英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

THE MAKING OF A NATION 213 - Lyndon Johnson, Part 2

时间:2005-09-29 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:wbnewbie   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

THE MAKING OF A NATION - October 3, 2002: Lyndon Johnson, Part 2

By Jeri Watson


VOICE 1:
This is Doug Johnson.
VOICE 2:
And this is Phil Murray with THE MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special English program about the history


of the United States.
(Theme)
Today, we continue the story of America's thirty-sixth president, Lyndon Johnson.
(Theme)
VOICE 1:
After John Kennedy was murdered, Vice1 President Lyndon Johnson served the last


fourteen months of Kennedy's term. He then was elected to his own full term. It
began in January, nineteen-sixty-five. Much of his time and energy would be taken
up by the war in Vietnam.

By early nineteen-sixty-four, America had about seventeen-thousand troops in Vietnam. The troops were there to
advise and train the South Vietnamese military.

VOICE 2:
Vietnam had gained its independence from France in nineteen-fifty-four. The country was divided into North and
South. The North had a Communist government led by Ho Chi Minh. The South had an anti-Communist
government led by Ngo Dinh Diem.


In nineteen-fifty-seven, Communist rebels -- Vietcong --began a campaign of terrorism in South Vietnam. They
were supported by the government of North Vietnam and later by North Vietnamese troops. Their goal was to
overthrow2 the anti-Communist government in the South.


President Johnson believed that the United States had to support South Vietnam.
Many other Americans agreed. They believed that without American help, South
Vietnam would become Communist. Then, all of Southeast Asia would become
Communist, too.

((Music Bridge))

VOICE 1:

As Johnson's term began, his military advisers3 told him the Communists were losing
the war. They told him that North Vietnamese troops and Vietcong forces would soon stop fighting.

On February sixth, however, the Vietcong attacked American camps at Pleiku and Qui Phon. The Johnson
administration immediately ordered air attacks against military targets in the North.

VOICE 2:


Protests at the
University of Texas,
1965.
Some observers in the United States questioned the administration's policy. For example, a leading newspaper
writer, James Reston, said President Johnson was carrying out an undeclared and unexplained war in Vietnam.

Johnson defended his policies. He said withdrawal5 would not bring an end to the conflict. He said the battle
would continue in one country, and then another.

VOICE 1:

In March, nineteen-sixty-five, the first American ground troops arrived in South
Vietnam. Congress supported the president's actions at that time. However, the number
of Americans who opposed the war began to grow. These people said the war was a
civil war. They said the United States had no right, or reason, to intervene.

VOICE 2:

For six days in may, the United States halted air attacks on North Vietnam. The
administration hoped this would help get the North Vietnamese government to begin
negotiations6.

The North refused. And the United States began to build up its forces in the South. By
July, one-hundred twenty-five thousand Americans were fighting in Vietnam.

VOICE 1:

Some Americans became angry. Anti-war demonstrations7 took place in the cities of San Francisco and Chicago.
More and more students began to protest. They wanted the war to end quickly.

Writer James Reston commented that the anti-war demonstrations were not helping8 to bring peace to Vietnam.
He said they were postponing9 it. He believed the demonstrations would make Ho Chi Minh think America did
not support its troops. And that, he said, would make president Ho continue the war.

VOICE 2:

In December, nineteen-sixty-five, the United States again halted air attacks against North Vietnam. Again, it
invited the North Vietnamese government to negotiate an end to the fighting. And again, the North refused.

Ho Chi Minh's conditions for peace were firm. He demanded an end to the bombing and a complete American
withdrawal.

Withdrawal would mean defeat for the South. It would mean that all of Vietnam would become Communist.
President Johnson would not accept these terms. So he offered his own proposals. The most important was an
immediate4 ceasefire. Neither side would compromise, however. And the fighting went on.

VOICE 1:

In nineteen-sixty-six, President Johnson renewed the bombing attacks in North Vietnam. He also increased the
number of American troops in South Vietnam. He condemned10 those who opposed his policies. He said: "The
American people will stand united until every soldier is brought home safely. They will stand united until the
people of South Vietnam can choose their own government."

((Music Bridge))

VOICE 2:

Local and state elections were held in the United States that year. The war in Vietnam had an effect on those
elections. The opposition11 Republican Party generally supported the president's war efforts. Yet it criticized him
and other Democrats12 for economic problems linked to the war.

The war cost two-thousand-million dollars every month. The price of many goods in the United States began to


rise. The value of the dollar began to drop. The result was inflation. Then economic activity slowed, and the
result was recession.

VOICE 1:

To answer the criticism, administration officials said progress was being made in Vietnam. But some Americans
began to suspect that the government was not telling the truth about the war.

Several news writers, for example, said the number of enemy soldiers killed was much lower than the
government reported. Opposition to the war and to the administration's war policies led to bigger and bigger antiwar demonstrations.

Studies were done to measure Americans' opinion on the issue. In a study in July, nineteen-sixty-seven, a little
more than half the people questioned said they did not approve of the president's policies. Yet most Americans
believed he would run again for president the next year.

VOICE 2:

Johnson strongly defended the use of American soldiers in Vietnam. In a speech to a group of lawmakers he said:
"Since World War Two, this nation has met and has mastered many challenges -- challenges in Greece and
Turkey, in Berlin, in Korea, in Cuba. We met them because brave men were willing to risk their lives for their
nation's security. And braver men have never lived than those who carry our colors in Vietnam this very hour."

VOICE 1:

Then came Tet -- the Vietnamese lunar new year -- in January nineteen-sixty-eight. The Communists launched a
major military campaign. They attacked thirty-one of the forty-four provinces of South Vietnam. They even
struck at the American embassy in the capital, Saigon.

Fifty-thousand Communist soldiers were killed during the Tet offensive. Fourteen-thousand South Vietnamese
soldiers were killed. And two-thousand American soldiers were killed. Thousands of Vietnamese civilians13 were
killed, too.

VOICE 2:

Many Americans were surprised, even shocked, that the Communists could launch such a major attack against
South Vietnam. For several years, they had been told that Communist forces were small and were losing badly.
As a result, popular support for the administration fell even more.

Democrats who opposed President Johnson seized this chance. Several ran against him in the primary elections
held before the party's presidential nominating convention. These included Senator Robert Kennedy of New York
and Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota. Kennedy and McCarthy did well in the early primary elections.
Johnson did poorly.

VOICE 1:

At the end of March, nineteen-sixty-eight, the president spoke14 to the American people on television. He told of
his proposal to end American bombing of North Vietnam. He told of the appointment of a special ambassador to
start peace negotiations. And he told of his decision about his own future:

JOHNSON: "I do not believe that I should devote an hour or a day of my time to any personal partisan15 causes or
to any duties other than the awesome16 duties of this office -- the presidency17 of your country. Accordingly, I shall
not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination18 of my party for another term as your president."

(Theme)

VOICE 2:

This program of THE MAKING OF A NATION was written by jeri watson and produced by paul thompson.
This is phil murray.


VOICE 1:

And this is Doug Johnson. Join us again next week for another VOA Special English program about the history
of the United States.


Email this article to a friend
Printer Friendly Version


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
2 overthrow PKDxo     
v.推翻,打倒,颠覆;n.推翻,瓦解,颠覆
参考例句:
  • After the overthrow of the government,the country was in chaos.政府被推翻后,这个国家处于混乱中。
  • The overthrow of his plans left him much discouraged.他的计划的失败使得他很气馁。
3 advisers d4866a794d72d2a666da4e4803fdbf2e     
顾问,劝告者( adviser的名词复数 ); (指导大学新生学科问题等的)指导教授
参考例句:
  • a member of the President's favoured circle of advisers 总统宠爱的顾问班子中的一员
  • She withdrew to confer with her advisers before announcing a decision. 她先去请教顾问然后再宣布决定。
4 immediate aapxh     
adj.立即的;直接的,最接近的;紧靠的
参考例句:
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。
5 withdrawal Cfhwq     
n.取回,提款;撤退,撤军;收回,撤销
参考例句:
  • The police were forced to make a tactical withdrawal.警方被迫进行战术撤退。
  • They insisted upon a withdrawal of the statement and a public apology.他们坚持要收回那些话并公开道歉。
6 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
参考例句:
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
7 demonstrations 0922be6a2a3be4bdbebd28c620ab8f2d     
证明( demonstration的名词复数 ); 表明; 表达; 游行示威
参考例句:
  • Lectures will be interspersed with practical demonstrations. 讲课中将不时插入实际示范。
  • The new military government has banned strikes and demonstrations. 新的军人政府禁止罢工和示威活动。
8 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
9 postponing 3ca610c0db966cd6f77cd5d15dc2b28c     
v.延期,推迟( postpone的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • He tried to gain time by postponing his decision. 他想以迟迟不作决定的手段来争取时间。 来自辞典例句
  • I don't hold with the idea of postponing further discussion of the matter. 我不赞成推迟进一步讨论这件事的想法。 来自辞典例句
10 condemned condemned     
adj. 被责难的, 被宣告有罪的 动词condemn的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • He condemned the hypocrisy of those politicians who do one thing and say another. 他谴责了那些说一套做一套的政客的虚伪。
  • The policy has been condemned as a regressive step. 这项政策被认为是一种倒退而受到谴责。
11 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
12 democrats 655beefefdcaf76097d489a3ff245f76     
n.民主主义者,民主人士( democrat的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The Democrats held a pep rally on Capitol Hill yesterday. 民主党昨天在国会山召开了竞选誓师大会。
  • The democrats organize a filibuster in the senate. 民主党党员组织了阻挠议事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
13 civilians 2a8bdc87d05da507ff4534c9c974b785     
平民,百姓( civilian的名词复数 ); 老百姓
参考例句:
  • the bloody massacre of innocent civilians 对无辜平民的血腥屠杀
  • At least 300 civilians are unaccounted for after the bombing raids. 遭轰炸袭击之后,至少有300名平民下落不明。
14 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
15 partisan w4ZzY     
adj.党派性的;游击队的;n.游击队员;党徒
参考例句:
  • In their anger they forget all the partisan quarrels.愤怒之中,他们忘掉一切党派之争。
  • The numerous newly created partisan detachments began working slowly towards that region.许多新建的游击队都开始慢慢地向那里移动。
16 awesome CyCzdV     
adj.令人惊叹的,难得吓人的,很好的
参考例句:
  • The church in Ireland has always exercised an awesome power.爱尔兰的教堂一直掌握着令人敬畏的权力。
  • That new white convertible is totally awesome.那辆新的白色折篷汽车简直棒极了.
17 presidency J1HzD     
n.总统(校长,总经理)的职位(任期)
参考例句:
  • Roosevelt was elected four times to the presidency of the United States.罗斯福连续当选四届美国总统。
  • Two candidates are emerging as contestants for the presidency.两位候选人最终成为总统职位竞争者。
18 nomination BHMxw     
n.提名,任命,提名权
参考例句:
  • John is favourite to get the nomination for club president.约翰最有希望被提名为俱乐部主席。
  • Few people pronounced for his nomination.很少人表示赞成他的提名。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   Nation  Lyndon Johnson
顶一下
(1)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴