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2006年NPR美国国家公共电台二月-NASA Scientist Feels Pressure Over Global

时间:2007-07-19 06:44来源:互联网 提供网友:zhao6221133   字体: [ ]
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Debbie Elliott: Today a prominent NASA scientist went public with his concerns that the government is trying to stifle1 his public statements about climate change.James Hansen told the New York Times and the Washington Post that the space agency has sometimes gotten in the way when he has wanted to speak to reporters about his views on how to slow global warming. He also told NPR his concern that science could fall victim to politics. NPR science correspondent Richard Harris joins me now to discuss this story.Welcome ,Richard.

Richard Harris: Thanks, Debbie.

Debbie Elliott: You spoke2 with James Hansen earlier today, what case did he make to you?

Richard Harris: Well, this is an ongoing3 story. There had been numerous instances of this, but Dr Hansen said in his view it's getting worse and worse as time goes on and the story he told me today had to do with the speech he gave in San Francisco in December, which started out being a speech about the atmosphere and how much it can warm before the earth suffers some irreversible changes. But at the end of his speech, he turned into very personal views and he said (quote)"the special interests seek/ to maintain short-term profits with little regard to either / the long-term impact on the planet that will be inherited by our children and grandchildren, or the long-term economic well-being4 of our country."So clearly he had left the realm of science and was deeply in the world of policy , politics, personal view and so on here, and a reporter wanted to talk to him about it, and NASA said, no,no,no,no, please don't talk to Dr Hansen about this. Why don't you talk to his boss's boss or somebody like this in / headquarters, who actually had nothing to do with climate science, this of course upset Dr Hansen, who felt his views were being stifled5.

Debbie Elliott: Who exactly is James Hansen?

Richard Harris: Hansen is a very well-known climate scientist. He runs an institute called the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City, and he has done some of the pioneering work in understanding a lot of mechanisms6 of global climate change, so he is a very credible7, very serious scientist, he's very highly regarded in the field of climate change.

Debbie Elliott: Now he is claiming that officials are trying to stop him from talking publicly,but NASA officials are disputing those claims. They say government scientists are free to discuss scientific findings but can't make statements about policy. What's the distinction between the two?

Richard Harris: It is a ,it is a slippery slope where you draw the line. In his speech in San Francisco, clearly, there is a scientific background that says we have to worry, and we have to worry soon in terms of prescriptions8 for what to do the administration could make an argument, well, you know, he is not the one to say whether we should have better auto-efficiency standards or how to do it.

Debbie Elliott: Now, is this an isolated9 case because of what he said during the speech or has this been a recurring10 problem this tension between policy makers11 and scientists?

Richard Harris: Every administration really has had some sort of rules about talk about your science, but don't talk about the policy implications of it. I think it's also fair to say that some administrations have been much better at enfrocing these rules than others have and this one does it with a great deal of va-va-voom if you will, not just NASA but certainly other organizations I've spoken to. People who work for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric12 Administration (ur) often are told - watch what you say or the agency will put a handler on the line supposedly for the protection of the scientist against vicious reporters such as myself, but clearly it also has the effect of making the scientists' extremely careful about what they say, cause, they know what they're saying is gonna be reported immediately up to chain of command.

Debbie Elliott: What impact does that have on their work?

Richard Harris: Well, I ask Dr Hansen whether he ever felt that he was unable to at least publish his findings in the scientific literature, and he said no, he's never felt like he's restricted from, from publishing his results, but what he does say is that publishing the results isn't the same as communicating directly to the public, and that's what he's seeing in the clampdown.

Debbie Elliott: NPR science correspondent Richard Harris, thanks for talking with us.

Richard Harris: My pleasure.

WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

stifle to stop sth from happening or developing
slippery slope a situation or habit that is likely to lead to a worse situation or habit.
clampdown 压制

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 stifle cF4y5     
vt.使窒息;闷死;扼杀;抑止,阻止
参考例句:
  • She tried hard to stifle her laughter.她强忍住笑。
  • It was an uninteresting conversation and I had to stifle a yawn.那是一次枯燥无味的交谈,我不得不强忍住自己的呵欠。
2 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
3 ongoing 6RvzT     
adj.进行中的,前进的
参考例句:
  • The problem is ongoing.这个问题尚未解决。
  • The issues raised in the report relate directly to Age Concern's ongoing work in this area.报告中提出的问题与“关心老人”组织在这方面正在做的工作有直接的关系。
4 well-being Fe3zbn     
n.安康,安乐,幸福
参考例句:
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
5 stifled 20d6c5b702a525920b7425fe94ea26a5     
(使)窒息, (使)窒闷( stifle的过去式和过去分词 ); 镇压,遏制; 堵
参考例句:
  • The gas stifled them. 煤气使他们窒息。
  • The rebellion was stifled. 叛乱被镇压了。
6 mechanisms d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8     
n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
参考例句:
  • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 credible JOAzG     
adj.可信任的,可靠的
参考例句:
  • The news report is hardly credible.这则新闻报道令人难以置信。
  • Is there a credible alternative to the nuclear deterrent?是否有可以取代核威慑力量的可靠办法?
8 prescriptions f0b231c0bb45f8e500f32e91ec1ae602     
药( prescription的名词复数 ); 处方; 开处方; 计划
参考例句:
  • The hospital of traditional Chinese medicine installed a computer to fill prescriptions. 中医医院装上了电子计算机来抓药。
  • Her main job was filling the doctor's prescriptions. 她的主要工作就是给大夫开的药方配药。
9 isolated bqmzTd     
adj.与世隔绝的
参考例句:
  • His bad behaviour was just an isolated incident. 他的不良行为只是个别事件。
  • Patients with the disease should be isolated. 这种病的患者应予以隔离。
10 recurring 8kLzK8     
adj.往复的,再次发生的
参考例句:
  • This kind of problem is recurring often. 这类问题经常发生。
  • For our own country, it has been a time for recurring trial. 就我们国家而言,它经过了一个反复考验的时期。
11 makers 22a4efff03ac42c1785d09a48313d352     
n.制造者,制造商(maker的复数形式)
参考例句:
  • The makers of the product assured us that there had been no sacrifice of quality. 这一产品的制造商向我们保证说他们没有牺牲质量。
  • The makers are about to launch out a new product. 制造商们马上要生产一种新产品。 来自《简明英汉词典》
12 atmospheric 6eayR     
adj.大气的,空气的;大气层的;大气所引起的
参考例句:
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
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TAG标签:   npr  公共电台  scientist  pressure
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