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15篇文章贯通六级词汇Unit14-Part1

时间:2010-11-22 05:22来源:互联网 提供网友:luckykisshua   字体: [ ]
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[00:00.00]UNIT14
[00:14.75]Dr. Sun Yat-sen: Father of the Chinese Revolution
[00:20.77]Dr. Sun Yat-sen held official political office
[00:26.02]for a total of only a few months in China,
[00:28.97]yet he had an impact so profound
[00:32.15]that it earned him the designation
[00:34.88]of Father of the Chinese Revolution.
[00:38.16]He was a man
[00:40.31]who is still much revered1 in China.
[00:42.72]His portrait can be seen in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
[00:47.97]Sun was born in 1866 in Guangdong Province.
[00:54.43]His ancestors were clans2
[00:57.71]of farmers and shepherds.
[00:59.35]During his adolescent years,
[01:02.08]he attended school in Honolulu and Hong Kong.
[01:06.14]In the latter city,
[01:08.76]he studied medicine, receiving an “A”
[01:12.04]in every subject in the program,
[01:14.99]an unprecedented3 feat4 at Hong Kong Medical College
[01:19.16](later, the University of Hong Kong).
[01:22.33]While in Hong Kong,
[01:24.29]Sun undertook conversion5 to Roman Catholicism.
[01:29.00]Early in life, Sun developed contempt
[01:33.70]for the corruption6 of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty.
[01:37.86]He was also vocal7
[01:40.27]in denouncing foreign intrusions
[01:42.34]and aggression8 against China
[01:44.53]during the 19th century.
[01:46.94]The opium9 war of 1839 to 1842
[01:53.07]was a major testimony10 to China's inability
[01:56.90]to defend itself against outside aggression.
[02:00.40]By this period,
[02:03.14]Britain had developed a strong monopoly
[02:05.98]in the trade of many goods,
[02:08.06]including tea, salt, opium,
[02:11.56]and other commodities.
[02:13.42]This monopoly was exercised mostly
[02:17.69]through the British East India Company.
[02:20.21]Britain had been importing much from China,
[02:24.48]but was exporting little.
[02:26.77]This resulted in a yearly balance
[02:30.27]of payments deficit11 with China.
[02:32.68]To correct this imbalance in trade,
[02:36.29]and the fact that opium was a highly addictive12 drug,
[02:40.54]the arrogant13 British forced
[02:42.94]the export of opium on China,
[02:45.03]even though opium was declared illegal
[02:48.64]by the latter. China's attempt
[02:52.35]to resist these aggressive trade practices
[02:55.09]precipitated the bloody14 Opium War of 1839 to 1842.
[03:02.31]Thousands were massacred
[03:04.93]as China lost miserably15 against superior forces.
[03:09.20]The Treaty of Nanking in 1842
[03:14.35]dictated that China pay huge compensation
[03:17.95]to Britain and it forced China
[03:20.00]to open five of its ports to British trade.
[03:23.72]Britain also demanded and received immunity16
[03:28.21]from Chinese laws,
[03:29.95]therefore gaining British sovereignty
[03:32.80]over small parts of a foreign land.
[03:35.21]Hong Kong was ceded17 to Britain as well.
[03:38.92]The Chinese endured repression18
[03:41.85]and humiliation19 for many decades.
[03:45.02]In 1896, the United States,
[03:50.06]relative newcomers to the club
[03:52.24]of world imperialists,
[03:53.77]declared an Open Door policy
[03:55.96]for trading with China.
[03:57.71] No foreign country was to have a monopoly
[04:02.20]of trade with China.
[04:03.83]During the 19th century,
[04:06.35]many foreign countries successfully
[04:09.42]carved out pieces of China for themselves.
[04:12.59]Geographically, by 1911,
[04:17.07]China was a significantly smaller country
[04:19.92]than it was in 1800.
[04:22.55]In the middle of the 19th century,
[04:26.92]China was also going through
[04:29.44]some very grim times, economically.
[04:32.50]There were famines, floods, and droughts.
[04:36.87]There was much suffering and deprivation20,
[04:40.27]especially in the southern areas of China.
[04:43.55]The Qing dynasty did very little
[04:47.05]to relieve the people of their plight21.
[04:49.90]These conditions, along with
[04:52.96]the humiliating concessions22 being forced
[04:55.91]on them by foreign powers,
[04:57.77]culminated in a mass of violent eruptions23
[05:01.27]and disturbances24 against the Qing Dynasty,
[05:04.45]which became known as
[05:06.41]the Taiping Rebellion from 1851 to 1864.
[05:12.32]The Opium Wars, the Taiping Rebellion,
[05:17.02]and later, in 1900,
[05:18.78]the Boxer25 Rebellion,
[05:20.42]were constant reminders26 of government corruption
[05:23.38]and China's weakness against foreign intrusion
[05:27.42]and manipulation.
[05:28.73]With these tragic27 misfortunes
[05:31.58]in recent modern Chinese history on his mind,
[05:34.64]Sun came to the conclusion that
[05:37.92]the only way that China could truly
[05:40.22]become a strong unified28 country once again,
[05:43.28]was by full?scale revolution.
[05:46.78]This should begin
[05:49.19]with capturing the Qing throne,
[05:51.38]terminating millennia29 of imperial rule in China.
[05:55.10]He also realized that
[05:58.75]a more militant30 approach was needed
[06:01.06]if he was going to achieve his goals.
[06:03.90]Blundering in the first attempt
[06:08.27]to overthrow31 the Manchus in 1895,
[06:11.67]Sun fled from China and embarked32 upon
[06:15.72]an unexpected 16 years of world travel
[06:20.97]and refection.
[06:24.25]This period proved instrumental
[06:28.19]in Sun's development of revolutionary strategy and theory.
[06:28.50]He enrolled33 support from Chinese people
[06:31.57]living in other countries.
[06:33.20]He visited Hawaii, the United States,
[06:36.71]Britain, and Japan.
[06:39.22]He elicited34 help wherever he could.
[06:42.73]He read some of works of Karl Marx
[06:46.01]and those of Henry George.
[06:48.09]George was an American economist35
[06:52.57]and social philosopher
[06:54.10]who saw the injustice36 of land policy
[06:56.73]during the building of railroads
[06:58.81]into the American west in the second half
[07:01.65]of the 19th century.
[07:03.51]George observed that
[07:06.13]most people who moved west
[07:08.00]remained poor or got poorer,
[07:10.19]while the relatively37 few land developers
[07:13.36]got richer and richer.
[07:15.22]The advertisement
[07:20.68]“Go west young man and prosper38” meant,
[07:24.96]in reality, that only a very few would prosper.
[07:28.24]George suggested, without success,
[07:31.41]that a heavy land tax be levied39
[07:33.38]to tap some of this wealth
[07:36.55]in order to develop a solid infrastructure40
[07:38.52]from which all people in the west,
[07:38.44]not just the rich, could benefit.
[07:41.07]Sun also had the opportunity
[07:44.35]to study republican forms of government
[07:46.86]such as that of the United States.
[07:49.82]He became even more convinced that
[07:53.32]China had to break away from
[07:55.73]the millennia?old imperial government system,
[07:58.57]concluding that a republican system
[08:00.87]was the answer for China.
[08:03.17]He was impressed with Montesquieu's principle
[08:06.67]of the separation of government powers.
[08:09.30]This theory stated that
[08:12.14]the three branches of government,
[08:13.78]the executive, legislative41, and judicial42,
[08:17.28]function separately.
[08:19.14]He saw this in practice,
[08:21.11]particularly in the United States.
[08:23.63]He later concluded that for China,
[08:26.47]two additional separated powers,
[08:29.32]examination and censorial43 would be necessary.
 


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1 revered 1d4a411490949024694bf40d95a0d35f     
v.崇敬,尊崇,敬畏( revere的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • A number of institutions revered and respected in earlier times have become Aunt Sally for the present generation. 一些早年受到尊崇的惯例,现在已经成了这代人嘲弄的对象了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The Chinese revered corn as a gift from heaven. 中国人将谷物奉为上天的恩赐。 来自辞典例句
2 clans 107c1b7606090bbd951aa9bdcf1d209e     
宗族( clan的名词复数 ); 氏族; 庞大的家族; 宗派
参考例句:
  • There are many clans in European countries. 欧洲国家有很多党派。
  • The women were the great power among the clans [gentes], as everywhere else. 妇女在克兰〈氏族〉里,乃至一般在任何地方,都有很大的势力。 来自英汉非文学 - 家庭、私有制和国家的起源
3 unprecedented 7gSyJ     
adj.无前例的,新奇的
参考例句:
  • The air crash caused an unprecedented number of deaths.这次空难的死亡人数是空前的。
  • A flood of this sort is really unprecedented.这样大的洪水真是十年九不遇。
4 feat 5kzxp     
n.功绩;武艺,技艺;adj.灵巧的,漂亮的,合适的
参考例句:
  • Man's first landing on the moon was a feat of great daring.人类首次登月是一个勇敢的壮举。
  • He received a medal for his heroic feat.他因其英雄业绩而获得一枚勋章。
5 conversion UZPyI     
n.转化,转换,转变
参考例句:
  • He underwent quite a conversion.他彻底变了。
  • Waste conversion is a part of the production process.废物处理是生产过程的一个组成部分。
6 corruption TzCxn     
n.腐败,堕落,贪污
参考例句:
  • The people asked the government to hit out against corruption and theft.人民要求政府严惩贪污盗窃。
  • The old man reviled against corruption.那老人痛斥了贪污舞弊。
7 vocal vhOwA     
adj.直言不讳的;嗓音的;n.[pl.]声乐节目
参考例句:
  • The tongue is a vocal organ.舌头是一个发音器官。
  • Public opinion at last became vocal.终于舆论哗然。
8 aggression WKjyF     
n.进攻,侵略,侵犯,侵害
参考例句:
  • So long as we are firmly united, we need fear no aggression.只要我们紧密地团结,就不必惧怕外来侵略。
  • Her view is that aggression is part of human nature.她认为攻击性是人类本性的一部份。
9 opium c40zw     
n.鸦片;adj.鸦片的
参考例句:
  • That man gave her a dose of opium.那男人给了她一剂鸦片。
  • Opium is classed under the head of narcotic.鸦片是归入麻醉剂一类的东西。
10 testimony zpbwO     
n.证词;见证,证明
参考例句:
  • The testimony given by him is dubious.他所作的证据是可疑的。
  • He was called in to bear testimony to what the police officer said.他被传入为警官所说的话作证。
11 deficit tmAzu     
n.亏空,亏损;赤字,逆差
参考例句:
  • The directors have reported a deficit of 2.5 million dollars.董事们报告赤字为250万美元。
  • We have a great deficit this year.我们今年有很大亏损。
12 addictive hJbyL     
adj.(吸毒等)使成瘾的,成为习惯的
参考例句:
  • The problem with video game is that they're addictive.电子游戏机的问题在于它们会使人上瘾。
  • Cigarettes are highly addictive.香烟很容易使人上瘾。
13 arrogant Jvwz5     
adj.傲慢的,自大的
参考例句:
  • You've got to get rid of your arrogant ways.你这骄傲劲儿得好好改改。
  • People are waking up that he is arrogant.人们开始认识到他很傲慢。
14 bloody kWHza     
adj.非常的的;流血的;残忍的;adv.很;vt.血染
参考例句:
  • He got a bloody nose in the fight.他在打斗中被打得鼻子流血。
  • He is a bloody fool.他是一个十足的笨蛋。
15 miserably zDtxL     
adv.痛苦地;悲惨地;糟糕地;极度地
参考例句:
  • The little girl was wailing miserably. 那小女孩难过得号啕大哭。
  • It was drizzling, and miserably cold and damp. 外面下着毛毛细雨,天气又冷又湿,令人难受。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 immunity dygyQ     
n.优惠;免除;豁免,豁免权
参考例句:
  • The law gives public schools immunity from taxation.法律免除公立学校的纳税义务。
  • He claims diplomatic immunity to avoid being arrested.他要求外交豁免以便避免被捕。
17 ceded a030deab5d3a168a121ec0137a4fa7c4     
v.让给,割让,放弃( cede的过去式 )
参考例句:
  • Cuba was ceded by Spain to the US in 1898. 古巴在1898年被西班牙割让给美国。
  • A third of the territory was ceded to France. 领土的三分之一割让给了法国。 来自《简明英汉词典》
18 repression zVyxX     
n.镇压,抑制,抑压
参考例句:
  • The repression of your true feelings is harmful to your health.压抑你的真实感情有害健康。
  • This touched off a new storm against violent repression.这引起了反对暴力镇压的新风暴。
19 humiliation Jd3zW     
n.羞辱
参考例句:
  • He suffered the humiliation of being forced to ask for his cards.他蒙受了被迫要求辞职的羞辱。
  • He will wish to revenge his humiliation in last Season's Final.他会为在上个季度的决赛中所受的耻辱而报复的。
20 deprivation e9Uy7     
n.匮乏;丧失;夺去,贫困
参考例句:
  • Many studies make it clear that sleep deprivation is dangerous.多实验都证实了睡眠被剥夺是危险的。
  • Missing the holiday was a great deprivation.错过假日是极大的损失。
21 plight 820zI     
n.困境,境况,誓约,艰难;vt.宣誓,保证,约定
参考例句:
  • The leader was much concerned over the plight of the refugees.那位领袖对难民的困境很担忧。
  • She was in a most helpless plight.她真不知如何是好。
22 concessions 6b6f497aa80aaf810133260337506fa9     
n.(尤指由政府或雇主给予的)特许权( concession的名词复数 );承认;减价;(在某地的)特许经营权
参考例句:
  • The firm will be forced to make concessions if it wants to avoid a strike. 要想避免罢工,公司将不得不作出一些让步。
  • The concessions did little to placate the students. 让步根本未能平息学生的愤怒。
23 eruptions ca60b8eba3620efa5cdd7044f6dd0b66     
n.喷发,爆发( eruption的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There have been several volcanic eruptions this year. 今年火山爆发了好几次。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Over 200 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions. 火山喷发已导致200多人丧生。 来自辞典例句
24 disturbances a0726bd74d4516cd6fbe05e362bc74af     
n.骚乱( disturbance的名词复数 );打扰;困扰;障碍
参考例句:
  • The government has set up a commission of inquiry into the disturbances at the prison. 政府成立了一个委员会来调查监狱骚乱事件。
  • Extra police were called in to quell the disturbances. 已调集了增援警力来平定骚乱。
25 boxer sxKzdR     
n.制箱者,拳击手
参考例句:
  • The boxer gave his opponent a punch on the nose.这个拳击手朝他对手的鼻子上猛击一拳。
  • He moved lightly on his toes like a boxer.他像拳击手一样踮着脚轻盈移动。
26 reminders aaaf99d0fb822f809193c02b8cf69fba     
n.令人回忆起…的东西( reminder的名词复数 );提醒…的东西;(告知该做某事的)通知单;提示信
参考例句:
  • The film evokes chilling reminders of the war. 这部电影使人们回忆起战争的可怕场景。
  • The strike has delayed the mailing of tax reminders. 罢工耽搁了催税单的投寄。
27 tragic inaw2     
adj.悲剧的,悲剧性的,悲惨的
参考例句:
  • The effect of the pollution on the beaches is absolutely tragic.污染海滩后果可悲。
  • Charles was a man doomed to tragic issues.查理是个注定不得善终的人。
28 unified 40b03ccf3c2da88cc503272d1de3441c     
(unify 的过去式和过去分词); 统一的; 统一标准的; 一元化的
参考例句:
  • The teacher unified the answer of her pupil with hers. 老师核对了学生的答案。
  • The First Emperor of Qin unified China in 221 B.C. 秦始皇于公元前221年统一中国。
29 millennia 3DHxf     
n.一千年,千禧年
参考例句:
  • For two millennia, exogamy was a major transgression for Jews. 两千年来,异族通婚一直是犹太人的一大禁忌。
  • In the course of millennia, the dinosaurs died out. 在几千年的时间里,恐龙逐渐死绝了。
30 militant 8DZxh     
adj.激进的,好斗的;n.激进分子,斗士
参考例句:
  • Some militant leaders want to merge with white radicals.一些好斗的领导人要和白人中的激进派联合。
  • He is a militant in the movement.他在那次运动中是个激进人物。
31 overthrow PKDxo     
v.推翻,打倒,颠覆;n.推翻,瓦解,颠覆
参考例句:
  • After the overthrow of the government,the country was in chaos.政府被推翻后,这个国家处于混乱中。
  • The overthrow of his plans left him much discouraged.他的计划的失败使得他很气馁。
32 embarked e63154942be4f2a5c3c51f6b865db3de     
乘船( embark的过去式和过去分词 ); 装载; 从事
参考例句:
  • We stood on the pier and watched as they embarked. 我们站在突码头上目送他们登船。
  • She embarked on a discourse about the town's origins. 她开始讲本市的起源。
33 enrolled ff7af27948b380bff5d583359796d3c8     
adj.入学登记了的v.[亦作enrol]( enroll的过去式和过去分词 );登记,招收,使入伍(或入会、入学等),参加,成为成员;记入名册;卷起,包起
参考例句:
  • They have been studying hard from the moment they enrolled. 从入学时起,他们就一直努力学习。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He enrolled with an employment agency for a teaching position. 他在职业介绍所登了记以谋求一个教师的职位。 来自《简明英汉词典》
34 elicited 65993d006d16046aa01b07b96e6edfc2     
引出,探出( elicit的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • Threats to reinstate the tax elicited jeer from the Opposition. 恢复此项征税的威胁引起了反对党的嘲笑。
  • The comedian's joke elicited applause and laughter from the audience. 那位滑稽演员的笑话博得观众的掌声和笑声。
35 economist AuhzVs     
n.经济学家,经济专家,节俭的人
参考例句:
  • He cast a professional economist's eyes on the problem.他以经济学行家的眼光审视这个问题。
  • He's an economist who thinks he knows all the answers.他是个经济学家,自以为什么都懂。
36 injustice O45yL     
n.非正义,不公正,不公平,侵犯(别人的)权利
参考例句:
  • They complained of injustice in the way they had been treated.他们抱怨受到不公平的对待。
  • All his life he has been struggling against injustice.他一生都在与不公正现象作斗争。
37 relatively bkqzS3     
adv.比较...地,相对地
参考例句:
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
38 prosper iRrxC     
v.成功,兴隆,昌盛;使成功,使昌隆,繁荣
参考例句:
  • With her at the wheel,the company began to prosper.有了她当主管,公司开始兴旺起来。
  • It is my earnest wish that this company will continue to prosper.我真诚希望这家公司会继续兴旺发达。
39 levied 18fd33c3607bddee1446fc49dfab80c6     
征(兵)( levy的过去式和过去分词 ); 索取; 发动(战争); 征税
参考例句:
  • Taxes should be levied more on the rich than on the poor. 向富人征收的税应该比穷人的多。
  • Heavy fines were levied on motoring offenders. 违规驾车者会遭到重罚。
40 infrastructure UbBz5     
n.下部构造,下部组织,基础结构,基础设施
参考例句:
  • We should step up the development of infrastructure for research.加强科学基础设施建设。
  • We should strengthen cultural infrastructure and boost various types of popular culture.加强文化基础设施建设,发展各类群众文化。
41 legislative K9hzG     
n.立法机构,立法权;adj.立法的,有立法权的
参考例句:
  • Congress is the legislative branch of the U.S. government.国会是美国政府的立法部门。
  • Today's hearing was just the first step in the legislative process.今天的听证会只是展开立法程序的第一步。
42 judicial c3fxD     
adj.司法的,法庭的,审判的,明断的,公正的
参考例句:
  • He is a man with a judicial mind.他是个公正的人。
  • Tom takes judicial proceedings against his father.汤姆对他的父亲正式提出诉讼。
43 censorial d4205c1ed7338ace5e9bbddfba5ea085     
监察官的,审查员的
参考例句:
  • Set censorial division, vet division, management division, division handling card, division 5 section office. 设有监察科、检审科、管理科、办证科、综合科5个科室。
  • But, if PSC is censorial derelict, unreasonable, ship-owner also can maintain his interest through legal measure. 但是,假如PSC检查官玩忽职守、不讲道理,船东也可以通过法律手段维护自己的利益。
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