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历年考研英语阅读理解mp3(05-1)

时间:2008-10-13 08:08来源:互联网 提供网友:流畅   字体: [ ]
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[00:00.00]在线英语听力室(www.tingroom.com)友情制作
[00:06.04]2005 Text1
[00:11.27]Everybody loves a fat pay rise.
[00:14.10]Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn
[00:17.22]that a colleague has been given a bigger one.
[00:20.43]Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking,
[00:24.06]you might even be outraged1.
[00:26.69]Such behaviour is regarded as "all too human",
[00:30.64]with the underlying2 assumption that other animals
[00:33.44]would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance3.
[00:37.99]But a study by Sarah Brosnan
[00:40.10]and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia,
[00:44.72]which has just been published in Nature,
[00:47.56]suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.
[00:52.10]The researchers studied the behaviour of female
[00:55.22]brown capuchin monkeys.
[00:57.95]They look cute.
[00:59.24]They are good-natured, co-operative creatures,
[01:02.17]and they share their food readily.
[01:04.80]Above all, like their female human counterparts,
[01:08.62]they tend to pay much closer attention to
[01:11.36]the value of "goods and services" than males.
[01:15.90]Such characteristics make them perfect candidates
[01:19.01]for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de Waal's study.
[01:23.38]The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys
[01:26.89]to exchange tokens for food.
[01:30.32]Normally, the monkeys were happy enough
[01:32.84]to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber.
[01:37.48]However, when two monkeys
[01:39.21]were placed in separate but adjoining chambers,
[01:42.75]so that each could observe
[01:44.25]what the other was getting in return for its rock,
[01:47.47]their behaviour became markedly different.
[01:51.40]In the world of capuchins,
[01:53.31]grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers).
[01:58.35]So when one monkey was handed a grape
[02:00.89]in exchange for her token,
[02:02.80]the second was reluctant to hand hers over
[02:05.74]for a mere5 piece of cucumber.
[02:07.95]And if one received a grape without
[02:09.85]having to provide her token in exchange at all,
[02:13.68]the other either tossed her own token
[02:16.40]at the researcher or out of the chamber4,
[02:19.52]or refused to accept the slice of cucumber.
[02:23.45]Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in
[02:26.07]the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it)
[02:30.12]was enough to induce resentment6 in a female capuchin.
[02:33.95]在线英语听力室(
www.tingroom.com)友情制作
[02:34.56]The researchers suggest that capuchin monkeys,
[02:37.79]like humans, are guided by social emotions.
[02:41.62]In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species.
[02:45.67]Such cooperation is likely to be stable only
[02:49.10]when each animal feels it is not being cheated.
[02:52.84]Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems,
[02:55.54]are not the preserve of people alone.
[02:58.57]Refusing a lesser7 reward completely makes
[03:01.39]these feelings abundantly clear
[03:03.21]to other members of the group.
[03:06.84]However, whether such a sense of fairness
[03:09.86]evolved independently in capuchins and humans,
[03:13.49]or whether it stems from the common ancestor
[03:16.13]that the species had 35 million years ago,
[03:19.56]is, as yet, an unanswered question.

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1 outraged VmHz8n     
a.震惊的,义愤填膺的
参考例句:
  • Members of Parliament were outraged by the news of the assassination. 议会议员们被这暗杀的消息激怒了。
  • He was outraged by their behavior. 他们的行为使他感到愤慨。
2 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
3 grievance J6ayX     
n.怨愤,气恼,委屈
参考例句:
  • He will not easily forget his grievance.他不会轻易忘掉他的委屈。
  • He had been nursing a grievance against his boss for months.几个月来他对老板一直心怀不满。
4 chamber wnky9     
n.房间,寝室;会议厅;议院;会所
参考例句:
  • For many,the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber.对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
  • The chamber was ablaze with light.会议厅里灯火辉煌。
5 mere rC1xE     
adj.纯粹的;仅仅,只不过
参考例句:
  • That is a mere repetition of what you said before.那不过是重复了你以前讲的话。
  • It's a mere waste of time waiting any longer.再等下去纯粹是浪费时间。
6 resentment 4sgyv     
n.怨愤,忿恨
参考例句:
  • All her feelings of resentment just came pouring out.她一股脑儿倾吐出所有的怨恨。
  • She cherished a deep resentment under the rose towards her employer.她暗中对她的雇主怀恨在心。
7 lesser UpxzJL     
adj.次要的,较小的;adv.较小地,较少地
参考例句:
  • Kept some of the lesser players out.不让那些次要的球员参加联赛。
  • She has also been affected,but to a lesser degree.她也受到波及,但程度较轻。
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TAG标签:   考研英语  阅读理解
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