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航空航天技术有及其相关知识

时间:2005-04-27 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:chen69   字体: [ ]
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                      09 航空航天技术有及其相关知识
DATE=3-14-01
TITLE=EXPLORATIONS #1943 - Space Questions
BYLINE=Paul Thompson

        VOICE ONE:
This is Shirley Griffith.
VOICE TWO:
And this is Steve Ember with the VOA Special English program EXPLORATIONS. Today we answer a few common questions about (1)space, the space (2)shuttle and space (3)technology.
((THEME))
VOICE ONE:
Anyone who uses a computer to search for information sees the letters F-A-Q often. They usually are found on the first page of a web (4)site on the Internet (5)communications system. The letters are the short way of saying '(6)frequently asked questions'. These are questions that are asked by many people who visit the web site.
The American Space (7)Agency1, (8)NASA, has many different web sites. Most include F-A-Qs. The questions and answers in our program today come from these NASA web sites. Some of the questions are funny, some are them are strange, but all of them are interesting. Most of the questions we use today are about NASA's space shuttle.
Our first question is: How fast does a space shuttle travel?
VOICE TWO:
The easy answer is: Much faster than you might think. The space shuttles are launched3 into what is called low Earth (9)orbit4. Low Earth orbit is about five-hundred-twenty-eight kilometers above sea level. This means that the space shuttle is not beyond the reach of Earth's pull of (10)gravity.
So to remain in low orbit, the shuttle must reach a speed of about twenty-eight-thousand kilometers per hour.
It may be easier to understand if I explain it like this. Imagine that you tie a ball on the end of a string and then move it quickly around in a circle over your head. The ball will stay up in the air if you make it move fast enough. If you stop, the ball will fall. The same will happen to the space shuttle. It will fall to Earth if it does not go fast enough to (11)balance the pull of gravity. In fact when the crew of the shuttle wants to return to Earth, they make the big (12)spacecraft slow down. Gravity begins to pull it back to Earth.
Now…I have a question for you. How much fuel does a space shuttle use in a (13)flight?
VOICE ONE:
Hmmm…how about enough fuel to keep a car going for many, many years? Really, the space shuttle uses a lot of fuel. However the (14)fuel that a space shuttle uses could not be used in a car.
At the moment it is launched, the space shuttle carries two solid fuel rockets called (15)boosters. Pictures of the shuttle when it is being launched show the two rockets on the sides of the shuttle. Each of these two rockets carries more than four-hundred-fifty thousand kilograms pounds of rocket fuel. This fuel is in a solid form, not a liquid. These (16)rockets fall away after the shuttle lifts off from Earth.
The shuttle also has a large tank attached below. This tank carries almost two million liters5 of liquid (17)oxygen and liquid (18)hydrogen. These two fuels are mixed and (19)burned together to form the fuel for the shuttle's three main rocket engines. The fuel is used direct the shuttle up into orbit and keep it there.
O-K…my turn…who were the youngest and oldest (20)astronauts to fly on the space shuttle?
VOICE TWO:
That question is easy. John Glenn was the first American astronaut to orbit the Earth in February Nineteen-Sixty-Two. Senator6 Glenn returned to space on the space shuttle in November Nineteen-Ninety-Eight. He was seventy-seven years old.
Sally Ride was the youngest astronaut to fly on the shuttle. She flew the first time in June Nineteen-Eighty-Three. She was just thirty-two years old when she made the trip into space.
Now…I had to answer two questions, so I get to ask two questions. How much does it cost to launch2 the space shuttle each time? And how much does it cost to build a new shuttle?
VOICE ONE:
The Space Shuttle Endeavor7 cost almost two-thousand-million dollars to build. A shuttle is (21)extremely costly8 because it has millions of parts. It is made of many special materials that cost a lot.
The Endeavor is the newest of the four space shuttles used by NASA. It weighs about seventy-eight tons. It is more than thirty-seven meters long and twenty-three meters wide. School children named it the Endeavor in a national (22)competition. The Endeavor was the name of a British ship that explored the Pacific Ocean in Seventeen-Sixty-Eight. The Endeavor space shuttle is about six meters longer than that (23)historic9 ship.
It costs about four-hundred-fifty million dollars each time the Endeavor or any of the other shuttles are launched.
Now, I have an interesting question for you. We have been talking about the space shuttle Endeavor. What are the names of the other space shuttles?
VOICE TWO:
Here are the names in the order in which they were built. The space shuttles are the Enterprise10, Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavor.
The Enterprise flew only within the Earth's atmosphere. It was used for landing11 tests in Nineteen-Seventy-Seven. Columbia flew the first five space shuttle flights beginning in April Nineteen-Eighty-One.
Challenger was built as a test (24)vehicle. However, devices12 and (25)equipment were added later so NASA would have two working space shuttles. The Challenger exploded and its seven member crew were killed after it lifted off January twenty-eighth, Nineteen-Eighty-Six.
Discovery made its first flight in Nineteen-Eighty-Four. Atlantis followed the next year. Endeavor was built to replace Challenger. It made its first flight in Nineteen-Ninety Two. On that flight, it (26)rescued a damaged communications(27) satellite.
Now…my turn to ask a question. What happens to used spacecraft? Where is the first shuttle, the Enterprise? I would like to have one…is that possible?
VOICE ONE:
It would be fun to have your own space shuttle, I agree. However that will not happen anytime soon. Spacecraft were closely13 studied following early human space flights. Many were taken apart and each piece carefully (28)inspected. These included the Mercury14, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft.
Most of these space vehicles are shown to the public at NASA centers and science (29)museums in the United States. One of them is the Apollo Eleven Command space vehicle that went to the moon and back. It is in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington D-C.
The first shuttle built, the Enterprise was only used for tests. When the tests were finished it was shown in the United States, Europe and Canada. Then it too was given to the Smithsonian. The National Air and Space Museum is building a new museum building that will hold the Enterprise and other huge historic aircraft.
O-K… my turn for a question. How do astronauts in space use the (30)bathroom and can they take a bath?
VOICE TWO:
First, they brush their teeth just as they do here on Earth. The lack of gravity does not present a problem for (31)brushing teeth. There is no way for them to bathe because the water would float away in the weightless (32)environment of space. So, they must wash with wet cloths.
Everyone always asks how astronauts use a (33)toilet. It is really very simple. The toilet is similar to those on Earth, but it does not have water in it.
Air is used to draw body wastes away. Wastewater is forced out of the space shuttle into space. Solid waste is stored and removed when the shuttle returns to Earth.
Enough about the space shuttle for now. I have a question that really interests me…when are astronauts going back to the Moon. And an even more (34)exciting question. When are they going to (35)Mars15?
VOICE ONE:
The head of NASA, Daniel Goldin, has said that the space agency must meet at least four goals before a flight to Mars can take place. The first of these goals is to successfully build and operate the (36)International Space Station. The space station is (37)expanding quickly. Permanent crew members are already living there. The crew of the shuttle Atlantis linked the first science laboratory16 to the space station last month.
Mister17 Goldin said the second goal is to establish good working (38)cooperation with other nations interested in space technology. Again, the International Space Station is helping18 to develop this experience and cooperation.
The third goal is to plan a flight to Mars that will provide value for the money spent. He said this (39)project should take no longer than ten years.
And last, the space agency head said the world (40)economy must (41)improve so all the different nations involved will have the money to support such a project. A flight to Mars will cost thousands of millions of dollars.
Mister Goldin said NASA plans to operate the International Space Station for at least the first ten years of this (42)century. It also plans to send astronauts back to the Moon or on to Mars during the second ten years. He said things could happen more quickly, however, if there is an important new development in space technology.
((THEME))
VOICE TWO:
This Special English program was written and directed by Paul Thompson. This is Steve Ember.
VOICE ONE:
And this is Shirley Griffith. Join us again next week for another EXPLORATIONS program on the Voice of America.


(1)  space[ speis ]n.空间, 间隔, 距离, 空地, 余地, 一段时间vt.留间隔, 隔开
(2)  shuttle[ 5FQtl ]n.往返汽车(列车、飞机), 航天飞机, 梭子, 穿梭v.穿梭往返
(3) technology[ tek5nClEdVi ]n.工艺, 科技, 技术
(4) site[ sait ]n.地点, 场所, 遗址vt.定...的地点n.站点
(5) communications[kEmju:nI5keIF(E)nz][计] 通信
(6) frequently[5fri:kwEntlI]adv.常常, 频繁地n.经常地
(7) agency[ 5eidVEnsi ]n.代理处, 行销处, 代理, 中介
(8) NASA[5nAsE]abbr.National Aeronautics19 and Space Administration(美国)国家航空和宇宙航行局
(9) orbit[ 5C:bit ]n.轨道, 势力范围, 生活常规, 眼眶vt.绕...轨道而行vi.进入轨道行, 盘旋
(10) gravity[ 5^rAviti ]n.地心引力, 重力
(11) balance[5bAlEns]n.秤, 天平, 平衡, [商] 收支差额, 结余, 余额v.平衡, 称, 权衡, 对比, 结算
(12) spacecraft[ 5speiskrB:ft ]n.太空船
(13) flight[ flait ]n.飞行, 逃走, 飞跃, 飞机的航程, 班机, 追逐, 楼梯的一段, 射程vi.成群飞行, 迁徙vt.射击(飞禽), 使惊飞
(14) fuel[ fjuEl ]n.燃料vt.加燃料, 供以燃料vi.得到燃料
(15) booster[ 5bu:stE ]n.<美俚>热心的拥护者, 后推的人, 支持者, 后援者, 调压器
(16) rocket[ 5rCkit ]n.火箭v.飞速上升
(17) oxygen[ 5CksidVEn ]n.[化]氧
(18) hydrogen[ 5haidrEudVEn ]n.氢
(19) burn[ bE:n ]v.烧, 烧焦, 点(灯), 使感觉烧热n.烧伤, 灼伤
(20) astronaut[5AstrEnC:t]n.太空人, 宇航员
(21) extremely[ iks5tri:mli ]adv.极端地, 非常地
(22) competition[ kCmpi5tiFEn ]n.竞争, 竞赛
(23) historic[ his5tCrik ]adj.历史上著名的, 有历史性的
(24) vehicle[ 5vi:ikl ]n.交通工具, 车辆, 媒介物, 传达手段
(25) equipment[ i5kwipmEnt ]n.装备, 设备, 器材, 装置, 铁道车辆, (一企业除房地产以外的)固定资产, 才能
(26) rescue[ 5reskju: ]vt.援救, 营救n.援救, 营救
(27) satellite[ 5sAtElait ]n.人造卫星
(28) inspect[ in5spekt ]vt.检查, 视察v.检查
(29) museum[ mju(:)5ziEm ]n.博物馆
(30) bathroom[5bB:Wru:m]n.浴室, 盥洗室
(31) brushing[ 5brQFiN ]疾驰的 掠过的 刷光, 擦光
(32) environment[ in5vaiErEnmEnt ]n.环境, 外界
(33) toilet[ 5tCilit ]n.盥洗室, 梳洗
(34) exciting[ ik5saitiN ]adj.令人兴奋的, 使人激动的
(35) Mars[ mB:z ]n.火星, 战神abbr.[军] Medium Artillery20 Rocket Launcher, 中型炮兵火箭发射器
(36) international[ 7intE(:)5nAFEnEl ]adj.国际的, 世界的n.国际性组织, 国际比赛
(37) expand[ iks5pAnd ]vt.使膨胀, 详述, 扩张vi.张开, 发展
(38) cooperation[ kEu7CpE5reiFEn ]n.合作, 协作
(39) project[ 5prCdVekt ]n.计划, 方案, 事业, 企业, 工程v.设计, 计划, 投射, 放映, 射出, 发射(导弹等), 凸出
(40) economy[ i(:)5kCnEmi ]n.经济, 节约, 节约措施, 经济实惠, 系统, 机体, 经济制度的状况
(41) improve[ im5pru:v ]v.改善, 改进
(42) century[ 5sentFuri, -tFEri ]n.世纪, 百年, 百个, 板球中的一百分, 百元(钞票)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 agency iKcy0     
n.经办;代理;代理处
参考例句:
  • This disease is spread through the agency of insects.这种疾病是通过昆虫媒介传播的。
  • He spoke in the person of Xinhua News Agency.他代表新华社讲话。
2 launch b29xY     
vt.发动,推出;发射;n.发射,下水,投产
参考例句:
  • The makers are about to launch out a new product.制造商们马上要生产一种新产品。
  • Would it be wise to launch into this rough sea?在这样汹涌的大海中游泳明智吗?
3 launched e6629d9df33839e8c4e637ffbcd1d5e2     
v.发射( launch的过去式和过去分词 );[计算机]开始(应用程序);发动;开展(活动、计划等)
参考例句:
  • He launched a bitter diatribe against the younger generation. 他对年轻一代发起了猛烈的抨击。
  • The product was launched amid much fanfare worldwide. 这个产品在世界各地隆重推出。
4 orbit oJVxu     
n.轨道;vt.使沿轨道运行;使进入轨道运行;vi.沿轨道运行,环行
参考例句:
  • The space rocket was launched and went into orbit.宇宙火箭发射后进入轨道。
  • We can draw the earth's orbit round the sun.我们可以画出地球绕太阳运行的轨迹。
5 liters ef17a9e7e856103fa742d35eef4c3521     
n.升( liter的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • In the metric system, measurements are made in metres and liters. 在公制中,用米和升作计量单位。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • This can holds five liters of water. 这个容器可装五升水。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 senator UzJwm     
n.参议员,评议员
参考例句:
  • The senator urged against the adoption of the measure.那参议员极力反对采取这项措施。
  • The senator's speech hit at government spending.参议员的讲话批评了政府的开支。
7 endeavor vj3zE     
vt./n.努力,尽力,尝试
参考例句:
  • Thereupon,we knew,our endeavor was valuable.于是,我们知道,我们的努力是有价值的。
  • We endeavor to make our customers satisfied.我们力图使顾客都满意。
8 costly 7zXxh     
adj.昂贵的,价值高的,豪华的
参考例句:
  • It must be very costly to keep up a house like this.维修这么一幢房子一定很昂贵。
  • This dictionary is very useful,only it is a bit costly.这本词典很有用,左不过贵了些。
9 historic AcNxw     
adj.历史上著名的,具有历史意义的
参考例句:
  • This is a historic occasion.这是具有重大历史意义的时刻。
  • We are living in a great historic era.我们正处在一个伟大的历史时代。
10 enterprise noIxr     
n.企业单位,商业公司,事业,计划
参考例句:
  • They are determined to carry forward the enterprise.他们决心把事业进行下去。
  • The enterprise has excellent prospects.这家企业的远景极其美好。
11 landing wpwz3N     
n.登陆;着陆;楼梯平台
参考例句:
  • Owing to engine trouble,the plane had to make a forced landing.由于发动机出了毛病,飞机不得不进行迫降。
  • When are we landing?我们什么时候着陆?
12 devices e0212e54ec3a2a120ca0d321b3a60c78     
n.设备;装置( device的名词复数 );花招;(为实现某种目的的)计划;手段
参考例句:
  • electrical labour-saving devices around the home 节省劳力的各种家用电器
  • modern labour-saving devices such as washing machines and dishwashers 诸如洗衣机和洗碗机之类的现代化省力设备
13 closely XwNzIh     
adv.紧密地;严密地,密切地
参考例句:
  • We shall follow closely the development of the situation.我们将密切注意形势的发展。
  • The two companies are closely tied up with each other.这两家公司之间有密切联系。
14 mercury NouzIB     
n.汞,水银,水银柱
参考例句:
  • The liquid we can see in thermometers is mercury.我们看到的温度计里的液体是水银。
  • Mercury has a much greater density than water.水银的密度比水大得多。
15 Mars 4oSz63     
n.火星,战争
参考例句:
  • As of now we don't know much about Mars.目前我们对火星还知之甚少。
  • He contended that there must be life on Mars.他坚信火星上面一定有生物。
16 laboratory P27xd     
n.实验室,化验室
参考例句:
  • She has donated money to establish a laboratory.她捐款成立了一个实验室。
  • Our laboratory equipment isn't perfect,but we must make do.实验室设备是不够理想,但我们只好因陋就简。
17 mister rnQzwB     
n.(略作Mr.全称很少用于书面)先生
参考例句:
  • Mister Smith is my good friend.史密斯先生是我的好朋友。
  • He styled himself " Mister Clean ".他自称是“清廉先生”。
18 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
19 aeronautics BKVyg     
n.航空术,航空学
参考例句:
  • National Aeronautics and Space undertakings have made great progress.国家的航空航天事业有了很大的发展。
  • He devoted every spare moment to aeronautics.他把他所有多余的时间用在航空学上。
20 artillery 5vmzA     
n.(军)火炮,大炮;炮兵(部队)
参考例句:
  • This is a heavy artillery piece.这是一门重炮。
  • The artillery has more firepower than the infantry.炮兵火力比步兵大。
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