[01:00.41]at the annual peak of soccer mania;
[01:02.99]d) none of the above.
[01:06.93]Anders Ericsson, a 58-year-old psychology1 professor
[01:12.81]at Florida State University,
[01:15.42]says he believes strongly in “none of the above.”
[01:19.07]Ericsson grew up in Sweden,
[01:21.53]and studied nuclear engineering until he realized
[01:24.97]he would have more opportunity
[01:27.02]to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology.
[01:31.33]His first experiment,
[01:33.22]nearly 30 years ago, involved memory:
[01:37.02]training a person to hear and then repeat a random2 series of numbers.
[01:41.73]“With the first subject, after about 20 hours of training,
[01:46.31]his digit3 span had risen from 7 to 20,” Ericsson recalls.
[01:53.26]“He kept improving, and after about 200 hours of training
[01:57.98]he had risen to over 80 numbers.”
[02:01.12]This success, coupled with later research showing that
[02:05.96]memory itself is not genetically4 determined,
[02:10.00]led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing
[02:14.14]is more of a cognitive5 exercise than an intuitive one.
[02:19.03]In other words, whatever inborn6 differences two people may exhibit
[02:23.75]in their abilities to memorize,
[02:25.94]those differences are swamped by how well each person “encodes” the information.
[02:32.14]And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully,
[02:36.13]Ericsson determined,was a process known as deliberate practice.
[02:42.12]Deliberate practice entails7 more than simply repeating a task.
[02:48.42]Rather, it involves setting specific goals,
[02:52.03]obtaining immediate8 feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.
[02:58.87]Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers
[03:04.79]in a wide range of pursuits, including soccer.
[03:09.60]They gather all the data they can,
[03:12.51]not just performance statistics and biographical details
[03:16.70]but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers.
[03:21.82]Their work makes a rather startling assertion:
[03:25.75]the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated.
[03:31.32]Or, put another way, expert performers—whether in memory or surgery,
[03:37.77]ballet or computer programming—are nearly always made, not born.


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1 psychology U0Wze     
n.心理,心理学,心理状态
参考例句:
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
2 random HT9xd     
adj.随机的;任意的;n.偶然的(或随便的)行动
参考例句:
  • The list is arranged in a random order.名单排列不分先后。
  • On random inspection the meat was found to be bad.经抽查,发现肉变质了。
3 digit avKxY     
n.零到九的阿拉伯数字,手指,脚趾
参考例句:
  • Her telephone number differs from mine by one digit.她的电话号码和我的只差一个数字。
  • Many animals have five digits.许多动物有5趾。
4 genetically Lgixo     
adv.遗传上
参考例句:
  • All the bees in the colony are genetically related. 同一群体的蜜蜂都有亲缘关系。
  • Genetically modified foods have already arrived on American dinner tables. 经基因改造加工过的食物已端上了美国人的餐桌。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 基因与食物
5 cognitive Uqwz0     
adj.认知的,认识的,有感知的
参考例句:
  • As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
  • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
6 inborn R4wyc     
adj.天生的,生来的,先天的
参考例句:
  • He is a man with an inborn love of joke.他是一个生来就喜欢开玩笑的人。
  • He had an inborn talent for languages.他有语言天分。
7 entails bc08bbfc5f8710441959edc8dadcb925     
使…成为必要( entail的第三人称单数 ); 需要; 限定继承; 使必需
参考例句:
  • The job entails a lot of hard work. 这工作需要十分艰苦的努力。
  • This job entails a lot of hard work. 这项工作需要十分努力。
8 immediate aapxh     
adj.立即的;直接的,最接近的;紧靠的
参考例句:
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。
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TAG标签:   考研英语  阅读理解
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