英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

VOA双语新闻 National Historic Landmark Status Endangered

时间:2010-09-25 03:11来源:互联网 提供网友:kt6784   字体: [ ]

As a former frontier mining camp, Tombstone, Arizona has faced its share of threats and calamities1 over the years, earning it a reputation as "the town too tough to die." Now the southwestern community is dealing2 with an official warning from the U.S. National Park Service, which says Tombstone could lose its designation as a National Historic Landmark3 if it does not depict4 its past in a more accurate way.


Tombstone is best known as the scene of the 1881 Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, where Wyatt Earp, his brothers and their friend Doc Holliday had a fatal shootout with a group of cowboys. Each year, some half a million visitors from around the world come to Tombstone to tour its historic downtown of saloons and stagecoaches5, pay their respects to fallen frontiersmen at the Boothill Graveyard6, and see dramatic reenactments of Old West history.


But are visitors getting a completely accurate picture of Tombstone's colorful past? The National Park Service has cited numerous violations7 of historical authenticity8 in Tombstone, including structures that have fake building materials or bear dates suggesting they are older than they really are.


James Garrison9, Arizona's State Historic Preservation10 Officer, says this is not the first time officials have demanded that Tombstone correct violations. But he believes there is a bigger issue in the town as well. Tombstone became a historic landmark as an example of a silver mining town, and it has important physical remains11 built after the 1881 gunfight.


"To the tourists, and I think the community leaders, and a lot of the people who gain a livelihood12 in Tombstone, the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral is the pinnacle13 event that draws people to Tombstone, and so there's some desire to restore the town to the point of the gunfight. But at the same time they have a responsibility to preserve the tangible14 remains of their entire history."


But historians and preservationists have a powerful myth to contend with in the form of Hollywood movies like "Gunfight at the O.K. Corral," and "Tombstone." Hollis Cook, a retired15 superintendent16 for the Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park, says movies have made the town synonymous with the story of Wyatt Earp and the O.K. Corral. "As a historian I would argue that the gunfight itself is really not very important historically at all. Nobody came West because of the gunfight… nobody didn't come West because of the gunfight. But because of Hollywood, it's become very important culturally, and we use it to define ourselves."


Hollis Cook argues that there is plenty of drama to be found in the story of silver prospector17 Ed Schieffelin, who started a mining camp at the Tombstone site in 1877. "Someone told him all you'll ever find over there will be your tombstone, hence the name of the town. And over a period of time millions in 1880 dollars were taken out of the hill over here, and it would amount to billions in today's money. That's really the importance to history of Tombstone."


A different perspective comes from Robert Love, whose family has owned the O.K. Corral site since 1963. Even if the gunfight was not a turning point in western history, Mr. Love calls the O.K. Corral saga18 an "archetype" of bigger themes in America's frontier past. "On the one hand you had the Earps. They were Republicans. They represented big business. On the other hand you had the cowboys. They were ranchers. They were Democrats19. The cowboys controlled the territory around the town politically, but businesses from the East were trying to come in and make the town a place where capitalism20 could flourish. And these two quite different philosophies met at the O.K. Corral."


Mr. Love says Tombstone is also battling dilemmas21 faced by other historic American towns. "Competing against I-pods and computer games has become very difficult. You also have to recall that in the 1950s, when Tombstone had its rebirth, half the television programs on primetime were (about) cowboys. Today there are almost no cowboy movies around. And so the town has to try to maintain its history and yet offer things to a younger generation."


Even tourists disagree as to whether Tombstone is living up to its fabled22 past. Hermann, who comes from Germany, says this is his second visit to the town, and he's enthusiastic. "This is the original Old West town. It's not the town that's built for show."


But Paul McKissack, of Williamsburg, Virginia, complains he finds Tombstone too commercial. "Seeing the streets paved over rather than in dirt, it just gives me the reaction of another tourist trap."


There is an added factor in the Tombstone debate, says State Preservation Officer James Garrison, and that is the needs of the local population. Some 1700 people live in Tombstone, and their numbers are growing. "How do you add to the ambience of the town," asks Mr. Garrison, "without creating this unauthentic place? The actual amenities23 for the local resident are rather few in the historic commercial area. It's almost totally turned over to tourism, and that's part of the issue. Do they still have a real town, or has it become that proverbial Disneyland or Wild West showcase?"


Tombstone has until 2007 to comply with National Park Service demands and retain its historic landmark status. As it deals with those demands this year, it will also celebrate the 125th anniversary of the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral -- making it a time to consider the competing claims of 19th century history and a 21st century community.



1 calamities 16254f2ca47292404778d1804949fef6     
n.灾祸,灾难( calamity的名词复数 );不幸之事
  • They will only triumph by persevering in their struggle against natural calamities. 他们只有坚持与自然灾害搏斗,才能取得胜利。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • One moment's false security can bring a century of calamities. 图一时之苟安,贻百年之大患。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
2 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
3 landmark j2DxG     
  • The Russian Revolution represents a landmark in world history.俄国革命是世界历史上的一个里程碑。
  • The tower was once a landmark for ships.这座塔曾是船只的陆标。
4 depict Wmdz5     
  • I don't care to see plays or films that depict murders or violence.我不喜欢看描写谋杀或暴力的戏剧或电影。
  • Children's books often depict farmyard animals as gentle,lovable creatures.儿童图书常常把农场的动物描写得温和而可爱。
5 stagecoaches 330452c07560dc29f07a60b1ccbefe1f     
n.驿马车( stagecoach的名词复数 )
6 graveyard 9rFztV     
  • All the town was drifting toward the graveyard.全镇的人都象流水似地向那坟场涌过去。
  • Living next to a graveyard would give me the creeps.居住在墓地旁边会使我毛骨悚然。
7 violations 403b65677d39097086593415b650ca21     
违反( violation的名词复数 ); 冒犯; 违反(行为、事例); 强奸
  • This is one of the commonest traffic violations. 这是常见的违反交通规则之例。
  • These violations of the code must cease forthwith. 这些违犯法规的行为必须立即停止。
8 authenticity quyzq     
  • There has been some debate over the authenticity of his will. 对于他的遗嘱的真实性一直有争论。
  • The museum is seeking an expert opinion on the authenticity of the painting. 博物馆在请专家鉴定那幅画的真伪。
9 garrison uhNxT     
  • The troops came to the relief of the besieged garrison.军队来援救被围的守备军。
  • The German was moving to stiffen up the garrison in Sicily.德军正在加强西西里守军之力量。
10 preservation glnzYU     
  • The police are responsible for the preservation of law and order.警察负责维持法律与秩序。
  • The picture is in an excellent state of preservation.这幅画保存得极为完好。
11 remains 1kMzTy     
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
12 livelihood sppzWF     
  • Appropriate arrangements will be made for their work and livelihood.他们的工作和生活会得到妥善安排。
  • My father gained a bare livelihood of family by his own hands.父亲靠自己的双手勉强维持家计。
13 pinnacle A2Mzb     
  • Now he is at the very pinnacle of his career.现在他正值事业中的顶峰时期。
  • It represents the pinnacle of intellectual capability.它代表了智能的顶峰。
14 tangible 4IHzo     
  • The policy has not yet brought any tangible benefits.这项政策还没有带来任何实质性的好处。
  • There is no tangible proof.没有确凿的证据。
15 retired Njhzyv     
  • The old man retired to the country for rest.这位老人下乡休息去了。
  • Many retired people take up gardening as a hobby.许多退休的人都以从事园艺为嗜好。
16 superintendent vsTwV     
  • He was soon promoted to the post of superintendent of Foreign Trade.他很快就被擢升为对外贸易总监。
  • He decided to call the superintendent of the building.他决定给楼房管理员打电话。
17 prospector JRhxB     
  • Although he failed as a prospector, he succeeded as a journalist.他作为采矿者遭遇失败,但作为记者大获成功。
  • The prospector staked his claim to the mine he discovered.那个勘探者立桩标出他所发现的矿区地以示归己所有。
18 saga aCez4     
  • The saga of Flight 19 is probably the most repeated story about the Bermuda Triangle.飞行19中队的传说或许是有关百慕大三角最重复的故事。
  • The novel depicts the saga of a family.小说描绘了一个家族的传奇故事。
19 democrats 655beefefdcaf76097d489a3ff245f76     
n.民主主义者,民主人士( democrat的名词复数 )
  • The Democrats held a pep rally on Capitol Hill yesterday. 民主党昨天在国会山召开了竞选誓师大会。
  • The democrats organize a filibuster in the senate. 民主党党员组织了阻挠议事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
20 capitalism er4zy     
  • The essence of his argument is that capitalism cannot succeed.他的论点的核心是资本主义不能成功。
  • Capitalism began to develop in Russia in the 19th century.十九世纪资本主义在俄国开始发展。
21 dilemmas 619646ac13737b880beb161dfe80967f     
n.左右为难( dilemma的名词复数 );窘境,困境
  • They dealt with their dilemmas by mixing perhaps unintentionally an explosive brew. 他们――也许是无意地――把爆炸性的佐料混合在一起,以此来应付困难处境。 来自辞典例句
  • Ten years later we encountered the same dilemmas in Vietnam. 十年后,我们又在越南遇到了同样进退两难的局面。 来自辞典例句
22 fabled wt7zCV     
  • For the first week he never actually saw the fabled Jack. 第一周他实际上从没见到传说中的杰克。
  • Aphrodite, the Greek goddness of love, is fabled to have been born of the foam of the sea. 希腊爱神阿美罗狄蒂据说是诞生于海浪泡沫之中。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
23 amenities Bz5zCt     
n.令人愉快的事物;礼仪;礼节;便利设施;礼仪( amenity的名词复数 );便利设施;(环境等的)舒适;(性情等的)愉快
  • The campsite is close to all local amenities. 营地紧靠当地所有的便利设施。
  • Parks and a theatre are just some of the town's local amenities. 公园和戏院只是市镇娱乐设施的一部分。 来自《简明英汉词典》
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论