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大学体验英语第四册Unit3-Passage B

时间:2007-01-17 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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Are You a Copyright Criminal?
 It's getting more tempting1 to infringe2 on copyright when creating presentations, thanks to many new scanning and duplicating technologies as well as proliferating3 Web content. But writers, designers, artists and copyright owners are becoming more aggressive, using new tactics and technologies to enforce their rights. If you don't know the rules, you could end up on the wrong side of a lawsuit4. 
 You've seen them at work. Sometimes brazen5, sometimes oblivious6, they break the law without giving it a second thought. Maybe, without even knowing it, you're one of them.  


 They're copyright claim-jumpers - presenters8 who slip "Dilbert" cartoons, photographs scanned from magazines, graphics9 downloaded from the Web, photocopies10 of trade-journal articles, audio files, video clips or CD music into their presentations or handouts11 with little or no understanding of how they're trampling12 on someone else's copyright. 

 Some do it knowingly, assuming their chances of getting nabbed are a small risk for the big payoff of easy access to high-quality prefabricated content. Others are unaware13 of how their seemingly benign14 reuse of pre-existing material - articles, pictures, music, songs, scripts or film clips - violates copyright law.  

?Autumn Bell, a training specialist and frequent presenter7 for the University of New Mexico, says she witnessed her share of copyright abuses in a past life working for a telecommunications company. There, she worked with managers who ordered people to copy other companies' training materials to save money. She also saw plenty of lesser15 violations17, such as flagrant photocopying18 of manuals and books for mass distribution. In six years, Bell says, "Never once did I hear the word copyright spoken."  

 It can be easy for busy presenters to give copyright concerns short shrift; after all, there are deadlines to hit and rehearsals19 to do. And sometimes that article you read last week in Forbes Magazine or that photo you downloaded from the Web yesterday fits perfectly20 into the presentation you're giving - tomorrow. Copyright permission? Who has time? Some token attribution ought to do it, you figure. Surely the copyright owners will welcome the free advertising21, right? And what are the chances that they'll even find out?  
 The reality is: Whether the bulk of your presentations are in-house or to external audiences, your odds22 of being caught violating copyright are improving every day, as are your chances of paying a stiff fine. Statutory damages for infringing23 on copyright can hit $20,000 per violation16, and they can go as high as $100,000 in some circumstances of willful violation - and that's above and beyond the fine for actual damages. Furthermore, commercial copyright violation involving more than 10 copies and a value of more than $2,500 is now a felony in the United States.  

? In one recent case, a corporation paid a seven-figure settlement for its unauthorized photocopying of articles from a trade journal and archiving those copies for internal distribution. With similar violations occurring almost daily in corporate24 America, and with an increase in piracy25 on the World Wide Web, licensing26 organizations, performing-rights societies and other copyright cops have stepped up activity to enforce their rights.  


?The Training Media Association, a watchdog for training-video vendors27, offers a $10,000 bounty28 for reporting illegal copying or unauthorized "public performance" of off-the-shelf training videos. A temporary-employment agency recently paid a six-figure out-of-court fee after one of its employees reported it to the TMA for making illegal copies of four videos (the agency had no license29 to do so) and sending the copies out for use in its 50 offices.  

?United Media the distributor of "Dilbert" cartoons, has been asking people to take illegally imported "Dilbert" cartoons off their Web and intranet sites. ASCAP and BMI, two organizations that license the right to play copyrighted music in public settings (including most business-presentation scenarios) have reportedly added large conference centers and hotels to the list of sites they patrol to ensure that those using even small selections of pre-recorded music in presentations are properly licensed30 to do so.  

?Is all this talk of copyright abuse overblown? Is the perceived need to protect yourself from prosecution31 just another anal-retentive legal formality? And aren't the most flagrant abusers a small segment of the presentation community? You'd be surprised at the answers. 

 Although many cases of abuse undoubtedly32 are small or accidental - busy presenters who in good faith give full attribution but don't seek permission; others who are unaware of public performance rights or who stretch the fair-use doctrine33 to its limits - interviews and research conducted for this article indicate a serious lack of knowledge about copyright law among frequent presenters. A two-month review of comments posted to listservs frequented by presenters and trainers, for instance, suggests that many people routinely violate copyright law, and that there is a general lack of understanding about what constitutes legal use.  
 Indeed, a 1993 survey by the Training Media Association found that more than 30 percent of videos in survey respondents' corporate libraries were illegal copies, and more than 75 percent of printed training materials in those same libraries were illegally copied. (Survey responses were anonymous34.) And TMA director Bob Gehrke says the problem may have worsened in the six years since the study. A typical copyright violator, Gehrke believes, is someone "who thinks he can be a hero by saving his company some money, especially if faced with a tight budget." 


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 tempting wgAzd4     
a.诱人的, 吸引人的
参考例句:
  • It is tempting to idealize the past. 人都爱把过去的日子说得那么美好。
  • It was a tempting offer. 这是个诱人的提议。
2 infringe 0boz4     
v.违反,触犯,侵害
参考例句:
  • The jury ruled that he had infringed no rules.陪审团裁决他没有违反任何规定。
  • He occasionally infringe the law by parking near a junction.他因偶尔将车停放在交叉口附近而违反规定。
3 proliferating 45e10aecc1d3b089f65dafcc7343579e     
激增( proliferate的现在分词 ); (迅速)繁殖; 增生; 扩散
参考例句:
  • Computerized data bases are proliferating fast. 计算机化的数据库正在激增。
  • Crown galls are cancerous growths composed of disorganized and proliferating plant cells. 冠瘿是无组织的正在不断增殖的植物细胞所组成的癌状物。
4 lawsuit A14xy     
n.诉讼,控诉
参考例句:
  • They threatened him with a lawsuit.他们以诉讼威逼他。
  • He was perpetually involving himself in this long lawsuit.他使自己无休止地卷入这场长时间的诉讼。
5 brazen Id1yY     
adj.厚脸皮的,无耻的,坚硬的
参考例句:
  • The brazen woman laughed loudly at the judge who sentenced her.那无耻的女子冲着给她判刑的法官高声大笑。
  • Some people prefer to brazen a thing out rather than admit defeat.有的人不愿承认失败,而是宁肯厚着脸皮干下去。
6 oblivious Y0Byc     
adj.易忘的,遗忘的,忘却的,健忘的
参考例句:
  • Mother has become quite oblivious after the illness.这次病后,妈妈变得特别健忘。
  • He was quite oblivious of the danger.他完全没有察觉到危险。
7 presenter llRzYi     
n.(电视、广播的)主持人,赠与者
参考例句:
  • Most people think being a television presenter is exciting.很多人认为当电视节目主持人是一件刺激的事情。
  • The programme dispensed with its most popular presenter.这个节目最受欢迎的主持人被换掉了。
8 presenters ef0c9d839d1b89c7a5042cf2bfba92e0     
n.节目主持人,演播员( presenter的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Each week presenters would put the case for their favourite candidate. 每个星期主持人推出他们最喜欢的候选人。 来自互联网
  • Karaoke was set up to allowed presenters to sing on the stage. 宴会设有歌唱舞台,可让出席者大演唱功。 来自互联网
9 graphics CrxzuL     
n.制图法,制图学;图形显示
参考例句:
  • You've leveraged your graphics experience into the video area.你们把图形设计业务的经验运用到录像业务中去。
  • Improved graphics took computer games into a new era.经改进的制图技术将电脑游戏带进了一个新时代。
10 photocopies daaea05efcdbfc28dc1b5d7b176a0b3b     
n.影印本( photocopy的名词复数 );复印件
参考例句:
  • Make as many photocopies as you need. 你需要多少复印件就复印多少吧。
  • I made two photocopies of the report. 我把这份报告影印了两份。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 handouts 447505a1e297b8bcf79fa46be9e067f8     
救济品( handout的名词复数 ); 施舍物; 印刷品; 讲义
参考例句:
  • Soldiers oversee the food handouts. 士兵们看管着救济食品。
  • Even after losing his job, he was too proud to accept handouts. 甚至在失去工作后,他仍然很骄傲,不愿接受施舍。
12 trampling 7aa68e356548d4d30fa83dc97298265a     
踩( trample的现在分词 ); 践踏; 无视; 侵犯
参考例句:
  • Diplomats denounced the leaders for trampling their citizens' civil rights. 外交官谴责这些领导人践踏其公民的公民权。
  • They don't want people trampling the grass, pitching tents or building fires. 他们不希望人们踩踏草坪、支帐篷或生火。
13 unaware Pl6w0     
a.不知道的,未意识到的
参考例句:
  • They were unaware that war was near. 他们不知道战争即将爆发。
  • I was unaware of the man's presence. 我没有察觉到那人在场。
14 benign 2t2zw     
adj.善良的,慈祥的;良性的,无危险的
参考例句:
  • The benign weather brought North America a bumper crop.温和的气候给北美带来大丰收。
  • Martha is a benign old lady.玛莎是个仁慈的老妇人。
15 lesser UpxzJL     
adj.次要的,较小的;adv.较小地,较少地
参考例句:
  • Kept some of the lesser players out.不让那些次要的球员参加联赛。
  • She has also been affected,but to a lesser degree.她也受到波及,但程度较轻。
16 violation lLBzJ     
n.违反(行为),违背(行为),侵犯
参考例句:
  • He roared that was a violation of the rules.他大声说,那是违反规则的。
  • He was fined 200 dollars for violation of traffic regulation.他因违反交通规则被罚款200美元。
17 violations 403b65677d39097086593415b650ca21     
违反( violation的名词复数 ); 冒犯; 违反(行为、事例); 强奸
参考例句:
  • This is one of the commonest traffic violations. 这是常见的违反交通规则之例。
  • These violations of the code must cease forthwith. 这些违犯法规的行为必须立即停止。
18 photocopying b83769281b2a4f269213b3d485dfdc3e     
v.影印,照相复制(photocopy的现在分词形式)
参考例句:
  • All photocopying machines need careful usage, and regular cleaning and maintenance. 所有照像复制机都需要小心使用、定期擦洗和维修。 来自辞典例句
  • A trademark used for a photocopying process or machine employing xerography. 商标名,用于采用静电复印术的影印过程或机器。 来自互联网
19 rehearsals 58abf70ed0ce2d3ac723eb2d13c1c6b5     
n.练习( rehearsal的名词复数 );排练;复述;重复
参考例句:
  • The earlier protests had just been dress rehearsals for full-scale revolution. 早期的抗议仅仅是大革命开始前的预演。
  • She worked like a demon all through rehearsals. 她每次排演时始终精力过人。 来自《简明英汉词典》
20 perfectly 8Mzxb     
adv.完美地,无可非议地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The witnesses were each perfectly certain of what they said.证人们个个对自己所说的话十分肯定。
  • Everything that we're doing is all perfectly above board.我们做的每件事情都是光明正大的。
21 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
22 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
23 infringing 9830a3397dcc37350ee4c468f7bfe45a     
v.违反(规章等)( infringe的现在分词 );侵犯(某人的权利);侵害(某人的自由、权益等)
参考例句:
  • The material can be copied without infringing copyright. 这份材料可以复制,不会侵犯版权。
  • The media is accused of infringing on people's privacy. 人们指责媒体侵犯了大家的隐私。 来自《简明英汉词典》
24 corporate 7olzl     
adj.共同的,全体的;公司的,企业的
参考例句:
  • This is our corporate responsibility.这是我们共同的责任。
  • His corporate's life will be as short as a rabbit's tail.他的公司的寿命是兔子尾巴长不了。
25 piracy 9N3xO     
n.海盗行为,剽窃,著作权侵害
参考例句:
  • The government has already adopted effective measures against piracy.政府已采取有效措施惩治盗版行为。
  • They made the place a notorious centre of piracy.他们把这地方变成了臭名昭著的海盗中心。
26 licensing 7352ce0b4e0665659ae6466c18decb2a     
v.批准,许可,颁发执照( license的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • A large part of state regulation consists of occupational licensing. 大部分州的管理涉及行业的特许批准。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
  • That licensing procedures for projects would move faster. 这样的工程批准程序一定会加快。 来自辞典例句
27 vendors 2bc28e228525b75e14c07dbc14850c34     
n.摊贩( vendor的名词复数 );小贩;(房屋等的)卖主;卖方
参考例句:
  • The vendors were gazundered at the last minute. 卖主在最后一刻被要求降低房价。
  • At the same time, interface standards also benefIt'software vendors. 同时,界面标准也有利于软件开发商。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
28 bounty EtQzZ     
n.慷慨的赠予物,奖金;慷慨,大方;施与
参考例句:
  • He is famous for his bounty to the poor.他因对穷人慷慨相助而出名。
  • We received a bounty from the government.我们收到政府给予的一笔补助金。
29 license B9TzU     
n.执照,许可证,特许;v.许可,特许
参考例句:
  • The foreign guest has a license on the person.这个外国客人随身携带执照。
  • The driver was arrested for having false license plates on his car.司机由于使用假车牌而被捕。
30 licensed ipMzNI     
adj.得到许可的v.许可,颁发执照(license的过去式和过去分词)
参考例句:
  • The new drug has not yet been licensed in the US. 这种新药尚未在美国获得许可。
  • Is that gun licensed? 那支枪有持枪执照吗?
31 prosecution uBWyL     
n.起诉,告发,检举,执行,经营
参考例句:
  • The Smiths brought a prosecution against the organizers.史密斯家对组织者们提出起诉。
  • He attempts to rebut the assertion made by the prosecution witness.他试图反驳原告方证人所作的断言。
32 undoubtedly Mfjz6l     
adv.确实地,无疑地
参考例句:
  • It is undoubtedly she who has said that.这话明明是她说的。
  • He is undoubtedly the pride of China.毫无疑问他是中国的骄傲。
33 doctrine Pkszt     
n.教义;主义;学说
参考例句:
  • He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine.他不得不宣扬他的教义。
  • The council met to consider changes to doctrine.宗教议会开会考虑更改教义。
34 anonymous lM2yp     
adj.无名的;匿名的;无特色的
参考例句:
  • Sending anonymous letters is a cowardly act.寄匿名信是懦夫的行为。
  • The author wishes to remain anonymous.作者希望姓名不公开。
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TAG标签:   体验英语  综合教程  passage
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