英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

新东方优美背诵短文50篇 Unit47:Folk Culture

时间:2007-11-21 03:19来源:互联网 提供网友:xianging   字体: [ ]
特别声明:本栏目内容均从网络收集或者网友提供,供仅参考试用,我们无法保证内容完整和正确。如果资料损害了您的权益,请与站长联系,我们将及时删除并致以歉意。
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

A folk culture is a small isolated1, cohesive2, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race with a strong family or clan3 structure and highly developed rituals. Order is maintained through sanctions based in the religion or family and interpersonal. Relationships are strong. Tradition is paramount4, and change comes infrequently and slowly. There is relatively5 little division of labor6 into specialized7 duties. Rather, each person is expected to perform a great variety of tasks, though duties may differ between the sexes. Most goods are handmade and subsistence economy prevails. Individualism is weakly developed in folk cultures as are social classes. Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada. Perhaps the nearest modern equivalent in Anglo America is the Amish, a German American farming sect8 that largely renounces9 the products and labor saving devices of  the industrial age. In Amish areas, horse drawn10 buggies still serve as a local transportation device and the faithful are not permitted to own automobiles11. The Amish’s central religious concept of Demut  “humility”, clearly reflects the weakness of individualism and social class so typical of folk cultures and there is a corresponding strength of Amish group identity. Rarely do the Amish marry outside their sect. The religion, a variety of the Mennonite faith, provides the principal mechanism12 for maintaining order.

By contrast a popular culture is a large heterogeneous13 group often highly individualistic and a pronounced many specialized professions. Secular14 institutions of control such as the police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order, and a money-based economy prevails. Because of these contrasts, “popular” may be viewed as clearly different from “folk”. The popular is replacing the folk in industrialized countries and in many developing nations. Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use or leads more prestige to the owner.
                                                                               
民间文化民间文化是小型的、孤立的、紧密的、保守的、近乎自给自足的群体,具有同样的习俗、同样的人种和强有力的家庭或部族结构以及高度发展的宗教仪式。
秩序由宗教或家庭的约束来维持,成员间的关系非常紧密,传统至高无上,很少有变动且变动缓慢。劳动专业分工相对较少。
每个人都要做各类活计,尽管男女两性分工不同。绝大多数物品是手工制造的,经济一般为自给自足型。个人主义和社会阶层在民间文化群体中的发展十分
薄弱。在象美国和加拿大这样的工业化国家里,一成不变的民间文化群体已不复存在了。在当代美洲的英语区,与民间文化最相似的群体也许算是Amish。
Amish是美国的德裔农耕部落,他们基本上拒绝接受工业时代的大多数产品和节省劳力的设施。在Amish地区,轻
便马车仍是当地的交通工具,信徒们不允许拥有汽车。Amish宗教中的核心观念Demut即谦卑典型地反映了在民间文化群中个人主义和阶级的不发达。
而与此同时,Amish对群体的认同性却十分强。Amish人很少和他们宗派以外的人通婚。其宗教,作为Mennonite信
仰的一种,提供了维护秩序的主要机制。相反,大众文化是包含不同种族的大群体,通常高度个性化而且不断在变化。
人际关系冷漠,劳动分工明确,由此产生了许多专门的职业。世俗的控制机构,比如警察和军队,取代了宗教和家庭来维持秩序,而且实行的是货币经济。
由于存在着这些差异,"大众的"与"民间的"可谓大相径庭。在工业化国家以及许多发展中国家里,大众文化正在取代民间文化。
民间制造的物品正让位于大众化产品,这通常是因为大众化的物品制造起来更快、更便宜,用起来更容易、更方便或者是能给其所有者带来更多的威望。



点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 isolated bqmzTd     
adj.与世隔绝的
参考例句:
  • His bad behaviour was just an isolated incident. 他的不良行为只是个别事件。
  • Patients with the disease should be isolated. 这种病的患者应予以隔离。
2 cohesive dWdy2     
adj.有粘着力的;有结合力的;凝聚性的
参考例句:
  • She sealed the parcel with cohesive tape.她用粘胶带把包裹封起来。
  • The author skillfully fuses these fragments into a cohesive whole.作者将这些片断巧妙地结合成一个连贯的整体。
3 clan Dq5zi     
n.氏族,部落,宗族,家族,宗派
参考例句:
  • She ranks as my junior in the clan.她的辈分比我小。
  • The Chinese Christians,therefore,practically excommunicate themselves from their own clan.所以,中国的基督徒简直是被逐出了自己的家族了。
4 paramount fL9xz     
a.最重要的,最高权力的
参考例句:
  • My paramount object is to save the Union and destroy slavery.我的最高目标是拯救美国,摧毁奴隶制度。
  • Nitrogen is of paramount importance to life on earth.氮对地球上的生命至关重要。
5 relatively bkqzS3     
adv.比较...地,相对地
参考例句:
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
6 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
7 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
8 sect 1ZkxK     
n.派别,宗教,学派,派系
参考例句:
  • When he was sixteen he joined a religious sect.他16岁的时候加入了一个宗教教派。
  • Each religious sect in the town had its own church.该城每一个宗教教派都有自己的教堂。
9 renounces 4e680794d061a81b2277111800e766fa     
v.声明放弃( renounce的第三人称单数 );宣布放弃;宣布与…决裂;宣布摒弃
参考例句:
  • Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores. 日本放弃对福尔摩沙(台湾)及澎湖的一切权利,主张(名称)及所有权。 来自互联网
  • He renounces Christianity, temporarily straining his relationship with his parents. 他放弃了基督教信仰,从而与父母的关系暂时变得紧张。 来自互联网
10 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,紧张的
参考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
11 automobiles 760a1b7b6ea4a07c12e5f64cc766962b     
n.汽车( automobile的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • When automobiles become popular,the use of the horse and buggy passed away. 汽车普及后,就不再使用马和马车了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Automobiles speed in an endless stream along the boulevard. 宽阔的林荫道上,汽车川流不息。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
12 mechanism zCWxr     
n.机械装置;机构,结构
参考例句:
  • The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body.骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
  • The mechanism of the machine is very complicated.这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
13 heterogeneous rdixF     
adj.庞杂的;异类的
参考例句:
  • There is a heterogeneous mass of papers in the teacher's office.老师的办公室里堆满了大批不同的论文。
  • America has a very heterogeneous population.美国人口是由不同种族组成的。
14 secular GZmxM     
n.牧师,凡人;adj.世俗的,现世的,不朽的
参考例句:
  • We live in an increasingly secular society.我们生活在一个日益非宗教的社会。
  • Britain is a plural society in which the secular predominates.英国是个世俗主导的多元社会。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   新概念  背诵  短文  folk  culture
顶一下
(99)
92.5%
踩一下
(8)
7.5%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴