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15篇文章贯通六级词汇Unit12-Part1

时间:2010-11-22 05:00来源:互联网 提供网友:luckykisshua   字体: [ ]
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[00:00.00]UNIT12
[00:13.55]The American Dream
[00:15.84]The dream to construct a building
[00:19.89]to house everyone and everything
[00:21.97]connected with world trade
[00:23.94]began in the early 1960's.
[00:27.34]After much deliberation,
[00:29.41]Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned
[00:33.13]over more than a dozen other architects
[00:35.98]to work with the firm of Emery Roth
[00:39.04]and Sons to design this massive edifice1.
[00:42.11]His task was evident:
[00:45.05]the building must have
[00:46.92]twelve million square feet of floor space
[00:49.98]on a sixteen acre parcel of land,
[00:52.93]accommodate the new facilities
[00:55.12]for the Hudson tubes and subway connections,
[00:57.97]and be done within the 500 million dollar budget.
[01:02.12]The relatively2 small site
[01:04.86]combined with the vast space
[01:07.05]needs meant that
[01:08.36]the only way to go was up.
[01:10.44]The development would dwarf3 its neighbors
[01:14.16]and change the New York landscape
[01:16.13]and skyline at the bottom of Manhattan.
[01:19.52]In order to accommodate
[01:23.13]the nine million square feet of office space,
[01:26.09]Yamasaki made the decision
[01:28.16]that a two?tower development would be best.
[01:31.33]This would serve the dual4 purpose
[01:34.18]of giving sufficient office area
[01:36.81]on each floor and allowing a manageable structural5 system
[01:40.74]while taking advantage of the superb views.
[01:43.92]The twin towers would be 110 floors each,
[01:48.73]rising to a height of 1,353 feet (412 meters).
[01:56.06]From the observation decks
[01:59.23]at the tops of the towers
[02:00.76]it would be possible to see 45 miles
[02:03.94]in every direction.
[02:05.69]When asked why he designed two 110-storey buildings
[02:11.49]instead of one 220-storey building,
[02:15.21]he replied, flippantly, “
[02:17.28]I didn?t want to lose the human touch.”
[02:20.35]The first act in the construction process
[02:25.05]was the excavation6.
[02:26.48]The 1.2 million cubic yards of earth
[02:30.63]and rock that were removed
[02:32.49]were used to create 23 acres of fill
[02:35.55]in the Hudson River adjacent to the W.T.C. site.
[02:40.37]This landfill project was subsequently developed
[02:45.29]as Battery Park. The excavation,
[02:48.79]besides providing the foundation
[02:50.98]for this enormous construction,
[02:52.95]would house parking garages,
[02:55.14]subway terminals and tubes,
[02:57.54]and shopping concourses.
[02:59.08]Yamasaki believed that
[03:02.91]all buildings must be strong
[03:04.66]in the context of being dominant7.
[03:07.17]He felt that each building should
[03:10.24]“be a monument to the virility8 of our society”.
[03:14.07]The structural system,
[03:17.24]while possessing this strength,
[03:19.31]is also impressively simple.
[03:21.94]The 208-foot front wall
[03:25.34]is essentially9 a pre-assembled steel web,
[03:28.61]with columns on 39?inch centers,
[03:31.68]providing the wind bracing10 necessary
[03:34.41]for a building of this height,
[03:35.94]allowing the central core
[03:38.35]to take only the gravity loads.
[03:40.65]This very light,
[03:42.84]economical configuration11 would result in
[03:46.01]keeping the wind bracing
[03:47.54]in the most efficient place,
[03:49.18]the outside shell of the building.
[03:51.70]In this way, the wind force
[03:54.87]would not be transferred
[03:56.62]through the floor membrane12 to the core.
[03:58.92]Thirty?three inch deep floors
[04:02.31]made of prefabricated steel trusses
[04:05.49]would act as supports to stiffen13 the outside walls
[04:09.09]against the buckling14 forces
[04:10.95]of the wind?load pressures.
[04:13.36]There would be no interior columns
[04:16.76]in the office spaces,
[04:18.29]an amazing feat15
[04:19.92]as there would be 40 000 square feet
[04:23.21]of office space on each of the upper floors.
[04:26.17]In total, there would be seven buildings
[04:30.87]in the complex;
[04:36.34]the twin towers standing16 110 stories high ,
[04:36.08]four smaller towers,
[04:38.27]and a central plaza17.
[04:39.70]Also, there would be seven underground levels
[04:44.18]containing services,
[04:45.38]shopping, parking garages and a subway station.
[04:49.43]When completed, there would be
[04:52.38]ten million square feet of leasable space,
[04:55.88]or an acre of rentable space
[04:58.51]on each floor of each tower.
[05:00.70]The elevator system was intended to be fast,
[05:05.26]efficient,and space saving.
[05:07.67]Express elevators opening onto the forty-first
[05:11.61]and seventy-fourth floors
[05:14.24]would serve the sky lobbies.
[05:16.31]From these floors and from the plaza,
[05:19.70]four banks of elevators would
[05:22.22]carry passengers to each of the three zones.
[05:25.06]Tenders posted, contractors18 hired,
[05:29.23]and the preliminary materials purchased,
[05:31.85]the groundbreaking ceremony
[05:33.82]was held on August 5, 1966.
[05:38.85]Some offices were ready for occupancy
[05:42.24]in 1970 but the ribbon cutting ceremony
[05:45.96]wasn't held until April 4, 1973.
[05:50.01]Final cost 750 million dollars.
[05:54.82]The institution of the W.T.C.
[05:59.20]would become a symbol of commerce
[06:01.48]and economic superiority to the world.
[06:04.65]International businesses recognized
[06:08.48]that it would be advantageous19
[06:10.34]to have offices there.
[06:11.87]Thus, the working population of the W.T.C.
[06:16.14]would incorporate a cross-section of nationalities,
[06:19.64]not just Americans.
[06:21.39]The buildings would be occupied
[06:24.56]by as many as
[06:28.72]fifty thousand people daily during the week.
[06:29.34]Additionally,thousands of tourists
[06:32.18]could be in the center at any given time,
[06:34.81]visiting the restaurant,
[06:36.34]Windows on the World,
[06:38.20]atop One W.T.C.,
[06:40.83]the indoor and outdoor observation decks
[06:44.00]on Two W.T.C., as well as the shops,
[06:47.17]exhibition pavilions,
[06:49.25]and the 250 room hotel.
[06:52.21]A complex of this size
[06:55.16]is not without some problems,
[06:57.35]including fire. Numerous small fires
[07:00.96]and one major one on February 13, 1975
[07:06.03]occurred over the years.
[07:07.67]However, on February 26, 1993,
[07:12.81]a terrorist attack on the W.T.C.
[07:15.77]caused the largest incident ever handled
[07:18.50]by the City of New York's Fire Department.
[07:21.57]The blaze, resulting from
[07:24.52]the ignition of a nitrourea bomb,
[07:27.26]with hydrogen cylinders20 to add impact,
[07:30.10]and located in the parking garage,
[07:32.83]required the response of 84 engine companies,
[07:36.45]60 truck companies,
[07:38.49]and hundreds of personnel.
[07:41.01]Firefighters maintained a presence
[07:43.31]at the site for 28 days,
[07:46.15]guarding against the possibility
[07:48.67]of further fires caused by the blast.
[07:51.95]Six people died and 1042 were injured.
[07:56.87]The towers survived.
[07:58.83]After this violent incident failed
[08:02.77]in its intended purpose of destroying the W.T.C.,
[08:06.60]who could have envisaged21 an assault
[08:09.23]as disastrous22 as the one inflicted23 on it
[08:12.40]and the United States on September 11, 2001?
[08:16.77]Who could have conceived an attack
[08:19.62]so vicious it would eclipse
[08:21.92]almost every man?made catastrophe24?
[08:24.76]Who could have foreseen that
[08:27.17]the American dream would
[08:28.88]blur into a terrible nightmare?
[08:31.40]At 8∶45 a.m. New York local time,
[08:36.32]a hijacked25 767 commercial airliner26
[08:40.04]with a full load of jet fuel
[08:42.23]for a transcontinentalflight collided with One W.T.C.,
[08:46.60]The north tower,
[08:48.24]with enough impetus27 to carry it
[08:50.54]through to the opposite side.
[08:52.52]Initially, terrorism was not a consideration
[08:56.67]in the mind of the public.
[08:58.09]This was merely a dreadful accident.
 


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1 edifice kqgxv     
n.宏伟的建筑物(如宫殿,教室)
参考例句:
  • The American consulate was a magnificent edifice in the centre of Bordeaux.美国领事馆是位于波尔多市中心的一座宏伟的大厦。
  • There is a huge Victorian edifice in the area.该地区有一幢维多利亚式的庞大建筑物。
2 relatively bkqzS3     
adv.比较...地,相对地
参考例句:
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
3 dwarf EkjzH     
n.矮子,侏儒,矮小的动植物;vt.使…矮小
参考例句:
  • The dwarf's long arms were not proportional to his height.那侏儒的长臂与他的身高不成比例。
  • The dwarf shrugged his shoulders and shook his head. 矮子耸耸肩膀,摇摇头。
4 dual QrAxe     
adj.双的;二重的,二元的
参考例句:
  • The people's Republic of China does not recognize dual nationality for any Chinese national.中华人民共和国不承认中国公民具有双重国籍。
  • He has dual role as composer and conductor.他兼作曲家及指挥的双重身分。
5 structural itXw5     
adj.构造的,组织的,建筑(用)的
参考例句:
  • The storm caused no structural damage.风暴没有造成建筑结构方面的破坏。
  • The North American continent is made up of three great structural entities.北美大陆是由三个构造单元组成的。
6 excavation RiKzY     
n.挖掘,发掘;被挖掘之地
参考例句:
  • The bad weather has hung up the work of excavation.天气不好耽误了挖掘工作。
  • The excavation exposed some ancient ruins.这次挖掘暴露出一些古遗迹。
7 dominant usAxG     
adj.支配的,统治的;占优势的;显性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);显性基因
参考例句:
  • The British were formerly dominant in India.英国人从前统治印度。
  • She was a dominant figure in the French film industry.她在法国电影界是个举足轻重的人物。
8 virility JUKzS     
n.雄劲,丈夫气
参考例句:
  • He wanted his sons to become strong,virile,and athletic like himself.他希望他的儿子们能长得像他一样强壮、阳刚而又健美。
  • He is a tall,virile man with rugged good looks.他是个身材高大、体魄健壮、相貌粗犷英俊的男子。
9 essentially nntxw     
adv.本质上,实质上,基本上
参考例句:
  • Really great men are essentially modest.真正的伟人大都很谦虚。
  • She is an essentially selfish person.她本质上是个自私自利的人。
10 bracing oxQzcw     
adj.令人振奋的
参考例句:
  • The country is bracing itself for the threatened enemy invasion. 这个国家正准备奋起抵抗敌人的入侵威胁。
  • The atmosphere in the new government was bracing. 新政府的气氛是令人振奋的。
11 configuration nYpyb     
n.结构,布局,形态,(计算机)配置
参考例句:
  • Geographers study the configuration of the mountains.地理学家研究山脉的地形轮廓。
  • Prices range from $119 to $199,depending on the particular configuration.价格因具体配置而异,从119美元至199美元不等。
12 membrane H7ez8     
n.薄膜,膜皮,羊皮纸
参考例句:
  • A vibrating membrane in the ear helps to convey sounds to the brain.耳膜的振动帮助声音传送到大脑。
  • A plastic membrane serves as selective diffusion barrier.一层塑料薄膜起着选择性渗透屏障的作用。
13 stiffen zudwI     
v.(使)硬,(使)变挺,(使)变僵硬
参考例句:
  • The blood supply to the skin is reduced when muscles stiffen.当肌肉变得僵硬时,皮肤的供血量就减少了。
  • I was breathing hard,and my legs were beginning to stiffen.这时我却气吁喘喘地开始感到脚有点僵硬。
14 buckling buckling     
扣住
参考例句:
  • A door slammed in the house and a man came out buckling his belt. 房子里的一扇门砰地关上,一个男子边扣腰带边走了出来。
  • The periodic buckling leaves the fibre in a waved conformation. 周期性的弯折在纤维中造成波形构成。
15 feat 5kzxp     
n.功绩;武艺,技艺;adj.灵巧的,漂亮的,合适的
参考例句:
  • Man's first landing on the moon was a feat of great daring.人类首次登月是一个勇敢的壮举。
  • He received a medal for his heroic feat.他因其英雄业绩而获得一枚勋章。
16 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
17 plaza v2yzD     
n.广场,市场
参考例句:
  • They designated the new shopping centre York Plaza.他们给这个新购物中心定名为约克购物中心。
  • The plaza is teeming with undercover policemen.这个广场上布满了便衣警察。
18 contractors afd5c0fd2ee43e4ecee8159c7a7c63e4     
n.(建筑、监造中的)承包人( contractor的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • We got estimates from three different contractors before accepting the lowest. 我们得到3个承包商的报价后,接受了最低的报价。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Contractors winning construction jobs had to kick back 2 per cent of the contract price to the mafia. 赢得建筑工作的承包商得抽出合同价格的百分之二的回扣给黑手党。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 advantageous BK5yp     
adj.有利的;有帮助的
参考例句:
  • Injections of vitamin C are obviously advantageous.注射维生素C显然是有利的。
  • You're in a very advantageous position.你处于非常有利的地位。
20 cylinders fd0c4aab3548ce77958c1502f0bc9692     
n.圆筒( cylinder的名词复数 );圆柱;汽缸;(尤指用作容器的)圆筒状物
参考例句:
  • They are working on all cylinders to get the job finished. 他们正在竭尽全力争取把这工作干完。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • That jeep has four cylinders. 那辆吉普车有4个汽缸。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 envisaged 40d5ad82152f6e596b8f8c766f0778db     
想像,设想( envisage的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He envisaged an old age of loneliness and poverty. 他面对着一个孤独而贫困的晚年。
  • Henry Ford envisaged an important future for the motor car. 亨利·福特为汽车设想了一个远大前程。
22 disastrous 2ujx0     
adj.灾难性的,造成灾害的;极坏的,很糟的
参考例句:
  • The heavy rainstorm caused a disastrous flood.暴雨成灾。
  • Her investment had disastrous consequences.She lost everything she owned.她的投资结果很惨,血本无归。
23 inflicted cd6137b3bb7ad543500a72a112c6680f     
把…强加给,使承受,遭受( inflict的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • They inflicted a humiliating defeat on the home team. 他们使主队吃了一场很没面子的败仗。
  • Zoya heroically bore the torture that the Fascists inflicted upon her. 卓娅英勇地承受法西斯匪徒加在她身上的酷刑。
24 catastrophe WXHzr     
n.大灾难,大祸
参考例句:
  • I owe it to you that I survived the catastrophe.亏得你我才大难不死。
  • This is a catastrophe beyond human control.这是一场人类无法控制的灾难。
25 hijacked 54f3e68c506e45e75f9a155a27738c2f     
劫持( hijack的过去式和过去分词 ); 绑架; 拦路抢劫; 操纵(会议等,以推销自己的意图)
参考例句:
  • The plane was hijacked by two armed men on a flight from London to Rome. 飞机在从伦敦飞往罗马途中遭到两名持械男子劫持。
  • The plane was hijacked soon after it took off. 那架飞机起飞后不久被劫持了。
26 airliner Azxz9v     
n.客机,班机
参考例句:
  • The pilot landed the airliner safely.驾驶员使客机安全着陆。
  • The passengers were shepherded across the tarmac to the airliner.旅客们被引导走过跑道去上飞机。
27 impetus L4uyj     
n.推动,促进,刺激;推动力
参考例句:
  • This is the primary impetus behind the economic recovery.这是促使经济复苏的主要动力。
  • Her speech gave an impetus to my ideas.她的讲话激发了我的思绪。
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