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15篇文章贯通六级词汇Unit13-Part2

时间:2010-11-22 05:07来源:互联网 提供网友:luckykisshua   字体: [ ]
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[00:00.00]A dvertisements depict1 gender2 bias3
[00:03.62]while promoting products.
[00:05.04]Looking at merchandise displays
[00:07.12]in any mall will reveal that
[00:09.75]a picture of a juvenile4 lad would
[00:12.26]be near construction equipment
[00:13.57]while an ad for perfume
[00:15.21]would likely show a female.
[00:16.75]The drawback of this seemingly innocent way
[00:20.68]of displaying merchandise is that
[00:22.98]they tend to affirm the bias
[00:24.84]of the individuals who design them.
[00:26.48]This is a serious flaw.
[00:29.11]Maybe the intent was not to be exclusive
[00:32.39]but that is the end result
[00:34.14]of the message that is evoked6,
[00:35.56]whether subliminal7 or overt8.
[00:38.08]An alternate way of viewing the world,
[00:40.81]with either both genders9 portrayed10
[00:43.44]or neither with the items,
[00:44.97]may seem bizarre but marketing11 specialists
[00:48.25]have been applauded
[00:49.46]for making the effort to do so.
[00:51.21]The hypothesis has been suggested
[00:54.16]that if this practise were widespread
[00:57.01]it would facilitate a change
[00:59.30]for the better in the values
[01:01.27]that are embedded12 in our society.
[01:03.24]When you read a biography
[01:05.98]in a newspaper in a metropolitan13 area,
[01:08.61]you will find that different words
[01:10.79]are used to describe males and females.
[01:13.20]In almost any literary work,
[01:16.26]personal appearance is seldom mentioned
[01:19.11]when describing males,
[01:20.64]but commonly used
[01:22.72]when a female is the subject of the article.
[01:25.12]Forms of address that are considered proper
[01:29.28]to use are also discriminatory.
[01:31.83]Males are always referred to as
[01:34.56] Mr. (except a very young lad
[01:37.41]might be addressed as Master).
[01:39.05]There are several forms of abbreviations
[01:42.44]to use before the name of a female.
[01:44.19]It is permissible14 to use Mrs.,
[01:46.93]Miss, or Ms.
[01:48.79]The choice of abbreviation
[01:50.97]is by personal preference
[01:52.51]of the person being addressed
[01:54.48]but they have different meanings.
[01:56.12]Mrs. is used to signify a married woman.
[02:00.17]Miss means an unmarried or single woman.
[02:03.89]Ms. could mean either
[02:06.40]and is the choice of many women
[02:08.15]because it does not reveal their marital15 status.
[02:10.56]How strange that society feels
[02:14.06]it is necessary to be able
[02:16.03]to deduce a woman's marital status
[02:18.00]from her name by providing
[02:19.64]this form of definitive16 identification.
[02:22.16]A man could be married
[02:24.45]or could be a bachelor
[02:25.88]and one is not able
[02:27.73]to ascertain17 his marital status from his name.
[02:30.03]Why, then, is it necessary
[02:32.77]to differentiate18 between a woman
[02:35.18]who is married and one who is not?
[02:37.04]Many of the cases of sexual harassment19
[02:41.42]that are dealt with in corporations
[02:43.28]are a result of stereotyping20.
[02:45.35]Usually the person
[02:47.98]who is the alleged21 harasser22 is a male
[02:50.60]who supervises females.
[02:52.46]Males have been taught by society
[02:55.20]that they are the privileged gender
[02:57.28]and have power over any female.
[02:59.25]This is the basis
[03:01.24]behind most incidents of harassment.
[03:04.08]How strange that intelligent men feel entitled
[03:08.02]to take advantage of females
[03:09.77]in a subordinate position.
[03:11.53]To heighten awareness23,
[03:13.94]forums or symposiums are held
[03:17.11]to enlighten people about the importance
[03:19.81]of using inclusive language
[03:21.66]but may people still resist changing.
[03:24.19]Some people are determined24 that
[03:27.68]the word man also includes woman.
[03:29.76]Sometimes the meaning does incorporate women
[03:33.16]and sometimes it doesn?t.
[03:35.01]However, many woman insist that
[03:38.84]they are never quite sure of the meaning
[03:40.70]and suggest that the word humanity
[03:42.67]should be used instead
[03:45.08]when the intended meaning is both men
[03:46.83]and women and then
[03:49.46]there would be no confusion.
[03:50.54]It is incomprehensible to others
[03:53.83]why they refuse to change.
[03:55.58]A booklet or pamphlet is available
[03:59.30]for reference in most work places
[04:01.70]to help people use inclusive language
[04:03.79]in any writing in the workplace.
[04:05.64]Some government offices have produced a leaflet
[04:09.59]that can be used by companies
[04:11.44]that do not have the impetus25
[04:13.09]or the resources to design their own.
[04:15.38]Studies about gender differences
[04:19.10]have suggested a hypothesis
[04:21.51]that females have better verbal skills,
[04:24.02]while males excel at tasks
[04:26.32]requiring the ability to visualize26.
[04:28.62]Conclusions of many of the studies have proved
[04:33.22]it invalid27 and found instead
[04:35.40]the differences between the genders
[04:37.37]to be almost nil5. T
[04:39.23]here are, however, notable differences
[04:43.50]between individuals regardless of their gender.
[04:46.24]The absurd criterion for
[04:49.52]judging a person's ability based on
[04:51.81]their gender needs to be abolished.
[04:53.56]Until this is seen as being abnormal,
[04:56.63]the attempt to updated attitudes
[04:59.03]without removing the underlying28 cause
[05:01.11]of the societal values will be useless.
 


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1 depict Wmdz5     
vt.描画,描绘;描写,描述
参考例句:
  • I don't care to see plays or films that depict murders or violence.我不喜欢看描写谋杀或暴力的戏剧或电影。
  • Children's books often depict farmyard animals as gentle,lovable creatures.儿童图书常常把农场的动物描写得温和而可爱。
2 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名词、代词等的)性
参考例句:
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
3 bias 0QByQ     
n.偏见,偏心,偏袒;vt.使有偏见
参考例句:
  • They are accusing the teacher of political bias in his marking.他们在指控那名教师打分数有政治偏见。
  • He had a bias toward the plan.他对这项计划有偏见。
4 juvenile OkEy2     
n.青少年,少年读物;adj.青少年的,幼稚的
参考例句:
  • For a grown man he acted in a very juvenile manner.身为成年人,他的行为举止显得十分幼稚。
  • Juvenile crime is increasing at a terrifying rate.青少年犯罪正在以惊人的速度增长。
5 nil 7GgxO     
n.无,全无,零
参考例句:
  • My knowledge of the subject is practically nil.我在这方面的知识几乎等于零。
  • Their legal rights are virtually nil.他们实际上毫无法律权利。
6 evoked 0681b342def6d2a4206d965ff12603b2     
[医]诱发的
参考例句:
  • The music evoked memories of her youth. 这乐曲勾起了她对青年时代的回忆。
  • Her face, though sad, still evoked a feeling of serenity. 她的脸色虽然悲伤,但仍使人感觉安详。
7 subliminal hH7zv     
adj.下意识的,潜意识的;太弱或太快以至于难以觉察的
参考例句:
  • Maybe they're getting it on a subliminal level.也许他们会在潜意识里这么以为。
  • The soft sell approach gets to consumers in a subliminal way.软广告通过潜意识的作用来影响消费者。
8 overt iKoxp     
adj.公开的,明显的,公然的
参考例句:
  • His opponent's intention is quite overt.他的对手的意图很明显。
  • We should learn to fight with enemy in an overt and covert way.我们应学会同敌人做公开和隐蔽的斗争。
9 genders 83bb1a3a9f58b3256de7992ae4edb965     
n.性某些语言的(阳性、阴性和中性,不同的性有不同的词尾等)( gender的名词复数 );性别;某些语言的(名词、代词和形容词)性的区分
参考例句:
  • There are three genders in German: masculine, feminine and neuter. 德语中有叁性:阳性、阴性和中性。 来自辞典例句
  • Japan was fourth among the genders of foreign students. 日本在二十个留美学生输送地中列第四位。 来自互联网
10 portrayed a75f5b1487928c9f7f165b2773c13036     
v.画像( portray的过去式和过去分词 );描述;描绘;描画
参考例句:
  • Throughout the trial, he portrayed himself as the victim. 在审讯过程中,他始终把自己说成是受害者。
  • The author portrayed his father as a vicious drunkard. 作者把他父亲描绘成一个可恶的酒鬼。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
11 marketing Boez7e     
n.行销,在市场的买卖,买东西
参考例句:
  • They are developing marketing network.他们正在发展销售网络。
  • He often goes marketing.他经常去市场做生意。
12 embedded lt9ztS     
a.扎牢的
参考例句:
  • an operation to remove glass that was embedded in his leg 取出扎入他腿部玻璃的手术
  • He has embedded his name in the minds of millions of people. 他的名字铭刻在数百万人民心中。
13 metropolitan mCyxZ     
adj.大城市的,大都会的
参考例句:
  • Metropolitan buildings become taller than ever.大城市的建筑变得比以前更高。
  • Metropolitan residents are used to fast rhythm.大都市的居民习惯于快节奏。
14 permissible sAIy1     
adj.可允许的,许可的
参考例句:
  • Is smoking permissible in the theatre?在剧院里允许吸烟吗?
  • Delay is not permissible,even for a single day.不得延误,即使一日亦不可。
15 marital SBixg     
adj.婚姻的,夫妻的
参考例句:
  • Her son had no marital problems.她的儿子没有婚姻问题。
  • I regret getting involved with my daughter's marital problems;all its done is to bring trouble about my ears.我后悔干涉我女儿的婚姻问题, 现在我所做的一切将给我带来无穷的烦恼。
16 definitive YxSxF     
adj.确切的,权威性的;最后的,决定性的
参考例句:
  • This book is the definitive guide to world cuisine.这本书是世界美食的权威指南。
  • No one has come up with a definitive answer as to why this should be so.至于为什么该这样,还没有人给出明确的答复。
17 ascertain WNVyN     
vt.发现,确定,查明,弄清
参考例句:
  • It's difficult to ascertain the coal deposits.煤储量很难探明。
  • We must ascertain the responsibility in light of different situtations.我们必须根据不同情况判定责任。
18 differentiate cm3yc     
vi.(between)区分;vt.区别;使不同
参考例句:
  • You can differentiate between the houses by the shape of their chimneys.你可以凭借烟囱形状的不同来区分这两幢房子。
  • He never learned to differentiate between good and evil.他从未学会分辨善恶。
19 harassment weNxI     
n.骚扰,扰乱,烦恼,烦乱
参考例句:
  • She often got telephone harassment at night these days.这些天她经常在夜晚受到电话骚扰。
  • The company prohibits any form of harassment.公司禁止任何形式的骚扰行为。
20 stereotyping 39d617452c0dc987f973fc489929116c     
v.把…模式化,使成陈规( stereotype的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • I realize that I'm stereotyping. 我认识到我搞的是老一套。 来自辞典例句
  • There is none of the gender stereotyping usually evident in school uniforms. 有没有人的性别刻板印象通常是显而易见的。 来自互联网
21 alleged gzaz3i     
a.被指控的,嫌疑的
参考例句:
  • It was alleged that he had taken bribes while in office. 他被指称在任时收受贿赂。
  • alleged irregularities in the election campaign 被指称竞选运动中的不正当行为
22 harasser 52cef26bced4828e59ee1646c8efcf6a     
参考例句:
  • Inform the harasser that his or her attentions are unwanted. 告诉骚扰人他/她的注意是不需要的。 来自互联网
  • Understand that this is the same with our workplace bully and harasser. 了解职场欺负者和骚扰者也是这样。 来自互联网
23 awareness 4yWzdW     
n.意识,觉悟,懂事,明智
参考例句:
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人们普遍认识到吸烟有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.这些年来人们的环境意识增强了。
24 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
25 impetus L4uyj     
n.推动,促进,刺激;推动力
参考例句:
  • This is the primary impetus behind the economic recovery.这是促使经济复苏的主要动力。
  • Her speech gave an impetus to my ideas.她的讲话激发了我的思绪。
26 visualize yeJzsZ     
vt.使看得见,使具体化,想象,设想
参考例句:
  • I remember meeting the man before but I can't visualize him.我记得以前见过那个人,但他的样子我想不起来了。
  • She couldn't visualize flying through space.她无法想像在太空中飞行的景象。
27 invalid V4Oxh     
n.病人,伤残人;adj.有病的,伤残的;无效的
参考例句:
  • He will visit an invalid.他将要去看望一个病人。
  • A passport that is out of date is invalid.护照过期是无效的。
28 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
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