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大学英语精读第五册 Unit 2

时间:2006-01-24 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:Ben小孩   字体: [ ]
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                 UNIT 2

TEXT

Beginning with the earliest pioneers, Americans have always highly valued their freedoms, and fought hard to protect them. And yet, the author points out that there is a basic freedom which Americans are in danger of losing.
    What is this endangered freedom? For what reasons could freedom-loving Americans possibly let this freedom slip away? And what-steps can they take to protect it ---- their fifth freedom?

            The Fifth Freedom
                    by Seymour St . John
   
    More than three centuries ago a handful of pioneers crossed the ocean t Jamestown and Plymouth in search of freedoms they were unable to find in their own countries, the freedoms of we still cherish today: freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of speech, freedom of religion. Today the descendants of the early settlers, and those who have joined them since, are fighting to protect these freedoms at home and throughout the world.
    And yet there is a fifth freedom - basic to those four - that we are in danger of losing: the freedom to be one's best. St. Exupery describes a ragged1, sensitive-faced Arab child, haunting the streets of a North African town, as a lost Mozart: he would never be trained or developed. Was he free? "No one grasped you by the shoulder while there was still time; and nought2 will awaken3 in you the sleeping poet or musician or astronomer4 that possibly inhabited you from the beginning." The freedom to be one's best is the chance for the development of each person to his highest power.
    How is it that we in America have begun to lose this freedom, and how can we regain5 it for our nation's youth? I believe it has started slipping away from us because of three misunderstandings.
First, the misunderstanding of the meaning of democracy. The principal of a great Philadelphia high school is driven to cry for help in combating the notion that it is undemocratic to run a special program of studies for outstanding boys and girls. Again, when a good independent school in Memphis recently closed, some thoughtful citizens urged that it be taken over by the public school system and used for boys and girls of high ability, what it have entrance requirements and give an advanced program of studies to superior students who were interested and able to take it. The proposal was rejected because it was undemocratic! Thus, courses are geared to the middle of the class. The good student is unchallenged, bored. The loafer receives his passing grade. And the lack of an outstanding course for the outstanding student, the lack of a standard which a boy or girl must meet, passes for democracy.
    The second misunderstanding concerns what makes for happiness. The aims of our present-day culture are avowedly6 ease and material well-being7: shorter hours; a shorter week; more return for less accomplishment8; more softsoap excuses and fewer honest, realistic demands. In our schools this is reflected by the vanishing hickory stick and the emerging psychiatrist9. The hickory stick had its faults, and the psychiatrist has his strengths. But hickory stick had its faults, and the psychiatrist has his strengths. But the trend is clear. Tout10 comprendre c'est tout pardoner (To understand everything is to excuse everything). Do we really believe that our softening11 standards bring happiness? Is it our sound and considered judgment12 that the tougher subjects of the classics and mathematics should be thrown aside, as suggested by some educators, for doll-playing? Small wonder that Charles Malik, Lebanese delegate at the U.N., writes: "There is in the West" (in the United States) "a general weakening of moral fiber13. (Our) leadership does not seem to be adequate to the unprecedented14 challenges of the age."
    The last misunderstanding is in the area of values. Here are some of the most influential16 tenets of teacher education over the past fifty years: there is no eternal truth; there is no absolute moral law; there is no God. Yet all of history has taught us that the denial of these ultimates, the placement of man or state at the core of the universe, results in a paralyzing mass selfishness; and the first signs of it are already frighteningly evident.
    Arnold Toynbee has said that all progress, all development come from challenge and a consequent response. Without challenge there is no response, no development, no freedom. So first we owe to our children the most demanding, challenging curriculum that is within their capabilities17. Michelangelo did not learn to paint by spending his time doodling. Mozart was not an accomplished18 pianist at the age of eight as the result or spending his days in front of a television set. Like Eve Curie, like Helen Keller, they responded to the challenge of their lives by a disciplined training: and they gained a new freedom.
    The second opportunity we can give our boys and girls is the right to failure. "Freedom is not only a privilege, it is a test," writes De Nouy. What kind of a test is it, what kind of freedom where no one can fail? The day is past when the United States can afford to give high school diplomas to all who sit through four years of instruction, regardless of whether any visible results can be discerned. We live in a narrowed world where we must be alert, awake to realism; and realism demands a standard which either must be met or result in failure. These are hard words, but they are brutally19 true. If we deprive our children of the right to fail we deprive them of their knowledge of the world as it is.
    Finally, we can expose our children to the best values we have found. By relating our lives to the evidences of the ages, by judging our philosophy in the light of values that history has proven truest, perhaps we shall be able to produce that "ringing message, full of content and truth, satisfying the mind, appealing to the heart, firing the will, a message on which one can stake his whole life." This is the message that could mean joy and strength and leadership -- freedom as opposed to serfdom.

NEW WORDS

    cherish
vt. care for tenderly; keep alive 爱护,珍爱;抱有,怀有
    religion
n.  宗教
    settler
n.  a person who has settled in a newly developed country; colonist20 移民;殖民者
    sensitive
a.  quick to receive impressions; easily hurt or offended 敏感的
    sensitive-faced
a.  having a sensitive face
    Arab
n., a. 阿拉伯人(的);阿拉伯的
    haunt
vt. visit often
    lost
a.  not used, won, or claimed; ruined or destroyed physically21 or morally
    grasp
vt. seize firmly with the hand(s) or arm(s); understand with the mind 抓住,抱住;理解,掌握
    nought
n.  (old use or lit) nothing; zero
    awaken
vt. arouse from sleep; make active
    musician
n.  a composer or performer of music
    inhabit
vt. live or dwell in
    regain
vt. gain or get again; get back
    democracy
n.  government by the people, esp. rule by the majority
    principal
n.  head of a school
    combat
vt. n. fight; struggle
    notion
n.  idea; belief; opinion
    undemocratic
a.  not democratic; not in accordance with the principles of democracy
    independent
a.  not subject to control or rule by another; not depending on others for support
    independent school
    a private school, not controlled by the public
    urge
vt. present, advocate or demand earnestly; push or drive
    loafer
n.  a person who spends time idly 游手好闲的人
    lack
n.  not have; have less than enough of
    avowedly
ad. as declared openly or frankly   
    softsoap
a.  姑息的,软言相劝的
    realistic
a.  having or showing an inclination22 to face facts and to deal with them sensibly practical
    hickory
n.  山核桃(木)
    hickory stick
    山核桃木做的教鞭
    classics
n.  the language and literature of ancient Greece and Rome
    doll
n.  a small-scale figure of a human being, used as a child's plaything
    Lebanese 
n., a. 黎巴嫩人(的);黎巴嫩的
    delegate
n.  a person sent with power to act for another; representative 代表
    U.N., the
    the United Nations 联合国
    weaken
vt. make or become weak(er)
    fiber
n.  a person's inner character; quality; strength
    leadership
n.  power of leading; the qualities of a leader
    unprecedented
    having no precedent15 无先例的,空前的
    influential
a.  having or exerting influence
    tenet
n.  a principle or belief held by a person or organization 信条,原则
    eternal
a.  having no beginning and no end; lasting23 forever 永恒的;不朽的
    denial
n.  a refusal to admit the truth of a statement or to grant sth. asked for
    ultimate
n.  fundamental principle; final point or result
    placement
n.  an act or instance of placing, esp. the assignment of a person to a suitable place
    core
n.  the most important or central part of anything 核心
    paralyze
vt. make powerless or unable to act, move or function 使麻痹,使瘫痪
    selfishness
n.  a concern for one's own welfare or advantage at the expense or in disregard of others
    selfish
a. 
    consequent
a.  following as a consequence
    curriculum
n.  a course of study, esp. the body of courses offered in a school or college (学校的全部)课程
    capability
n.  power of doing things 能力,才能
    paint
v.  make a picture (of) with paint
    doodle
vi. draw irregular lines, figures, etc. aimlessly while thinking about sth. else 心不在焉地乱写乱画
    pianist
n.  person who plays the piano
    discipline
vt. apply discipline to
    regardless
a.  having or taking no regard; careless 不关心的;不留心的
    visible
a.  capable of being seen; apparent
    discern
vt. see, notice, or understand, esp. with difficulty; perceive
    realism
n.  accepting and dealing24 with life and its problems in a practical way, without being influenced by feelings or false ideas
    relate
vt. connect in thought or meaning
    fire
vt. inspire; stimulate25 or inflame
    stake
vt. risk (money, one's life, etc.) on a result; bet 把...押下打赌
    oppose
vt. set oneself against; set up against 反对;使对抗
    serfdom
vt. the state or fact of being a serf; slavery 农奴的境遇;奴役

PHRASES & EXPRESSIONS
 
a handful of
    a small amount or number of
in search of
    trying to find
cry for
    cry in an attempt to get; demand urgently; need badly
pass for
    be (mistakenly) accepted or considered as
make for
    help cause sth. to happen
small wonder /little
wonder / no wonder
    naturally; it is not surprising
regardless of
    without worrying about to taking into account
relate to / with
    show a link or connection between
in the light of
    taking into account; considering
stake on
    risk (one's money, reputation, life, etc.) on
as opposed to
    in contrast to

PROPER NAMES

    Seymour St. John
    西摩.圣约翰
    Jamestown
    詹姆斯敦
    Plymouth
    普利茅斯
    St.Exupery
    圣.埃克休帕里
    Mozart
    莫扎特
    Memphis
    孟菲斯
    Charles Malik
    查尔斯.马立克
    Arnold Toynbee
    阿诺德.汤因比
    Michelangelo
    米开朗琪罗
    Eve Curie
    伊芙.居里
    De Nouy
    德.纽伊


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 ragged KC0y8     
adj.衣衫褴褛的,粗糙的,刺耳的
参考例句:
  • A ragged shout went up from the small crowd.这一小群人发出了刺耳的喊叫。
  • Ragged clothing infers poverty.破衣烂衫意味着贫穷。
2 nought gHGx3     
n./adj.无,零
参考例句:
  • We must bring their schemes to nought.我们必须使他们的阴谋彻底破产。
  • One minus one leaves nought.一减一等于零。
3 awaken byMzdD     
vi.醒,觉醒;vt.唤醒,使觉醒,唤起,激起
参考例句:
  • Old people awaken early in the morning.老年人早晨醒得早。
  • Please awaken me at six.请于六点叫醒我。
4 astronomer DOEyh     
n.天文学家
参考例句:
  • A new star attracted the notice of the astronomer.新发现的一颗星引起了那位天文学家的注意。
  • He is reputed to have been a good astronomer.他以一个优秀的天文学者闻名于世。
5 regain YkYzPd     
vt.重新获得,收复,恢复
参考例句:
  • He is making a bid to regain his World No.1 ranking.他正为重登世界排名第一位而努力。
  • The government is desperate to regain credibility with the public.政府急于重新获取公众的信任。
6 avowedly 22a8f7113a6a07f0e70ce2acc52ecdfa     
adv.公然地
参考例句:
  • He was avowedly in the wrong. 他自认错了。 来自辞典例句
  • Their policy has been avowedly marxist. 他们的政策被公开地宣称为马克思主义政策。 来自互联网
7 well-being Fe3zbn     
n.安康,安乐,幸福
参考例句:
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
8 accomplishment 2Jkyo     
n.完成,成就,(pl.)造诣,技能
参考例句:
  • The series of paintings is quite an accomplishment.这一系列的绘画真是了不起的成就。
  • Money will be crucial to the accomplishment of our objectives.要实现我们的目标,钱是至关重要的。
9 psychiatrist F0qzf     
n.精神病专家;精神病医师
参考例句:
  • He went to a psychiatrist about his compulsive gambling.他去看精神科医生治疗不能自拔的赌瘾。
  • The psychiatrist corrected him gently.精神病医师彬彬有礼地纠正他。
10 tout iG7yL     
v.推销,招徕;兜售;吹捧,劝诱
参考例句:
  • They say it will let them tout progress in the war.他们称这将有助于鼓吹他们在战争中的成果。
  • If your case studies just tout results,don't bother requiring registration to view them.如果你的案例研究只是吹捧结果,就别烦扰别人来注册访问了。
11 softening f4d358268f6bd0b278eabb29f2ee5845     
变软,软化
参考例句:
  • Her eyes, softening, caressed his face. 她的眼光变得很温柔了。它们不住地爱抚他的脸。 来自汉英文学 - 家(1-26) - 家(1-26)
  • He might think my brain was softening or something of the kind. 他也许会觉得我婆婆妈妈的,已经成了个软心肠的人了。
12 judgment e3xxC     
n.审判;判断力,识别力,看法,意见
参考例句:
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
13 fiber NzAye     
n.纤维,纤维质
参考例句:
  • The basic structural unit of yarn is the fiber.纤维是纱的基本结构单元。
  • The material must be free of fiber clumps.这种材料必须无纤维块。
14 unprecedented 7gSyJ     
adj.无前例的,新奇的
参考例句:
  • The air crash caused an unprecedented number of deaths.这次空难的死亡人数是空前的。
  • A flood of this sort is really unprecedented.这样大的洪水真是十年九不遇。
15 precedent sSlz6     
n.先例,前例;惯例;adj.在前的,在先的
参考例句:
  • Is there a precedent for what you want me to do?你要我做的事有前例可援吗?
  • This is a wonderful achievement without precedent in Chinese history.这是中国历史上亘古未有的奇绩。
16 influential l7oxK     
adj.有影响的,有权势的
参考例句:
  • He always tries to get in with the most influential people.他总是试图巴结最有影响的人物。
  • He is a very influential man in the government.他在政府中是个很有影响的人物。
17 capabilities f7b11037f2050959293aafb493b7653c     
n.能力( capability的名词复数 );可能;容量;[复数]潜在能力
参考例句:
  • He was somewhat pompous and had a high opinion of his own capabilities. 他有点自大,自视甚高。 来自辞典例句
  • Some programmers use tabs to break complex product capabilities into smaller chunks. 一些程序员认为,标签可以将复杂的功能分为每个窗格一组简单的功能。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
18 accomplished UzwztZ     
adj.有才艺的;有造诣的;达到了的
参考例句:
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
19 brutally jSRya     
adv.残忍地,野蛮地,冷酷无情地
参考例句:
  • The uprising was brutally put down.起义被残酷地镇压下去了。
  • A pro-democracy uprising was brutally suppressed.一场争取民主的起义被残酷镇压了。
20 colonist TqQzK     
n.殖民者,移民
参考例句:
  • The indians often attacked the settlements of the colonist.印地安人经常袭击殖民者的定居点。
  • In the seventeenth century, the colonist here thatched their roofs with reeds and straw,just as they did in england.在17世纪,殖民者在这里用茅草盖屋,就像他们在英国做的一样。
21 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
22 inclination Gkwyj     
n.倾斜;点头;弯腰;斜坡;倾度;倾向;爱好
参考例句:
  • She greeted us with a slight inclination of the head.她微微点头向我们致意。
  • I did not feel the slightest inclination to hurry.我没有丝毫着急的意思。
23 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
24 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
25 stimulate wuSwL     
vt.刺激,使兴奋;激励,使…振奋
参考例句:
  • Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  • Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  精读  第五册  unit
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