英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

大学英语精读第五册 Unit 9

时间:2006-01-24 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:999999   字体: [ ]
特别声明:本栏目内容均从网络收集或者网友提供,供仅参考试用,我们无法保证内容完整和正确。如果资料损害了您的权益,请与站长联系,我们将及时删除并致以歉意。
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

                  UNIT 9
 
TEXT

In this world constant changes are a fact of life. How to act in this changing world, then, presents a real challenge for executives of big businesses today. The leader of a big company shoulders great responsibilities. Naturally, he wants to be absolutely sure he is doing the right thing. But does it follow that he should never take a chance, that he can afford to delay action until he obtains all the information he needs? A good manager draws on the wisdom of committees. But can committees replace individuals? In the selection, the author, a successful businessman himself, expounds2 his views on these questions, throwing light on mature management.

           The Key to Management
                      by Lee Iacocca

    If had to sum up in one word the qualities that make a good manager, I'd say that it all comes to decisiveness. You can use the fanciest computers in the world and you can gather all the charts and numbers, but in the end you have to bring all your information together, set up a timetable, and act.
    And I don't mean act rashly. In the press, I'm sometimes described as a flamboyant3 leader and a hip4-shooter, a kind of fly-by-the-seat-of-the-pants operator. I may occasionally give that impression, but if that image were really true. I could never have been successful in this business.
    Actually, my management style has always been pretty conservative. Wherever I've taken risks, it's been after satisfying myself that the research and the market studies supported my instincts. I may act on my intuition -- but only if my hunches5 are supported by the facts.
    Too many managers let themselves get weighed down in their decision-making, especially those with too much education. I once said to Philip Caldwell, who became the top man at Ford1 after I left: "The trouble with you, Phil, is that you want to Harvard, where they taught you not to take any action until you've got all the facts. You've got ninety-five percent of them, but it's going to take you another six months to get that last five percent. And by the time you do, your facts will be out of date because the market has already changed. That's what life is all about -- timing6."
    A good business leader can't operate that way. It's perfectly7 natural to want the facts and to hold out for the research that guarantees a particular program will work. After all, if you're about to spend $300 million on a new product, you want to be absolutely sure you're on the right track.
    That's fine in theory, but real life just doesn't work that way. Obviously, you're responsible for gathering8 as many relevant facts and projections9 as you possibly can. But at some point you've got to take that leap of fait. First, because even the right decision is wrong if it's made too late. Second, because in most cases there's no such thing as certainty. There are times when even the best manager is like the little boy with the big dog waiting to see where the dog wants to go so he can take him there.
    What constitutes enough information for the decision-maker? It's impossible to put a number on it, but clearly when you move ahead with only 50 percent of the facts the odds10 are stacked against you. If that's the case, you had better be very lucky -- or else come up with some terrific hunches. There are times when that kind of gamble is called for, but it's certainly no way to run a railroad.
    At the same time, you'll never know 100 percent of what you need. Like many industries these days, the car business is constantly changing. For us in Detroit, the great challenge is always to figure out what's going to appeal to customers three years down the road. I'm writing these words in 1984, and we're already planning our models for 1987 and 1988. Somehow I have to try to predict what's going to sell three and four years from now, even though I can't say with any certainty what the public will want next month.
    When you don't have all the facts, you sometimes have to draw on your experience. Whenever I read in a newspaper that Lee Iacocca likes to shoot from the hip, I say to myself: "Well, maybe he's been shooting for so long that by this time he has a pretty good idea of how to hit the target."
    To a certain extent, I've always operated by gut11 feeling. I like to be in the trenches12. I was never one of those guys who could just sit around and strategize endlessly.
    But there's a new breed of businessmen, mostly people with M. B. A.' S, who are wary13 of intuitive decisions. In part, they're right. Normally, intuition is not a good enough basis for making a move. But many of these guys go to the opposite extreme. They seem to think that every business problem can be structured and reduced to a case study. That may be true in school, but in business there has to be somebody around who will say: "Okay, folks, it's time. Be ready to go in one hour." When I read historical accounts of Word War II and D-Day, I'm always struck by the same thought: Eisenhower almost blew it because he kept vacillating. But finally he said: "No matter what the weather looks like, we have to go ahead now. Waiting any longer could be even more dangerous. So let's move it!"
    The same lesson applies to corporate14 life. There will always be those who will want to take an extra month or two to do further research on the shape of the roof on a new car. While that research may be helpful, it can wreak15 havoc16 on your production plans. After a certain point, when most of the relevant facts are in, you find yourself at the mercy of the law of diminishing returns.
    That's why a certain amount of risk-taking is essential. I realize it's not for everybody. There are some people who won't leave home in the morning without an umbrella even if the sun is shining. Unfortunately, the world doesn't always wait for you try to anticipate your losses. Sometimes you just have to take a chance -- and correct your mistakes as you go along.
    Back in the 1960s and through most of the 1970s, these things didn't matter as much as they do now. In those days the car industry was like a golden goose. We were making money almost without trying. But today, few businesses can afford the luxury of slow decision-making, whether it involves a guy who's in the wrong job or the planning of a whole new line of cars five years down the road.
    Despite what the textbooks say, most important decisions in corporate life are made by individuals, not by committees. My policy has always been to be democratic all the way to the point of decision. Then I become the ruthless commander. "Okay, I've heard everybody," I say. "Now here's what we're going to do."
    You always need committees, because that's where people share their knowledge and intentions. But when committees replace individuals -- and Ford these days has more committees than General Motors -- then productivity begins to decline.
    To sun up: nothing stands still in this world. I like to go duck hunting, where constant movement and change and facts of life. You can aim at a duck and get it in your sights, but the duck is always moving. In order to hit the duck, you have to move your gun. But a committee faced with a major decision can't always move as quickly as the events it's trying to respond to. By the time the committee is ready to shoot, the duck has flown away.

NEW WORDS

    decisiveness
n.  the quality or state of being decisive; resoluteness
    decisive
a.  showing or marked by determination and firmness
    timetable
n.  a list of the times at which things are to be done or happen
    rashly
ad. too hastily; recklessly
    flamboyant
a.  showy and confident 浮华的,炫耀
    leader
n.  one who leads
    hip-shooter
n.  a person who acts rashly 鲁莽行事者
    conservative
a.  favoring traditional values; tending to be against change
    satisfy
vi. free from doubt or uncertainty17, convince
    hunch
n.  a feeling about what is going to happen 预感
    guarantee
vt. make certain; promise
    projection
n.  an estimate of what will happen; forecast made on past performance 估计;预测
    leap
n.  a sudden jump
    certainty
n.  the condition of being certain or sure
    odds
n.  the chance that a particular thing will happen; probability
    lucky
a.  having or bringing good luck
    terrific
a.  very good
    gamble
n.  a risk 冒险
    target
    a mark that is aimed or fired at; goal or aim 靶子;目标
    gut
a.  coming from or concerning one's natural feelings, rather than from careful thought 发自内心深处的;直觉的
    reduce
vt. change into a different and less complicated form 简化
    historical
a.  of, having to do with, or based on history
    vacillate
vi. be continually changing from one opinion or feeling to another; be uncertain what action to take 犹豫
    corporate
a.  of or belonging to a corporation 公司的
    wreak
vt. cause (harm, havoc, etc.)
    havoc
n.  widespread damage or serious disorder18 大破坏;大混乱;浩劫
    diminish
v.  make or become smaller or less
    umbrella
n.  a folding framework covered with fabric19 and used for protection from rain or sun 伞
    luxury
n.  sth. expensive or hard to get that is not necessary but gives great pleasure or comfort 奢侈品
    policy
n.  a method or plan for action  政策
    democratic
a.  of or favoring democracy; believing in or practicing the principle of equality
    ruthless
a.  having or showing no pity; cruel
    commander
n.  a person in charge; leader 指挥员
    sight
n.  (often pl.) a part of a weapon that guides the eye in aiming 瞄准器

PHEASES & EXPRESSIONS

sum up
    give the main points of; state people's feelings in a few words
come down to
    mean in essence; be reduced to
weigh down
    lower sb.'s spirits; make sad and anxious
out of date
    not in agreement with the latest development; old-fashioned
hold out for
    stand firm in demanding
on the right track
    thinking or acting20 in a correct way
stack the odds / cards against
    make it unlikely for (sb.) to succeed; put (sb.) in a position of disadvantage
shoot from the hip
    act or talk in a rash, impetuous way 鲁莽地行事(或讲话)
be wary of
    be cautious about; be careful about
make a move
    begin to take action
blow it
    lose one's chance of success or of winning
move it
    make a move, begin to act
take a chance
    take a risk

PROPER NAMES

    Lee lacocca
    李.雅科卡
    Philip Caldwell 
    菲利普.考察威尔
    Detroit
    底特律
    Eisenhower
    艾森豪威尔


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 Ford KiIxx     
n.浅滩,水浅可涉处;v.涉水,涉过
参考例句:
  • They were guarding the bridge,so we forded the river.他们驻守在那座桥上,所以我们只能涉水过河。
  • If you decide to ford a stream,be extremely careful.如果已决定要涉过小溪,必须极度小心。
2 expounds e6e9635dbc74715e08c94afe8524070f     
论述,详细讲解( expound的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • This paper briefly expounds the technological design and smelting process of ZCuZn40Mn3Fel. 主要论述了锰黄铜熔炼工艺设计及熔炼过程。
  • The second chapter expounds the approval and ratification of the reorganization project. 第二章论述了公司重整计划的通过与批准。
3 flamboyant QjKxl     
adj.火焰般的,华丽的,炫耀的
参考例句:
  • His clothes were rather flamboyant for such a serious occasion.他的衣着在这种严肃场合太浮夸了。
  • The King's flamboyant lifestyle is well known.国王的奢华生活方式是人尽皆知的。
4 hip 1dOxX     
n.臀部,髋;屋脊
参考例句:
  • The thigh bone is connected to the hip bone.股骨连着髋骨。
  • The new coats blouse gracefully above the hip line.新外套在臀围线上优美地打着褶皱。
5 hunches 647ac34044ab1e0436cc483db95795b5     
预感,直觉( hunch的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • A technical sergeant hunches in a cubicle. 一位技术军士在一间小屋里弯腰坐着。
  • We often test our hunches on each other. 我们经常互相检验我们的第六感觉。
6 timing rgUzGC     
n.时间安排,时间选择
参考例句:
  • The timing of the meeting is not convenient.会议的时间安排不合适。
  • The timing of our statement is very opportune.我们发表声明选择的时机很恰当。
7 perfectly 8Mzxb     
adv.完美地,无可非议地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The witnesses were each perfectly certain of what they said.证人们个个对自己所说的话十分肯定。
  • Everything that we're doing is all perfectly above board.我们做的每件事情都是光明正大的。
8 gathering ChmxZ     
n.集会,聚会,聚集
参考例句:
  • He called on Mr. White to speak at the gathering.他请怀特先生在集会上讲话。
  • He is on the wing gathering material for his novels.他正忙于为他的小说收集资料。
9 projections 7275a1e8ba6325ecfc03ebb61a4b9192     
预测( projection的名词复数 ); 投影; 投掷; 突起物
参考例句:
  • Their sales projections are a total thumbsuck. 他们的销售量预测纯属估计。
  • The council has revised its projections of funding requirements upwards. 地方议会调高了对资金需求的预测。
10 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
11 gut MezzP     
n.[pl.]胆量;内脏;adj.本能的;vt.取出内脏
参考例句:
  • It is not always necessary to gut the fish prior to freezing.冷冻鱼之前并不总是需要先把内脏掏空。
  • My immediate gut feeling was to refuse.我本能的直接反应是拒绝。
12 trenches ed0fcecda36d9eed25f5db569f03502d     
深沟,地沟( trench的名词复数 ); 战壕
参考例句:
  • life in the trenches 第一次世界大战期间的战壕生活
  • The troops stormed the enemy's trenches and fanned out across the fields. 部队猛攻敌人的战壕,并在田野上呈扇形散开。
13 wary JMEzk     
adj.谨慎的,机警的,小心的
参考例句:
  • He is wary of telling secrets to others.他谨防向他人泄露秘密。
  • Paula frowned,suddenly wary.宝拉皱了皱眉头,突然警惕起来。
14 corporate 7olzl     
adj.共同的,全体的;公司的,企业的
参考例句:
  • This is our corporate responsibility.这是我们共同的责任。
  • His corporate's life will be as short as a rabbit's tail.他的公司的寿命是兔子尾巴长不了。
15 wreak RfYwC     
v.发泄;报复
参考例句:
  • She had a burning desire to wreak revenge.她复仇心切。
  • Timid people always wreak their peevishness on the gentle.怯懦的人总是把满腹牢骚向温和的人发泄。
16 havoc 9eyxY     
n.大破坏,浩劫,大混乱,大杂乱
参考例句:
  • The earthquake wreaked havoc on the city.地震对这个城市造成了大破坏。
  • This concentration of airborne firepower wrought havoc with the enemy forces.这次机载火力的集中攻击给敌军造成很大破坏。
17 uncertainty NlFwK     
n.易变,靠不住,不确知,不确定的事物
参考例句:
  • Her comments will add to the uncertainty of the situation.她的批评将会使局势更加不稳定。
  • After six weeks of uncertainty,the strain was beginning to take its toll.6个星期的忐忑不安后,压力开始产生影响了。
18 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
19 fabric 3hezG     
n.织物,织品,布;构造,结构,组织
参考例句:
  • The fabric will spot easily.这种织品很容易玷污。
  • I don't like the pattern on the fabric.我不喜欢那块布料上的图案。
20 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   大学英语  精读  第五册  unit
顶一下
(6)
66.7%
踩一下
(3)
33.3%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴