英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

历年考研英语阅读理解mp3(96-3)

时间:2008-10-13 06:44来源:互联网 提供网友:流畅   字体: [ ]
特别声明:本栏目内容均从网络收集或者网友提供,供仅参考试用,我们无法保证内容完整和正确。如果资料损害了您的权益,请与站长联系,我们将及时删除并致以歉意。
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)
[00:00.00]在线英语听力室(www.tingroom.com)友情制作
[00:03.79]1996 Passage3
[00:07.62]In the last half of the nineteenth century "capital"
[00:11.05]and "labour" were enlarging and perfecting
[00:14.17]their rival organizations on modern lines.
[00:17.63]Many an old firm was replaced by a limited liability company
[00:22.49]with a bureaucracy of salaried managers.
[00:26.12]The change met the technical requirements
[00:28.39]of the new age by engaging a large professional element
[00:32.83]and prevented the decline in efficiency
[00:35.24]that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms
[00:38.78]in the second and third generation
[00:40.85]after the energetic founders1.
[00:43.95]It was moreover a step away from individual initiative,
[00:47.78]towards collectivism and municipal
[00:50.20]and state-owned business.
[00:52.62]The railway companies, though still private business managed
[00:56.32]for the benefit of shareholders2,
[00:58.44]were very unlike old family business.
[01:01.77]At the same time the great municipalities
[01:04.59]went into business to supply lighting,
[01:07.31]trams and other services to the taxpayers3.
[01:11.35]The growth of the limited liability company
[01:14.65]and municipal business had important consequences.
[01:19.26]Such large, impersonal4 manipulation of capital
[01:22.80]and industry greatly increased the numbers
[01:25.82]and importance of shareholders as a class,
[01:28.75]an element in national life representing
[01:31.47]irresponsible wealth detached from the land
[01:34.60]and the duties of the landowners;
[01:37.13]and almost equally detached
[01:38.94]from the responsible management of business.
[01:42.17]All through the nineteenth century,
[01:43.92]America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe
[01:49.56]were being developed by British capital,
[01:52.69]and British shareholders were thus enriched
[01:55.11]by the world's movement towards industrialization.
[01:58.93]Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne
[02:01.96]sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes
[02:05.19]who had retired5 on their incomes,
[02:07.71]and who had no relation to the rest of the community
[02:10.93]except that of drawing dividends6 and occasionally
[02:14.26]attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate
[02:16.19]their orders to the management.
[02:18.90]On the other hand "shareholding7" meant leisure and freedom
[02:22.89]which was used by many of the later Victorians
[02:25.82]for the highest purpose of a great civilization.
[02:28.44]在线英语听力室(
www.tingroom.com)友情制作
[02:29.95]The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives,
[02:33.98]thoughts or needs of the workmen employed
[02:36.10]by the company in which he held shares,
[02:39.23]and his influence on the relations of capital
[02:41.74]and labour was not good.
[02:44.47]The paid manager acting8 for the company
[02:47.29]was in more direct relation
[02:49.00]with the men and their demands,
[02:51.32]but even he had seldom
[02:52.69]that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen
[02:56.21]which the employer had often had under
[02:58.74]the more patriarchal system of
[03:00.29]the old family business now passing away.
[03:04.12]Indeed the mere9 size of operations
[03:07.15]and the numbers of workmen involved rendered
[03:09.47]such personal relations impossible.
[03:13.21]Fortunately, however, the increasing power
[03:15.83]and organization of the trade unions,
[03:18.35]at least in all skilled trades,
[03:20.68]enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms
[03:23.39]the managers of the companies who employed them.
[03:26.72]The cruel discipline of the strike and lockout
[03:29.95]taught the two parties to respect each other's strength
[03:33.05]and understand the value of fair negotiation10.

点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 founders 863257b2606659efe292a0bf3114782c     
n.创始人( founder的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • He was one of the founders of the university's medical faculty. 他是该大学医学院的创建人之一。 来自辞典例句
  • The founders of our religion made this a cornerstone of morality. 我们宗教的创始人把这看作是道德的基石。 来自辞典例句
2 shareholders 7d3b0484233cf39bc3f4e3ebf97e69fe     
n.股东( shareholder的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The meeting was attended by 90% of shareholders. 90%的股东出席了会议。
  • the company's fiduciary duty to its shareholders 公司对股东负有的受托责任
3 taxpayers 8fa061caeafce8edc9456e95d19c84b4     
纳税人,纳税的机构( taxpayer的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Finance for education comes from taxpayers. 教育经费来自纳税人。
  • She was declaiming against the waste of the taxpayers' money. 她慷慨陈词猛烈抨击对纳税人金钱的浪费。
4 impersonal Ck6yp     
adj.无个人感情的,与个人无关的,非人称的
参考例句:
  • Even his children found him strangely distant and impersonal.他的孩子们也认为他跟其他人很疏远,没有人情味。
  • His manner seemed rather stiff and impersonal.他的态度似乎很生硬冷淡。
5 retired Njhzyv     
adj.隐退的,退休的,退役的
参考例句:
  • The old man retired to the country for rest.这位老人下乡休息去了。
  • Many retired people take up gardening as a hobby.许多退休的人都以从事园艺为嗜好。
6 dividends 8d58231a4112c505163466a7fcf9d097     
红利( dividend的名词复数 ); 股息; 被除数; (足球彩票的)彩金
参考例句:
  • Nothing pays richer dividends than magnanimity. 没有什么比宽宏大量更能得到厚报。
  • Their decision five years ago to computerise the company is now paying dividends. 五年前他们作出的使公司电脑化的决定现在正产生出效益。
7 shareholding d50815e5b4fdfade1f68dd62ed15450a     
n.股权
参考例句:
  • Shareholding commercial banks must exercise an independent system of board of directors. 股份制商业银行必须实行独立董事制度。 来自互联网
  • Asset re-structuring: to conduct shareholding reform for high quality assets. 资产重组:对优质资产进行股份制改造。 来自互联网
8 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
9 mere rC1xE     
adj.纯粹的;仅仅,只不过
参考例句:
  • That is a mere repetition of what you said before.那不过是重复了你以前讲的话。
  • It's a mere waste of time waiting any longer.再等下去纯粹是浪费时间。
10 negotiation FGWxc     
n.谈判,协商
参考例句:
  • They closed the deal in sugar after a week of negotiation.经过一星期的谈判,他们的食糖生意成交了。
  • The negotiation dragged on until July.谈判一直拖到7月份。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   考研英语  阅读理解
顶一下
(2)
100%
踩一下
(0)
0%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴