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THE MAKING OF A NATION 212 - Lyndon Johnson, Part 1

时间:2005-09-29 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:wbnewbie   字体: [ ]
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THE MAKING OF A NATION -September 26, 2002: Lyndon Johnson, Part 1

By Jeri Watson


VOICE 1:

This is Phil Murray.

VOICE 2:

And this is Richard rael with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history
of the United States.

((Theme))

Today, we begin the story of president Lyndon Johnson.

VOICE 1:

Lyndon Baines Johnson became America's thirty-sixth president very suddenly. It


Lyndon Johnson

happened on November twenty-second, nineteen-sixty-three. On that day, President

being sworn into

John Kennedy was murdered.

office, with
Jacqueline Kennedy
beside him.

Kennedy and Johnson -- his vice1 president --were visiting Dallas, Texas. Kennedy
was shot to death as his open car drove through the streets of the city. Within a few
hours, Johnson was sworn in as president on a plane that would take him back to
Washington. The new president said, "I will do my best. That is all I can do. I ask
for your help, and God's."

Lyndon Johnson being
((Music Bridge)) sworn into office, with

Jacqueline Kennedy beside

him.

VOICE 2:

Before being elected vice president, Lyndon Johnson had served for many years in both the Senate and the house
of representatives. He liked making decisions. And he loved politics. He grew up in small towns in Texas. After
completing high school, he traveled and worked for a while. He said he was afraid of more studying. But after a
few years, he entered southwest Texas State Teachers College. There he was a student leader and political
activist2.

VOICE 1:

Johnson went to Washington as secretary to a congressman3 in nineteen-thirty-one. Four years later, President
Franklin Roosevelt named him to a leadership position in a national social program for young people. Two years
after that, he decided4 to campaign for a seat in the House of Representatives.

When World War Two began, Johnson was the first member of Congress to join the armed forces.

He served in the House for twelve years. After the war, he campaigned for the Senate, where he also served for
twelve years. As a senator, he became an expert in the operation of government.

VOICE 2:

Lyndon Johnson would need all of this knowledge as president. On the day he was sworn in, American faced
serious problems. Communist forces in Vietnam were fighting troops supported by the United States. There was
a continuing possibility of nuclear war with the Soviet5 Union. At home, there was racial conflict. Many
Americans did not have jobs. And there was a threat of a major railroad strike.


VOICE 1:

President Johnson began his White House days by working hard for legislation President Kennedy had proposed.
Although he had voted against civil rights legislation when he served in the Senate, he now urged Congress to
pass a civil rights bill. Congress did.

The nineteen-sixty-four Civil Rights Act was a law to help guarantee equal chances for jobs for all Americans. It
also helped guarantee equal treatment for minorities in stores, eating places, and other businesses.

VOICE 2:

When Johnson signed the bill, he said:

JOHNSON: "We believe that all men are created equal. Yet many are denied equal treatment. We believe that all
men have certain unalienable rights. Yet many Americans do not enjoy those rights. We believe that all men are
entitled to the blessings6 of liberty. Yet millions are being deprived of those blessings -- not because of their own
failures -- but because of the color of their skin."

The president said that such a situation could not continue in America. To treat people unfairly because of their
race, he said, violated the Constitution, the idea of democracy, and the law he was about to sign.

VOICE 1:

Lyndon Johnson succeeded in getting Congress to pass more civil rights legislation in nineteen-sixty-five and
nineteen-sixty-eight. The nineteen-sixty-five bill said states could not prevent citizens from voting just because
they did not do well on reading or other tests. The purpose of the law was to make sure all black Americans could
vote.

The civil rights law of nineteen-sixty-eight dealt with housing. For many years, black Americans could not get
the home they wanted in the place they wanted. Many times, property companies forced them to pay a lot for
poor housing. The purpose of the bill was to guarantee free choice and fair treatment in the housing market.

VOICE 2:

Political experts said president Johnson succeeded with Congress in a way that president Kennedy could never
have equaled. Because Johnson was from the South, he could talk easily with Southern members of Congress. He
was able to get them to agree that African Americans were treated unfairly. In addition, his own years in
Congress had taught him how to get people to do what he wanted.

VOICE 1:

President Johnson gave a name to his dream of a better America. He called it the "Great Society. " He spoke7
about it in a speech at the University of Michigan:

JOHNSON: "The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands an end to poverty and racial
injustice8, to which we are totally committed in our time. But that is just the beginning. The great society is a
place where every child can find knowledge to enrich his mind and to enlarge his talents. "

The Great Society was both an idea and a goal. To reach that goal, Johnson created several government
programs. One was the "war on poverty. " The war on poverty was a series of bills to help poor people. It was
designed to create new jobs and build the economy.

VOICE 2:

Congress did not approve a large amount of money for the war on poverty. But it did strongly support the
president's early proposals. Support dropped, however, when Congress said the nation could not pay for both
social programs at home and a war overseas.

Vietnam was not the only place where Johnson used American troops to fight communism. He would send about
twenty-thousand soldiers to the Dominican Republic, too. He feared that a rebellion there would lead to a


communist takeover of the country.
((Music Bridge)
)
VOICE 1:
Lyndon Johnson served the last fourteen months of John Kennedy's term. In nineteen-sixty-four, he campaigned


for election to a full term of his own. His Democratic Party gave him the strongest support possible. It accepted
his choice of Hubert Humphrey to be the party's candidate for vice president. Humphrey was a liberal senator
from the state of Minnesota.

VOICE 2:
Unlike the Democrats9, the Republicans had a difficult time choosing their candidates for the election. Delegates
to the party's national convention finally chose Barry Goldwater to be their candidate for president. Goldwater


was a strongly conservative senator from the state of Arizona. The delegates chose William Miller10,
a
congressman from New York state, to be their candidate for vice president.
VOICE 1:
The nation voted in November, nineteen-sixty-four. Lyndon Johnson won more than sixty percent of the popular


votes. Strangely, however, he was not pleased. He had wanted the largest victory in American history. He had
wanted proof that Americans were voting for him, and not for the shadow of John Kennedy.

VOICE 2:
In his inaugural11 speech, Johnson talked of changes. He said his Great Society was never finished. It was always
growing and improving. To Johnson, this meant passing a health care plan for older Americans. It meant
appointing blacks to important national positions.


He succeeded in these goals -- and more -- during the next four years. Congress passed the Medicare bill to
provide health care for older people. And Johnson appointed Thurgood Marshall to be the first black justice to the
Supreme12 Court.

VOICE 1:
As Johnson went back to work in the White House, however, a huge problem awaited him. Americans were
fighting to stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia. More and more were being killed. The war in


Vietnam would become extremely unpopular among American citizens. It would destroy Johnson's chances of
being remembered as a great president.
That will be our story next week.
((Theme)
)
VOICE 2:
This program of THE MAKING OF A NATION was written by jeri watson and produced by Paul Thompson.


This is Richard Rael.
VOICE 1:
And this is Phil Murray. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history of


the United States.

 

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点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
2 activist gyAzO     
n.活动分子,积极分子
参考例句:
  • He's been a trade union activist for many years.多年来他一直是工会的积极分子。
  • He is a social activist in our factory.他是我厂的社会活动积极分子。
3 Congressman TvMzt7     
n.(美)国会议员
参考例句:
  • He related several anecdotes about his first years as a congressman.他讲述自己初任议员那几年的几则轶事。
  • The congressman is meditating a reply to his critics.这位国会议员正在考虑给他的批评者一个答复。
4 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
5 Soviet Sw9wR     
adj.苏联的,苏维埃的;n.苏维埃
参考例句:
  • Zhukov was a marshal of the former Soviet Union.朱可夫是前苏联的一位元帅。
  • Germany began to attack the Soviet Union in 1941.德国在1941年开始进攻苏联。
6 blessings 52a399b218b9208cade790a26255db6b     
n.(上帝的)祝福( blessing的名词复数 );好事;福分;因祸得福
参考例句:
  • Afflictions are sometimes blessings in disguise. 塞翁失马,焉知非福。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • We don't rely on blessings from Heaven. 我们不靠老天保佑。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
7 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
8 injustice O45yL     
n.非正义,不公正,不公平,侵犯(别人的)权利
参考例句:
  • They complained of injustice in the way they had been treated.他们抱怨受到不公平的对待。
  • All his life he has been struggling against injustice.他一生都在与不公正现象作斗争。
9 democrats 655beefefdcaf76097d489a3ff245f76     
n.民主主义者,民主人士( democrat的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The Democrats held a pep rally on Capitol Hill yesterday. 民主党昨天在国会山召开了竞选誓师大会。
  • The democrats organize a filibuster in the senate. 民主党党员组织了阻挠议事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 miller ZD6xf     
n.磨坊主
参考例句:
  • Every miller draws water to his own mill.磨坊主都往自己磨里注水。
  • The skilful miller killed millions of lions with his ski.技术娴熟的磨坊主用雪橇杀死了上百万头狮子。
11 inaugural 7cRzQ     
adj.就职的;n.就职典礼
参考例句:
  • We listened to the President's inaugural speech on the radio yesterday.昨天我们通过无线电听了总统的就职演说。
  • Professor Pearson gave the inaugural lecture in the new lecture theatre.皮尔逊教授在新的阶梯讲堂发表了启用演说。
12 supreme PHqzc     
adj.极度的,最重要的;至高的,最高的
参考例句:
  • It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  • He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
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