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听电影学英语-食品公司 05

时间:2011-03-29 06:23来源:互联网 提供网友:xy1584   字体: [ ]

  [00:04.98]Roush: We produced a lot of corn 我们生产大量玉米
[00:06.14]and they came up with uses for it. 他们决定怎样使用这些玉米
[00:12.14]Larry Johnson: We are now engineering our foods. 我们掌握了改良食物的方法
[00:15.02]We know where to turn to for certain traits 我们知道某些食物特殊的性质从何而来
[00:17.02]like mouth feel and flavor. 例如口感和味道
[00:21.02]and engineer new foods 就可以改造出新的食物
[00:23.70]that don’t stale in the refrigerator, 放在冰箱里不会变味的食物
[00:27.06]don’t develop rancidity. 不会腐坏的食物
[00:27.74]Of course the biggest advance in recent years 当然,近年来最大的进步
[00:33.22]was high-fructose corn syrup1. 莫过于高果糖含量的玉米糖浆
[00:35.74]You know, I would venture to guess 信不信由你,我敢说
[00:37.10]if you go and look on the supermarket shelf, 如果你去超级市场里看看
[00:41.10]I’ll bet you 90% of them 我敢打赌,90%的食品
[00:43.10]would contain either a corn or soybean ingredient, 里面都有玉米或大豆的原料
[00:46.14]and most of the time will contain both. 而且很多时候两种都有
[01:06.38]Pollan: Corn is the great raw material. 玉米是万能的原材料
[01:06.86]You get that big fat kernel2 of starch3 把它富含淀粉的核
[01:09.70]and you can break that down and reassemble it. 分解然后重组
[01:11.06]You can make high-fructose corn syrup. 可以制作高果糖含量的玉米糖浆
[01:13.06]You can make maltodextrin 可以制作麦芽黄素
[01:16.58]and diglycerides and xanthan gum 双甘油和黄原胶
[01:18.94]and ascorbic acid. 还有抗坏血酸(维生素C)
[01:20.94]All those obscure ingredients on the processed food-- 所有这些名字晦涩难懂的食品原料
[01:21.94]it’s remarkable4 how many of them can be made from corn. 都是用神奇的玉米生产的
[01:25.62]Plus, you can feed it to animals. 而且,你还可以用它喂禽畜
[01:27.46]Roush: Corn is the main component5 in feed ingredients 玉米是动物饲料的主要原料
[01:33.14]whether it’s chicken, hogs6, cattle-- you name it. 鸡,猪,牛,只要你说得出都可以
[01:37.82]whether we’re eating the tilapia or the farmed salmon7. 无论是罗非鱼还是饲养的三文鱼
[01:42.70]We’re teaching fish how to eat corn. 我们在教鱼怎么吃玉米
[01:48.54]The fact that we had so much cheap corn 正是因为我们有这么多便宜的玉米
[01:50.38]really allowed us to drive down the price of meat. 肉类的价格才得以降低
[01:55.58]I mean, the average American is eating over 200 lbs 我是说,每个美国人平均每年
[01:58.90]of meat per person per year. 吃超过200磅的肉
[01:59.10]That wouldn’t be possible 如果我们没有给禽畜喂食便宜的饲料
[02:01.10]had we not fed them this diet of cheap grain. 根本不可能生产这么多的肉类
[02:07.14]Since you’re selling corn at below the price of production, 由于玉米的销售价格低于成本
[02:10.98]the feedlot operator can buy corn 禽畜饲养者可以买到

  [02:16.14]at a fraction of what it costs to grow, 价格仅为种植成本一部分的玉米
[02:18.14]so that all the animals are sucked off 因此在美国中西部的农场里
[02:19.18]of all the farms in the Midwest. 家禽家畜才可以吃得饱
[02:24.34]There is a spiderweb 美国已经建立起了
[02:27.18]of roads and train tracks 全国性的铁路和公路网络
[02:28.70]all around the country moving corn 用于把玉米从原产地
[02:31.54]from where it’s being grown to these CAFOs. 运送到这些集约式禽畜饲养场
[02:42.58]Cows are not designed by evolution to eat corn. 牛原本不是吃玉米的
[02:44.58]They’re designed by evolution to eat grass. 而是吃草的
[02:48.46]And the only reason we feed them corn 我们用玉米喂牛
[02:50.46]is because corn is really cheap 只是因为玉米实在便宜
[02:50.98]and corn makes them fat quickly. 而且可以让牛长得快
[02:55.94]ALLEN TRENKLE:反刍动物营养专家 爱荷华州立大学
[03:04.18]Man: Where are you putting your hand? 你把手伸到哪里?
[03:05.34]I’m actually inside the rumen-- 这是瘤胃
[03:10.02]that first compartment8 of the stomach. 牛4个胃的第一个
[03:13.54]And it’s-- 这是
[03:15.54]it’s not-- 不对
[03:17.58]it’s kind of hard to see. 不是很容易看得到
[03:19.26]You can see the liquid part here. 你可以看到这些液体
[03:22.42]Man: Wow. 哇
[03:26.78]- Does that hurt the cow? - No. -这会对牛造成伤害吗? -不会的
[03:28.10]There’s microorganisms-- 瘤胃里有微生物
[03:32.46]bacteria in the rumen, millions of ’em. 还有细菌,数量很多
[03:32.62]The animals evolved 牛的胃部构造
[03:37.46]on consuming grass. 是为了消化草而形成的
[03:38.50]There’s some research that indicates 有部分研究表明
[03:40.50]that a high-corn diet results in 玉米为主的饲料,会造成
[03:44.50]E. coli that are acid-resistant. 抗酸的埃舍利希氏大肠杆菌增加
[03:48.02]And these would be the more harmful E. coli. 这些细菌的危害性变得更大
[03:56.22]Pollan: So you feed corn to cattle 因此,用玉米喂牛
[03:58.22]and E. coli, which is a very common bug9, evolves, 使得这种常见细菌逐渐进化
[04:02.58]a certain mutation10 occurs 发生某些变异
[04:03.94]and a strain called the "E. coli 0157:h7" 导致"O157-H7型埃舍利希氏大肠杆菌"
[04:08.62]appears on the world stage. 这个新的细菌种群在全球出现
[04:10.94]And it’s a product of the diet we’re feeding cattle on feedlots 这是饲养场用玉米喂牛导致的后果
[04:16.62]and it’s a product of feedlot life. 也是这种经营方式导致的后果
[04:18.98]The animals stand ankle deep 这些家畜整天站在
[04:20.98]in their manure11 all day long. 深及脚踝的粪便里
[04:24.82]So if one cow has it, 只要一头牛感染了
[04:26.86]the other cows will get it. 其他牛也会感染
[04:31.02]When they get to the slaughterhouse, 当它们被送去屠宰时
[04:33.02]their hides are caked with manure. 粪便粘它们的皮肤上
[04:36.38]And if the slaughterhouse is slaughtering12 而如果屠宰场每天

  [04:36.90]400 animals an hour, 宰杀400头牛
[04:37.74]how do you keep that manure 又怎么能保证屠宰好的肉上
[04:42.42]from getting onto those carcasses? 不会沾上粪便呢?
[04:44.26]And that’s how the manure gets in the meat. 肉类就是这样被粪便污染
[04:49.10]And now this thing that wasn’t in the world 这些本不该在世上存在的东西
[04:51.10]is in the food system. 就存在于食品供应系统里


1 syrup hguzup     
  • I skimmed the foam from the boiling syrup.我撇去了煮沸糖浆上的泡沫。
  • Tinned fruit usually has a lot of syrup with it.罐头水果通常都有许多糖浆。
2 kernel f3wxW     
  • The kernel of his problem is lack of money.他的问题的核心是缺钱。
  • The nutshell includes the kernel.果壳裹住果仁。
3 starch YrAyK     
  • Corn starch is used as a thickener in stews.玉米淀粉在炖煮菜肴中被用作增稠剂。
  • I think there's too much starch in their diet.我看是他们的饮食里淀粉太多了。
4 remarkable 8Vbx6     
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
5 component epSzv     
  • Each component is carefully checked before assembly.每个零件在装配前都经过仔细检查。
  • Blade and handle are the component parts of a knife.刀身和刀柄是一把刀的组成部分。
6 hogs 8a3a45e519faa1400d338afba4494209     
n.(尤指喂肥供食用的)猪( hog的名词复数 );(供食用的)阉公猪;彻底地做某事;自私的或贪婪的人
  • 'sounds like -- like hogs grunting. “像——像是猪发出的声音。 来自英汉文学 - 汤姆历险
  • I hate the way he hogs down his food. 我讨厌他那副狼吞虎咽的吃相。 来自辞典例句
7 salmon pClzB     
  • We saw a salmon jumping in the waterfall there.我们看见一条大马哈鱼在那边瀑布中跳跃。
  • Do you have any fresh salmon in at the moment?现在有新鲜大马哈鱼卖吗?
8 compartment dOFz6     
  • We were glad to have the whole compartment to ourselves.真高兴,整个客车隔间由我们独享。
  • The batteries are safely enclosed in a watertight compartment.电池被安全地置于一个防水的隔间里。
9 bug 5skzf     
  • There is a bug in the system.系统出了故障。
  • The bird caught a bug on the fly.那鸟在飞行中捉住了一只昆虫。
10 mutation t1PyM     
  • People who have this mutation need less sleep than others.有这种突变的人需要的睡眠比其他人少。
  • So far the discussion has centered entirely around mutation in the strict sense.到目前为止,严格来讲,讨论完全集中于围绕突变问题上。
11 manure R7Yzr     
  • The farmers were distributing manure over the field.农民们正在田间施肥。
  • The farmers used manure to keep up the fertility of their land.农夫们用粪保持其土质的肥沃。
12 slaughtering 303e79b6fadb94c384e21f6b9f287a62     
v.屠杀,杀戮,屠宰( slaughter的现在分词 )
  • The Revolutionary Tribunal went to work, and a steady slaughtering began. 革命法庭投入工作,持续不断的大屠杀开始了。 来自英汉非文学 - 历史
  • \"Isn't it terrific slaughtering pigs? “宰猪的! 来自汉英文学 - 中国现代小说
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