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SSS 2011-06-01

时间:2011-07-06 01:10来源:互联网 提供网友:gmeng   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

This is Scientific American's 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin. This will just take a minute.

Meatloaf, mac-and-cheese or a big bowl of mashed1 potatoes. We all have our comfort foods. Except for people with anorexia2. Food makes them extremely uncomfortable. Perhaps because eating causes a change in brain chemistry that instead of bringing pleasure makes anorectics feel anxious. That's according to a study in the International Journal of Eating Disorders4.

For most people, breaking bread makes them feel good. That's because consuming food stimulates5 the release of dopamine, a chemical that tickles6 the pleasure centers of the brain. But for people with anorexia, meals are fraught7 with anxiety. So much so that some of these women, and the disease affects mostly women, actually diet themselves to death. But how could biology promote such behavior?

To find out, scientists gave volunteers a single dose of amphetamine, a drug that gets the dopamine flowing, and then looked at their brains. In women without an eating disorder3, the boost in dopamine acted as expected, lighting8 up the brain's pleasure centers. But in women with anorexia, dopamine flooded a part of the brain that worries about consequences, thus fueling their anxiety. Seeing where this anxiety comes from could be the first step to help making it disappear.

Thanks for the minute. For Scientific American's 60-Second Science, I'm Karen Hopkin.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 mashed Jotz5Y     
a.捣烂的
参考例句:
  • two scoops of mashed potato 两勺土豆泥
  • Just one scoop of mashed potato for me, please. 请给我盛一勺土豆泥。
2 anorexia PwozK     
n.厌食症
参考例句:
  • Anorexia can creep up on young girls when they least expect it.年轻女子可能在最没有防备的情況下患上厌食症。
  • Anorexia is a common eating disorder.厌食是一种常见的饮食紊乱症。
3 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
4 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 stimulates 7384b1562fa5973e17b0984305c09f3e     
v.刺激( stimulate的第三人称单数 );激励;使兴奋;起兴奋作用,起刺激作用,起促进作用
参考例句:
  • Exercise stimulates the body. 运动促进身体健康。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Alcohol stimulates the action of the heart. 酒刺激心脏的活动。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
6 tickles b3378a1317ba9a2cef2e9e262649d607     
(使)发痒( tickle的第三人称单数 ); (使)愉快,逗乐
参考例句:
  • My foot [nose] tickles. 我的脚[鼻子]痒。
  • My nose tickles from the dust and I want to scratch it. 我的鼻子受灰尘的刺激发痒,很想搔它。
7 fraught gfpzp     
adj.充满…的,伴有(危险等)的;忧虑的
参考例句:
  • The coming months will be fraught with fateful decisions.未来数月将充满重大的决定。
  • There's no need to look so fraught!用不着那么愁眉苦脸的!
8 lighting CpszPL     
n.照明,光线的明暗,舞台灯光
参考例句:
  • The gas lamp gradually lost ground to electric lighting.煤气灯逐渐为电灯所代替。
  • The lighting in that restaurant is soft and romantic.那个餐馆照明柔和而且浪漫。
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