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大学英语精读第五册 Unit 5

时间:2006-01-24 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:Ben小孩   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

                UNIT 5

TEXT

As the author points out below, the success of science has less to do with a particular method than with an essential attitude of the scientist. This attitude is essentially1 one of inquiry2, experimentation3 and humility4 before the facts. Therefore, a good scientist is an honest one. True scientists do not bow to any authority but they are ever ready to modify or even abandon their ideas if adequate evidence is found contradicting them. Scientists, they do place a high value on honesty.

    Science and the Scientific Attitude
                           by Paul G. Hewitt

    Science is the body of knowledge about nature that represents the collective efforts, insights, findings, and wisdom of the human race. Science is not something new but had its beginnings before recorded history when humans first discovered reoccurring relationships around them. Through careful observations of these relationships, they began to know nature and, because of nature's dependability, found they could make predictions to enable some control over their surroundings.
    Science made its greatest headway in the sixteenth century when people began asking answerable questions about nature -- when they began replacing superstition5 by a systematic6 search for order -- when experiment in addition to logic7 was used to test ideas. Where people once tried to influence natural events with magic and supernatural forces, they now had science to guide them. Advance was slow, however, because of the powerful opposition8 to scientific methods and ideas.
    In about 1510 Copernicus suggested that the sun was stationary9 and that the earth revolved10 about the sun. He refuted the idea that the earth was the center of the universe. After years of hesitation11, he published his findings but died before his book was circulated. His book was considered heretical and dangerous and was banned by the Church for 200 years. A century after Copernicus, the mathematician12 Bruno was burned at the stake -- largely for supporting Copernicus, suggesting the sun to be a star, and suggesting that space was infinite. Galileo was imprisoned13 for popularizing the Copernican theory and for his other contributions to scientific thought. Yet a couple of centuries later, Copernican advocates seemed harmless.
    This happens age after age. In the early 1800s geologists14 met with violent condemnation15 because they differed with the Genesis account of creation. Later in the same century, geology was safe, but theories of evolution were condemned16 and the teaching of them forbidden. This most likely continues. "At every crossway on the road that leads to the future, each progressive spirit is opposed by a thousand men appointed to guard the past." Every age has one or more groups of intellectual rebels who are persecuted17, condemned, or suppressed at the time; but to a later age, they seem harmless and often essential to the elevation18 of human conditions.
    The enormous success of science has led to the general belief that scientists have developed and ate employing a "method" - a method that is extremely effective in gaining, organizing, and applying new knowledge. Galileo, famous scientist of the 1600s, is usually credited with being the "Father of the Scientific Method." His method is essentially as follows:
    1.  Recognize a problem.
    2.  Guess an answer.
    3.  Predict the consequences of the guess.
    4.  Perform experiments to test predictions.
    5.  Formulate19 the simplest theory organizes the three main ingredients: guess, prediction, experimental outcome.
    Although this cookbook method has a certain appeal, to has not been the key to most of the breakthroughs and discoveries in science. Trial and error, experimentation without guessing, accidental discovery, and other methods account for much of the progress in science. Rather than a particular method, the success of science has more to do with an attitude common to scientists. This attitude is essentially one of inquiry, experimentation, and humility before the facts. If a scientist holds an idea to be true and finds any counterevidence whatever, the idea is either modified or abandoned. In the scientific spirit, the idea must be modified or abandoned in spite of the reputation of the person advocating it. As an example, the greatly respected Greek philosopher Aristotle said that falling bodies fall at a speed proportional to their weight. This false idea was held to be true for more than 2,000 years because of Aristotle's immense authority. In the scientific spirit, however, a single verifiable experiment to the contrary outweighs20 any authority, regardless of reputation or the number of followers21 and advocates.
    Scientists must accept facts even when they would like them to be different. They must strive to distinguish between what they see and what they wish to see -- for humanity's capacity for self-deception is vast. People have traditionally tended to adopt general rules, beliefs, creeds22, theories, and ideas without thoroughly23 questioning their validity and to retain them long after they have been shown to be meaningless, false, or at least questionable24. The most widespread assumptions are the least questioned. Most often, when an idea is adopted, particular attention is given to cases that seem to support it, while cases that seem to refute it are distorted, belittled25, or ignored. We feel deeply that it is a sign of weakness to "change out minds." Competent scientists, however, must be expert at changing their minds. This is because science seeks not to defend our beliefs but to improve them. Better theories are made by those who are not hung up on prevailing26 ones.
    Away from their profession, scientists are inherently no more honest or ethical27 than other people. But in their profession they work in an arena28 that puts a high premium29 on honesty. The cardinal30 rule in science is that all claims must be testable -- they must be capable, at least in principle, of being proved wrong. For example, if someone claims that a certain procedure has a certain result, it must in principle be possible to perform a procedure that will either confirm or contradict the claim. If confirmed, then the claim is regarded as useful and a stepping-stone to further knowledge. None of us has the time or energy or resources to test every claim, so most of the time we must take somebody's word. However, we must have some criterion for deciding whether one person's word is as good as another's and whether one claim is as good as another. The criterion, again, is that the claim must be testable. To reduce the likelihood of error, scientists accept the word only of those whose ideas, theories, and findings are testable -- if not in practice then at least in principle. Speculations31 that cannot be tested are regarded as "unscientific." This has the long-run effect of compelling honesty - findings widely publicized among fellow scientists are generally subjected to further testing. Sooner or later, mistake (and lies) are bound to be found out; wishful thinking is bound to be exposed. The honesty so important to the progress of science thus becomes a matter of self-interest to scientists.

NEW WORDS
 
    represent
vt. be a sign or symbol of; act for 代表
    collective
a.  of or shared by a group of people 集体的
    insight
n.  the power of using one's mind to see or understand the true nature of a situation 洞察力
    wisdom
n.  intelligence and good judgment32 智慧
    reoccur
vi. occur again
    dependability
n.  reliability33, trustworthiness
    prediction
n.  the act of predicting or sth. predicted 预测

    headway
n.  motion forward; progress
    answerable
n.  able to be answered
    replace
vt. take or fill the place of
    superstition
n.  a belief or practice based on ignorance, faith in magic or chance
    systematic
a.  of, having or using a system; carried out according to a system
    supernatural
n.  outside of or beyond the natural world 超自然的
    opposition
n.  the act or condition of opposing; resistance
    stationary
a.  not moving or changing; not capable of being moved
    hesitation
n.  the act of hesitating
    publish
vt. print and offer for sale

    circulate
v.  (cause to) spread widely; move or send around  传播,(使)流传,(使)循环
    heretical
a.  (of opinion) opposed to established beliefs or standards 异端的
    ban
vt. forbid by law or decree
    largely
ad. for the most part; mainly
    infinite
a.  having or seeming to have no limits; endless; very large
    imprison
vt. put in prison
    popularize
v.  cause to be well know and generally liked or used; make (a difficult subject) easily understandable to ordinary people 使普及;推广
    geologist
n.  a person who knows much about geology 地质学家
    violent
a.  having, showing, or resulting from great physical force; showing or having strong feelings 强暴的;猛烈的
    condemnation
n.  express strong disapproval34 of, pronounce guilty of crime or wrong 谴责;宣告...有罪
    condemnation
n. 
    genesis
n.  the beginning or origin: (G-) the first book of the Old Testament35 起源;(《旧约全书》第一卷)《创世纪》
    geology
n.  the study of origin, structure, and history of the earth 地质学
    evolution
n.  slow, gradual development; the scientific theory that all living things developed very slowly over millions of years from simpler forms of life 进化(论)
    crossway
n.  crossroad; a road that crosses another
    progressive
a.  moving forward step by step; favoring or promoting improvement or reform
    appoint
vt. name for an office, duty or position 指定,任命
    rebel
n.  a person who resists or opposes authority 反叛者
    persecute
vt. treat continually in a cruel way, esp. because of political or religious beliefs 迫害
    suppress
vt. stop or put down by force; keep in, hold back 镇压;抑制
    essential
a.  very important; vital
    elevation
n.  the act of raising to a higher place or position
    elevate
vt.
    effective
a.  able to bring about a desired result; being in force or operation
    credit
vt. (with) believe that (sb.) has (a quality, or has done sth. good) 认为(某人)有(某种优点或成就等)
    formulate
vt. express in an exact way 精确地阐述
    ingredient
n.  a substance that is part of a mixture or compound 成分
    experimental
a.  used for or connected with experiments
    outcome
n.  a final result
    cookbook
n.  a book of directions and recipes for cooking
    breakthrough
n.  an important advance or discovery, often after earlier failures
    trial and error
    process of solving a problem by trying various solutions and learning from one's failures  反复试验
    experimentation
n.  the making of experiments
    accidental
a.  happening by chance, not by plan or intention
    countere idence
n.  opposing evidence
    modify
vt. change, esp. slightly
    abandon
vt. give up completely; leave for good, desert
    reputation
n.  the general worth or quality of sb. or sth. as judged by others
    Greek
n.  sb. who was born in or is a citizen of Greece; the language of the Greeks 希腊人(语)
a.  of Greece, its people, or their language
    proportional
a.  in proportion 成比例的
    immense
a.  of great size, extent or degree
    verifiable
a.  that can be checked or tested and proved to be true
    outweigh
vt. weigh more than; exceed in value, importance or influence
    follower
n.  a person who follows or supports a particular person, belief, or cause, etc.
    strive
vt. try hard
    distinguish
v.  know or see clearly the difference between two things; to hear or see clearly 区分,辨别
    humanity
n.  human beings as a group; people
    adopt
vt. take and use as one's own
    creed
n.  a statement of the beliefs of principles held by a person or group 信条
    retain
vt. continue to have; keep; hold in the mind or memory
    questionable
a.  perhaps not true, right or honest; not certain
    assumption
n.  sth. that is taken as a fact or believed to be true without proof
    belittle
vt. cause to seem small or unimportant
    weakness
n.  the condition or quality of being weak; a weak point; fault
    inherent
a.  of or being a basic quality or characteristic of a person or thing 内在的,固有的
    inherently
ad.
    ethical
a.  agreeing with the rules or standards of right behavior
    ethics
n.  moral rules or principles of behavior governing a person or group 伦理,道德
    arena
n.  an enclosed area used for sports events and entertainments; any place of activity 竞技场;活动场所
    premium
n.  an unusual or high value
    cardinal
a.  chief, main, most important
    testable
a.  capable of being tested
    procedure
n.  a set of actions necessary for doing sth.; the method and order of directing business in an official meeting, law case, etc. 程序
    contradict
vt. say the opposite of; disagree with 反驳;同...矛盾
    stepping-stone
n.  a means of advancing or rising; a way of improvement or gaining success 进身之阶;垫脚石
    criterion
n.  an established standard or principle on which a judgment or decision is based 标准
    likelihood
n.  the fact or degree of being likely; probability
    speculation
n.  careful thought, reflection; the act or process of guessing 沉思;推测
    speculate
v.  reflect; guess
unscientific
a.  not scientific
    long-run
a.  happening or continuing over a long period of time
    publicize
vt. bring to public notice 宣传,公布
    publicity
n.  (the business of bringing sb. or sth. to) public notice or attention
    wishful
a.  having or expressing a wish
    wishful thinking
    the false belier that sth. is true of will happen simply because one wishes it 如意算盘

PHRASRS & EXPRESSIONS
 
meet with
    experience or suffer
credit sb. with sth.
    believe sb. has sth. or is responsible for sth.
account for
    be responsible for, explain
have (...) to do with
    have a (...)connection with
to the contrary
    to the opposite effect, in disagreement
distinguish between
    tell the difference between, separate (one) from (the other)
be hung up on / about
    (infml.) be infatuated with or enthusiastic about 迷恋;热衷于
put a (high) premium on
    regard as (very) important
in principle
    as regards the general truth or rule, as fat as the overall idea is concerned
take sb.'s word (for it)
    believe sb.; accept what sb. says as correct
in practice
    in the actual doing of sth.
subject to
    cause to experience or undergo

PROPER NAMES

    Paul G. Hewitt
    保罗.G.休伊特
    Copernicus
    哥白尼
    Bruno
    布鲁诺
    Galileo
    伽利略


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 essentially nntxw     
adv.本质上,实质上,基本上
参考例句:
  • Really great men are essentially modest.真正的伟人大都很谦虚。
  • She is an essentially selfish person.她本质上是个自私自利的人。
2 inquiry nbgzF     
n.打听,询问,调查,查问
参考例句:
  • Many parents have been pressing for an inquiry into the problem.许多家长迫切要求调查这个问题。
  • The field of inquiry has narrowed down to five persons.调查的范围已经缩小到只剩5个人了。
3 experimentation rm6x1     
n.实验,试验,实验法
参考例句:
  • Many people object to experimentation on animals.许多人反对用动物做实验。
  • Study and analysis are likely to be far cheaper than experimentation.研究和分析的费用可能要比实验少得多。
4 humility 8d6zX     
n.谦逊,谦恭
参考例句:
  • Humility often gains more than pride.谦逊往往比骄傲收益更多。
  • His voice was still soft and filled with specious humility.他的声音还是那么温和,甚至有点谦卑。
5 superstition VHbzg     
n.迷信,迷信行为
参考例句:
  • It's a common superstition that black cats are unlucky.认为黑猫不吉祥是一种很普遍的迷信。
  • Superstition results from ignorance.迷信产生于无知。
6 systematic SqMwo     
adj.有系统的,有计划的,有方法的
参考例句:
  • The way he works isn't very systematic.他的工作不是很有条理。
  • The teacher made a systematic work of teaching.这个教师进行系统的教学工作。
7 logic j0HxI     
n.逻辑(学);逻辑性
参考例句:
  • What sort of logic is that?这是什么逻辑?
  • I don't follow the logic of your argument.我不明白你的论点逻辑性何在。
8 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
9 stationary CuAwc     
adj.固定的,静止不动的
参考例句:
  • A stationary object is easy to be aimed at.一个静止不动的物体是容易瞄准的。
  • Wait until the bus is stationary before you get off.你要等公共汽车停稳了再下车。
10 revolved b63ebb9b9e407e169395c5fc58399fe6     
v.(使)旋转( revolve的过去式和过去分词 );细想
参考例句:
  • The fan revolved slowly. 电扇缓慢地转动着。
  • The wheel revolved on its centre. 轮子绕中心转动。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 hesitation tdsz5     
n.犹豫,踌躇
参考例句:
  • After a long hesitation, he told the truth at last.踌躇了半天,他终于直说了。
  • There was a certain hesitation in her manner.她的态度有些犹豫不决。
12 mathematician aoPz2p     
n.数学家
参考例句:
  • The man with his back to the camera is a mathematician.背对着照相机的人是位数学家。
  • The mathematician analyzed his figures again.这位数学家再次分析研究了他的这些数字。
13 imprisoned bc7d0bcdd0951055b819cfd008ef0d8d     
下狱,监禁( imprison的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He was imprisoned for two concurrent terms of 30 months and 18 months. 他被判处30个月和18个月的监禁,合并执行。
  • They were imprisoned for possession of drugs. 他们因拥有毒品而被监禁。
14 geologists 1261592151f6aa40819f7687883760a2     
地质学家,地质学者( geologist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Geologists uncovered the hidden riches. 地质学家发现了地下的宝藏。
  • Geologists study the structure of the rocks. 地质学家研究岩石结构。
15 condemnation 2pSzp     
n.谴责; 定罪
参考例句:
  • There was widespread condemnation of the invasion. 那次侵略遭到了人们普遍的谴责。
  • The jury's condemnation was a shock to the suspect. 陪审团宣告有罪使嫌疑犯大为震惊。
16 condemned condemned     
adj. 被责难的, 被宣告有罪的 动词condemn的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • He condemned the hypocrisy of those politicians who do one thing and say another. 他谴责了那些说一套做一套的政客的虚伪。
  • The policy has been condemned as a regressive step. 这项政策被认为是一种倒退而受到谴责。
17 persecuted 2daa49e8c0ac1d04bf9c3650a3d486f3     
(尤指宗教或政治信仰的)迫害(~sb. for sth.)( persecute的过去式和过去分词 ); 烦扰,困扰或骚扰某人
参考例句:
  • Throughout history, people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs. 人们因宗教信仰而受迫害的情况贯穿了整个历史。
  • Members of these sects are ruthlessly persecuted and suppressed. 这些教派的成员遭到了残酷的迫害和镇压。
18 elevation bqsxH     
n.高度;海拔;高地;上升;提高
参考例句:
  • The house is at an elevation of 2,000 metres.那幢房子位于海拔两千米的高处。
  • His elevation to the position of General Manager was announced yesterday.昨天宣布他晋升总经理职位。
19 formulate L66yt     
v.用公式表示;规划;设计;系统地阐述
参考例句:
  • He took care to formulate his reply very clearly.他字斟句酌,清楚地做了回答。
  • I was impressed by the way he could formulate his ideas.他陈述观点的方式让我印象深刻。
20 outweighs 62d9db1e030eaef3a86321f2e4a5724d     
v.在重量上超过( outweigh的第三人称单数 );在重要性或价值方面超过
参考例句:
  • Her need to save money outweighs her desire to spend it on fun. 她省钱的需要比她花钱娱乐的愿望更重要。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Its clarity in algebraic and analytical operations far outweighs any drawbacks. 文化代数和解析运算中的清晰性远远胜过任何缺点。 来自辞典例句
21 followers 5c342ee9ce1bf07932a1f66af2be7652     
追随者( follower的名词复数 ); 用户; 契据的附面; 从动件
参考例句:
  • the followers of Mahatma Gandhi 圣雄甘地的拥护者
  • The reformer soon gathered a band of followers round him. 改革者很快就获得一群追随者支持他。
22 creeds 6087713156d7fe5873785720253dc7ab     
(尤指宗教)信条,教条( creed的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • people of all races, colours and creeds 各种种族、肤色和宗教信仰的人
  • Catholics are agnostic to the Protestant creeds. 天主教徒对于新教教义来说,是不可知论者。
23 thoroughly sgmz0J     
adv.完全地,彻底地,十足地
参考例句:
  • The soil must be thoroughly turned over before planting.一定要先把土地深翻一遍再下种。
  • The soldiers have been thoroughly instructed in the care of their weapons.士兵们都系统地接受过保护武器的训练。
24 questionable oScxK     
adj.可疑的,有问题的
参考例句:
  • There are still a few questionable points in the case.这个案件还有几个疑点。
  • Your argument is based on a set of questionable assumptions.你的论证建立在一套有问题的假设上。
25 belittled 39476f0950667cb112a492d64de54dc2     
使显得微小,轻视,贬低( belittle的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • She felt her husband constantly belittled her achievements. 她觉得她的丈夫时常贬低她的成就。
  • A poor but honest man is not to be belittled. 穷而诚实的人是不该让人小看的。
26 prevailing E1ozF     
adj.盛行的;占优势的;主要的
参考例句:
  • She wears a fashionable hair style prevailing in the city.她的发型是这个城市流行的款式。
  • This reflects attitudes and values prevailing in society.这反映了社会上盛行的态度和价值观。
27 ethical diIz4     
adj.伦理的,道德的,合乎道德的
参考例句:
  • It is necessary to get the youth to have a high ethical concept.必须使青年具有高度的道德观念。
  • It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
28 arena Yv4zd     
n.竞技场,运动场所;竞争场所,舞台
参考例句:
  • She entered the political arena at the age of 25. 她25岁进入政界。
  • He had not an adequate arena for the exercise of his talents.他没有充分发挥其才能的场所。
29 premium EPSxX     
n.加付款;赠品;adj.高级的;售价高的
参考例句:
  • You have to pay a premium for express delivery.寄快递你得付额外费用。
  • Fresh water was at a premium after the reservoir was contaminated.在水库被污染之后,清水便因稀而贵了。
30 cardinal Xcgy5     
n.(天主教的)红衣主教;adj.首要的,基本的
参考例句:
  • This is a matter of cardinal significance.这是非常重要的事。
  • The Cardinal coloured with vexation. 红衣主教感到恼火,脸涨得通红。
31 speculations da17a00acfa088f5ac0adab7a30990eb     
n.投机买卖( speculation的名词复数 );思考;投机活动;推断
参考例句:
  • Your speculations were all quite close to the truth. 你的揣测都很接近于事实。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • This possibility gives rise to interesting speculations. 这种可能性引起了有趣的推测。 来自《用法词典》
32 judgment e3xxC     
n.审判;判断力,识别力,看法,意见
参考例句:
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
33 reliability QVexf     
n.可靠性,确实性
参考例句:
  • We mustn't presume too much upon the reliability of such sources.我们不应过分指望这类消息来源的可靠性。
  • I can assure you of the reliability of the information.我向你保证这消息可靠。
34 disapproval VuTx4     
n.反对,不赞成
参考例句:
  • The teacher made an outward show of disapproval.老师表面上表示不同意。
  • They shouted their disapproval.他们喊叫表示反对。
35 testament yyEzf     
n.遗嘱;证明
参考例句:
  • This is his last will and testament.这是他的遗愿和遗嘱。
  • It is a testament to the power of political mythology.这说明,编造政治神话可以产生多大的威力。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  精读  第五册  unit
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