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新编大学英语教程第四册Unit 13

时间:2011-09-21 05:48来源:互联网 提供网友:gmeng   字体: [ ]
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 [1] Overlooked in the arguments about the morality of artificially reproducing life is the fact that, at present, cloning is a very inefficient1 procedure. The incidence of death among fetuses2 and offspring produced by cloning is much higher than it is through natural reproduction — roughly 10 times as high as normal before birth and three times as high after birth in our studies at Roslyn. Distressing3 enough for those working with animals, these failure rates surely render unthinkable the notion of applying such treatment to humans.

 
[2] Even if the technique were perfected, however, we must ask ourselves what practical value wholebeing cloning might have. What exactly would be the difference between a “cloned” baby and a child born naturally — and why would we want one?
 
[3] The cloned child would be a genetically5 identical twin of the original, and thus physically6 very similar —far more similar than a natural parent and child. Human personality, however, emerges from both the effects of the genes7 we inherit (nature) and environmental factors (nurture). The two clones would develop distinct personalities8, just as twins develop unique identities. And because the copy would often be born in a different family, cloned twins would be less alike in personality than natural identical twins.
 
[4] Why “copy” people in the first place? Couples unable to have children might choose to have a copy of one of them rather than accept the intrusion of genes from a donor9. My wife and I have two children of our own and an adopted child, but I find it helpful to consider what might have happened in my own marriage if a copy of me had been made to overcome infertility10. My wife and I met in high school. How would she react to a physical copy of the young man she fell in love with? How would any of us find living with ourselves? Surely the older clone — I, in this case — would believe that he understood how the copy should behave and so be even more likely than the average father to impose expectations upon his child. Above all, how would a teenager cope with looking at me, a balding, aging man, and seeing the physical future ahead of him?
 
[5] Each of us can imagine hypothetical families created by the introduction of a cloned child — a copy of one partner in a homosexual relationship or of a single parent, for example. What is missing in all this is consideration of what’s in the interests of the cloned child. Because there is no form of infertility that could be overcome only by cloning, I do not find these proposals acceptable. My concerns are not on religious grounds or on the basis of a perceived intrinsic ethical11 principle. Rather, my judgment12 is that it would be difficult for families created in this way to provide an appropriate environment for the child.
 
[6] Cloning is also suggested as a means of bringing back a relative, usually a child, killed tragically13. Any parent can understand that wish, but it must first be recognized that the copy would be a new baby and not the lost child. Herein lies the difficulty, for the grieving parents are seeking not a new baby but a return of the dead one. Since the original would be fondly remembered as having particular talents and interests, would not the parent expect the copy to be the same? It is possible, however, that the copy would develop quite differently. Is it fair to the new child to place it in a family with such unnatural14 expectations?
 
[7] What if the lost child was very young? The shorter the life, the fewer the expectations parents might place on the substitute, right? If a baby dies within a few days of birth and there is no reason to think that death was caused by an inherited defect, would it then be acceptable to make a copy? Is it practical to frame legislation that would prevent copying of adults or older children, but allow copying of infants? At what age would a child be too old to be copied in the event of death?
 
[8] Copying is also suggested as a means by which parents can have the child of their dreams. Couples might choose to have a copy of a film star, baseball player or scientist, depending on their interests. But because personality is only partly the result of genetic4 inheritance, conflict would be sure to arise if the cloned child failed to develop the same interests as the original. What if the copy of Einstein shows no interest in science? Or the football player turns to acting15?
 
[9] Success also depends upon fortune. What if the child who does not live up to the hopes and dreams of the parent simply because of bad luck?
 
[10] Every child should be wanted for itself, as an individual. In making a copy of oneself or some famous person, a parent is deliberately16 specifying17 the way he or she wishes that child to develop. In recent years, particularly in the US, much importance has been placed on the right of individuals to reproduce in ways that they wish. I suggest that there is a greater need to consider the interests of the child and to reject these proposed uses of cloning. By contrast, human cloning could, in theory, be used to obtain tissues needed to treat disorders18 such as Parkinson’s disease and diabetes19. These diseases are associated with cell types that do not repair or replace themselves, but suitable cells will one day be grown in culture. These uses cannot be justified20 now; nor are they likely to be in the near future.
 
[11] Moreover, there is a lot we do not know about the effects of cloning, especially in terms of aging. As we grow older, changes occur in our cells that reduce the number of times they can reproduce. This clock of age is reset21 by normal reproduction during the production of sperm22 and eggs; that is why children of each new generation have a full life span. It is not yet known whether aging is reversed during cloning or if the clone’s natural life is shortened by the years its parent has already lived. Then there is the problem of the genetic errors that accumulate in our cells. There are systems to seek out and correct such errors during normal reproduction; it is not known if that can occur during cloning. Research with animals is urgently required to measure the lifespan and determine the cause of death of animals produced by cloning.
 
[12] Important questions also remain on the most appropriate means of controlling the development and use of these techniques. It is taken for granted that the production and sale of drugs will be regulated by governments, but this was not always the case. A hundred years ago, the production and sale of drugs in the US. was unregulated. Unscrupulous companies took the opportunity to include in their products substances, like cocaine23, that were likely to make the patients feel better even if they offered no treatment for the original condition. After public protest, championed by publications such as the Ladies’ Home Journal, a federal act was passed in 1906. An enforcement agency, known now as the FDA, was established in 1927. An independent body similar to the FDA is now required to assess all the research on cloning.
 
[13] There is much still to be learned about the biology associated with cloning. The time required for this research, however, will also provide an opportunity for each society to decide how it wishes the technique to be used. At some point in the future, cloning will have much to contribute to human medicine, but we must use it cautiously.
 
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译文
 
多莉引发的谬论
 
1997年2月克隆羊多莉的出生引发全球范围内关于克隆的道德和医学问题大辩论。美国几个州和欧洲国家已经禁止克隆人类,然而韩国科学家在10月声称他们已经开始了克隆人的计划。在《时代周刊》的这篇文章中,在苏格兰罗斯林学院克隆出多莉的胚胎学家Wilmot阐释了他认为对克隆人的争论很大程度上没有意义的理由。
 
[1] 对人工复制生命的道德问题的辩论忽略了一个事实:当前,克隆本身是一个效率极低的过程。我们的研究表明克隆胎儿和后代的死亡率比自然生育的高的多 --出生前,大约为10倍,出生后为3倍。这令与动物打交道的人们很沮丧,克隆的高失败率让人难以想象将它应用于人类本身。
 
[2] 然而,即使技术已经非常成熟,我们也必须扪心自问:克隆人具有什么实际价值吗?克隆婴儿和自然生育的婴儿到底有什么差别 -- 我们为何想要克隆人?
 
[3] 克隆的孩子与被克隆的孩子将是一对基因完全相同的双胞胎,这样从生理上讲他们十分相似--比自然生产的双亲和孩子还要相像。然而个性形成受继承的基因和环境因素两方面的影响。这两个克隆产物将发展完全不同的个性,就像双胞胎具有不同的个性一样。因为克隆人经常在不同的家庭中成长,所以克隆人在个性上没有双胞胎那么相似。
 
[4] 首先,为什么"复制"人呢?不能生育的夫妇可能选择克隆他们自己而不接受基因捐赠。我和妻子生了两个孩子,领养了一个,但是,想想,如果克隆一个我自己来弥补缺憾,那对我的婚姻将意味着什么?我和妻子在高中相识。她将如何面对高中时爱上的年轻人的克隆?我们自己又如何面对和自己生活在一起的情况?当然,被克隆的那个人-在这种情况下,就是我- 会认为他理解克隆人的行为因而可能比普通父亲更容易给孩子强加一些愿望。最重要的是,十多岁的克隆孩子将如何应对这样的状况- 看着头发稀疏,逐渐年老的我,想着这就是他的将来吗?
 
[5] 我们每一个人都可以想象由于克隆孩子的加入而可能组成的家庭--比如,将同性恋伴侣中的一个或者单亲克隆。但是在这样的情况下我们并没有考虑这对克隆孩子有什么好处。因为没有哪一种无生育能力能够通过克隆得以解决,所以我并不觉得这样的建议可以接受。我的担忧并不是建立在宗教或者所感知到的内在伦理原则上,而是我认为以这种方式建立的家庭很难给孩子提供一个合适的成长环境。
 
[6] 克隆也被认为是替代死于非命的亲人(通常是一个孩子)的一种方式。任何父母都理解这种愿望,但是我们必须认识到克隆出来的是一个全新的孩子而不是失去的孩子,而问题就在于此,对于悲痛欲绝的父母来说他们寻求的不是一个新的孩子而是死去的孩子的重生。既然原来那个孩子给父母留下了具有特殊天赋和兴趣的美好记忆,那么父母怎么能够不期望一个一模一样的孩子呢?然而,克隆的孩子有可能与所期望的完全不同,让克隆的孩子生在这样的家庭,公平吗? 
 
[7] 如果死去的孩子很小的话克隆是否可行呢?孩子活得时间越短,父母对克隆孩子的期望就越低,对吗?如果一个孩子出生后几天就死了并且没有什么原因证明死亡是由于先天性的缺陷导致的,这就可以接受去克隆一个孩子吗?制定法律禁止克隆成年人和年龄大的孩子,但却允许克隆婴儿,这符合实际吗?那么多大年龄算作不能克隆的年龄呢?
 
[8] 克隆还被认为是父母拥有一个梦想中的孩子的方式。根据兴趣,夫妻可能选择克隆一个明星、棒球运动员或者科学家。但是遗传对性格产生的影响仅是一部分,如果克隆的孩子并没有像父母期望的那样,肯定会出现矛盾。爱因斯坦的克隆对科学没有丝毫兴趣,该怎么办?或者如果足球运动员变成演员呢?
 
[9] 成功也要靠运气。如果因为运气不好,孩子没能达到父母的期望值呢?
 
[10] 每一个孩子都应该是独立的个体。在克隆自己或者某个名人的时候,父母已经明确地详细规划了他或她希望孩子将来发展的方向。近些年来,特别是在美国,人们以自己希望的方式生育的权力已经得到了重视。我认为我们需要更多地考虑孩子的利益,摒弃这些克隆的建议。然而,从理论上讲人类克隆可以用来获得在治疗像帕金森和糖尿病时所需的组织。这些疾病是由不能自身修复或复制的细胞引起的,但是总有一天这些细胞会在培养基中培养出来。现在还没有正当的理由来用它们,近期也不可能。
 
[11] 而且,我们对于克隆的影响知之甚少,特别是年龄变化所带来的影响。随着我们逐渐变老,细胞发生变化,它们复制自身的次数减少。年龄生物钟通过正常的生育在精子和卵子的产生过程中被重新设定,这就是为什么每一代新生儿都有完整的生命周期的原因。我们并不知道在克隆的过程中年龄会被重新设定还是克隆人的生命会由于他们父母的年龄而缩短。还有一个问题就是在我们人体细胞中积累的基因错误。在正常的繁衍过程中人体系统会自动调出这些错误并加以修正;我们并不知道在克隆的过程中会不会发生这样的过程。现在迫切需要动物研究来测试克隆动物的生命期限,确定它们死亡的原因。
 
[12] 如何最佳控制这些技术的发展和应用也是悬而未决的问题。人们想当然地认为药物的生产与销售应该由政府调控,但是以前情况并不总是这样。一百年前,美国药物的生产与销售并不受管治,肆无忌惮的公司趁机在他们的产品中加入可卡因等物质,这些物质可能使病人在即使药物没有治疗病症的情况下也感到非常舒适。经过公众抗议,在《女性家庭期刊》等出版物的支持下,一项联合法令在1906年获得通过。一个强制执行机构,即食品及药品管理局,在1927年建立。目前正需要一个与食品及药品管理局类似的独立机构来评估所有关于克隆的研究。 
 
[13]还有许多与克隆有关的生物学知识需要我们学习。然而,这项研究所需的时间也为每一个国家提供机会决定如何使用这项技术。将来的某个时候,克隆终究会对人类医药的发展做出很大的贡献,但是我们必须谨慎地利用它。

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 inefficient c76xm     
adj.效率低的,无效的
参考例句:
  • The inefficient operation cost the firm a lot of money.低效率的运作使该公司损失了许多钱。
  • Their communication systems are inefficient in the extreme.他们的通讯系统效率非常差。
2 fetuses eae25b106f4ed68558631a5bf44c9293     
n.胎,胎儿( fetus的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • DNA was extracted from fetuses at mid-gestation, about 10 days past conception. DNA从受孕大约10天后的中期妊娠胚胎中提取。 来自互联网
  • Brucellosis is a disease that causes fetuses to abort in cattle. 普鲁士菌病是一种可以导致牲畜胎儿夭折的疾病。 来自互联网
3 distressing cuTz30     
a.使人痛苦的
参考例句:
  • All who saw the distressing scene revolted against it. 所有看到这种悲惨景象的人都对此感到难过。
  • It is distressing to see food being wasted like this. 这样浪费粮食令人痛心。
4 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
5 genetically Lgixo     
adv.遗传上
参考例句:
  • All the bees in the colony are genetically related. 同一群体的蜜蜂都有亲缘关系。
  • Genetically modified foods have already arrived on American dinner tables. 经基因改造加工过的食物已端上了美国人的餐桌。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 基因与食物
6 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
7 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
8 personalities ylOzsg     
n. 诽谤,(对某人容貌、性格等所进行的)人身攻击; 人身攻击;人格, 个性, 名人( personality的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There seemed to be a degree of personalities in her remarks.她话里有些人身攻击的成分。
  • Personalities are not in good taste in general conversation.在一般的谈话中诽谤他人是不高尚的。
9 donor dstxI     
n.捐献者;赠送人;(组织、器官等的)供体
参考例句:
  • In these cases,the recipient usually takes care of the donor afterwards.在这类情况下,接受捐献者以后通常会照顾捐赠者。
  • The Doctor transplanted the donor's heart to Mike's chest cavity.医生将捐赠者的心脏移植进麦克的胸腔。
10 infertility 37ExE     
n.不肥沃,不毛;不育
参考例句:
  • It is the Geneva, Switzerland-based Biotech Company's second recombinant infertility drug. 它是瑞士生物技术公司在日内瓦的公司生产的第二种重组治疗不孕症的药。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术制药疫苗
  • Endometritis is a cause of infertility. 子宫内膜炎是不育的原子。 来自辞典例句
11 ethical diIz4     
adj.伦理的,道德的,合乎道德的
参考例句:
  • It is necessary to get the youth to have a high ethical concept.必须使青年具有高度的道德观念。
  • It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
12 judgment e3xxC     
n.审判;判断力,识别力,看法,意见
参考例句:
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
13 tragically 7bc94e82e1e513c38f4a9dea83dc8681     
adv. 悲剧地,悲惨地
参考例句:
  • Their daughter was tragically killed in a road accident. 他们的女儿不幸死于车祸。
  • Her father died tragically in a car crash. 她父亲在一场车祸中惨死。
14 unnatural 5f2zAc     
adj.不自然的;反常的
参考例句:
  • Did her behaviour seem unnatural in any way?她有任何反常表现吗?
  • She has an unnatural smile on her face.她脸上挂着做作的微笑。
15 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
16 deliberately Gulzvq     
adv.审慎地;蓄意地;故意地
参考例句:
  • The girl gave the show away deliberately.女孩故意泄露秘密。
  • They deliberately shifted off the argument.他们故意回避这个论点。
17 specifying ca4cf95d0de82d4463dfea22d3f8c836     
v.指定( specify的现在分词 );详述;提出…的条件;使具有特性
参考例句:
  • When we describe what the action will affect, we are specifying the noun of the sentence. 当描述动作会影响到什么时,我们指定组成句子的名词。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
  • Procurement section only lists opportunistic infection drugs without specifying which drugs. 采购部分只说明有治疗机会性感染的药物,但并没有说明是什么药物。 来自互联网
18 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 diabetes uPnzu     
n.糖尿病
参考例句:
  • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar.对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
  • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body.糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
20 justified 7pSzrk     
a.正当的,有理的
参考例句:
  • She felt fully justified in asking for her money back. 她认为有充分的理由要求退款。
  • The prisoner has certainly justified his claims by his actions. 那个囚犯确实已用自己的行动表明他的要求是正当的。
21 reset rkHzYJ     
v.重新安排,复位;n.重新放置;重放之物
参考例句:
  • As soon as you arrive at your destination,step out of the aircraft and reset your wristwatch.你一到达目的地,就走出飞机并重新设置手表时间。
  • He is recovering from an operation to reset his arm.他做了一个手臂复位手术,正在恢复。
22 sperm jFOzO     
n.精子,精液
参考例句:
  • Only one sperm fertilises an egg.只有一个精子使卵子受精。
  • In human reproduction,one female egg is usually fertilized by one sperm.在人体生殖过程中,一个精子使一个卵子受精。
23 cocaine VbYy4     
n.可卡因,古柯碱(用作局部麻醉剂)
参考例句:
  • That young man is a cocaine addict.那个年轻人吸食可卡因成瘾。
  • Don't have cocaine abusively.不可滥服古柯碱。
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