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大学体验英语第四册Unit6-Passage A

时间:2007-01-17 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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Is It Healthy to Be a Football Supporter?
- Why Fans Know the Score
Die-hard football fans hit the heights when their team wins and reaches the depths of despair when they lose. Scientific studies show the love affair with a team may be as emotionally intense as the real thing, and that team clashes have gladiatorial power. 
What's going on? Why do fervent1 fans have hormonal2 surges and other psychological changes while watching games? Why does fans' self-esteem soar with victory and plummet3 in defeat, sometimes affecting their lives long afterwards? Why do people feel so drawn4 to form such deep ties to teams? Is avidly6 rooting for a team good or bad for your health? You may find the answers surprising.
 THE FAN'S PERSONALITY
Psychologists often portray7 die-hard fans as lonely misfits searching for self-esteem by identifying with a team,2 but a study suggests the opposite. It reveals that football fans suffer fewer bouts8 of depression and alienation9 than people who never watch Match Of The Day. Hard-core fans also demonstrate a fierce and unbreakable bond. It's possible to trace the roots of fan psychology10 to a primitive11 time when warriors12 fighting to protect their tribes were the true representatives of their race. In modern times, so the theory goes, professional sportsmen are warriors of a city or country fighting a stylized war waged on a football pitch.

 IT'S WAR OUT THERE
Some confrontations13 on the pitch are gladiatorial. In this respect, our sports heroes are our gladiators. A football match, especially between rival teams, isn't some light-hearted display of athletic14 prowess. The self is emotionally involved in the outcome because whoever you're rooting for represents YOU. So professional footballers seem to recreate the intense emotions in some fans that tribal15 warfare16 aroused in their forebears. It could even be that these emotions have fueled the explosion in the popularity of sports over the past 20 years. 

 STATUS BY PROXY17
So, through football matches, it becomes possible to gain respect from your rivals, albeit18 vicariously . This means you can be highly regarded not for your own achievement, but through your connection to a team that wins. Or, if you like, by your connection to individual footballers for their skill, such as midfielder David Beckham, winger Ryan Giggs, and striker Thierry Henry.  

 The connection, however, can be fickle19. Bragging20 sports fans tend to claim credit for their team's success, saying "we won" to describe a victory, but distance themselves from a team's failure, saying "they lost" describing a defeat.  

 LOYAL TO THE END

A raft of studies has found that "highly-identified" fans - both men and women - are unlikely to abandon a team when it's doing badly. Anyone who's read Fever Pitch by Nick Hornby knows that this is true of the ardent21 Arsenal22 fan. Not only that, they tend to blame their team's failures on a biased23 referee24 or on bad luck, rather than on Arsenal's mistakes or the other team's skill. It's not surprising that these avid5 fans get more psychologically aroused at games and spend more money on tickets and merchandise. 

 IS TESTOSTERONE A FACTOR?
Testosterone levels in male fans rise markedly after a victory but drop just as sharply after a defeat. Apparently25 the same pattern has been documented in male animals who fight over a female. Biologists think that the human animal may have evolved this way to end conflicts quickly. If so, it provides an interesting biological explanation of football hooliganism after big matches. Science backs up this theory. Testosterone levels were measured in 21 Italian and Brazilian men in Atlanta before and after Brazil's victory over Italy in soccer's 1994 World Cup. The Brazilians' testosterone rose 28 per cent on average, while the Italians' levels dropped 27 per cent. 

 CAN BEING A FAN DAMAGE YOUR HEALTH?
Yes, it can. Indeed it can be fatal. The tension felt by football fans during penalty shoot-outs can trigger heart attacks and strokes in male spectators. On the day Holland lost to France in Euro 96, deaths there from heart attacks and strokes rose by 50 per cent. 

?GROUP IDENTITY
Being an ardent fan could be simply the desire to belong to a group or a society - a need once answered by religion and politics. This explains why some fans remain loyal through thick and thin, and despite the repeated failure of their teams. Surrounding yourself at a match with people who so clearly espouse26 your own enthusiasms, and identifying your tribal membership with hats, scarves , Mexican waves and songs, makes you feel you belong as little else does. What's more, you're part of a group where no questions are asked, explanations are unnecessary and where you can always rely on support. With so many traditional institutions like religion and family beginning to break down, the football crowd is the perfect family.
?A HEALTHIER OUTLOOK?
In most cases, a deep attachment27 to a team is healthy. Several studies show that an intense interest in a team can stave off depression and foster feelings of self-worth and belonging. That applies to all ardent sports fans. All human beings - including football fans - share the basic psychological need to belong. Without religion, without family, something has to answer that need. Today football, above all other sports, fills that crucial void


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 fervent SlByg     
adj.热的,热烈的,热情的
参考例句:
  • It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
  • Austria was among the most fervent supporters of adolf hitler.奥地利是阿道夫希特勒最狂热的支持者之一。
2 hormonal Fcpx6     
adj.激素的
参考例句:
  • Some viral diseases are more severe during pregnancy, probably tecause of hormonal changes. 有些病毒病在妊娠期间比较严重,可能是由于激素变化引起的。
  • She underwent surgical intervention and a subsequent short period of hormonal therapy. 他接受外科手术及随后短暂荷尔蒙治疗。
3 plummet s2izN     
vi.(价格、水平等)骤然下跌;n.铅坠;重压物
参考例句:
  • Mengniu and Yili have seen their shares plummet since the incident broke.自事件发生以来,蒙牛和伊利的股票大幅下跌。
  • Even if rice prices were to plummet,other brakes on poverty alleviation remain.就算大米价格下跌,其它阻止导致贫困的因素仍然存在。
4 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,紧张的
参考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
5 avid ponyI     
adj.热心的;贪婪的;渴望的;劲头十足的
参考例句:
  • He is rich,but he is still avid of more money.他很富有,但他还想贪图更多的钱。
  • She was avid for praise from her coach.那女孩渴望得到教练的称赞。
6 avidly 5d4ad001ea2cae78e80b3d088e2ca387     
adv.渴望地,热心地
参考例句:
  • She read avidly from an early age—books, magazines, anything. 她从小就酷爱阅读——书籍、杂志,无不涉猎。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Her melancholy eyes avidly scanned his smiling face. 她说话时两只忧郁的眼睛呆呆地望着他的带笑的脸。 来自汉英文学 - 家(1-26) - 家(1-26)
7 portray mPLxy     
v.描写,描述;画(人物、景象等)
参考例句:
  • It is difficult to portray feelings in words.感情很难用言语来描写。
  • Can you portray the best and worst aspects of this job?您能描述一下这份工作最好与最坏的方面吗?
8 bouts 2abe9936190c45115a3f6a38efb27c43     
n.拳击(或摔跤)比赛( bout的名词复数 );一段(工作);(尤指坏事的)一通;(疾病的)发作
参考例句:
  • For much of his life he suffered from recurrent bouts of depression. 他的大半辈子反复发作抑郁症。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • It was one of fistiana's most famous championship bouts. 这是拳击界最有名的冠军赛之一。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
9 alienation JfYyS     
n.疏远;离间;异化
参考例句:
  • The new policy resulted in the alienation of many voters.新政策导致许多选民疏远了。
  • As almost every conceivable contact between human beings gets automated,the alienation index goes up.随着人与人之间几乎一切能想到的接触方式的自动化,感情疏远指数在不断上升。
10 psychology U0Wze     
n.心理,心理学,心理状态
参考例句:
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
11 primitive vSwz0     
adj.原始的;简单的;n.原(始)人,原始事物
参考例句:
  • It is a primitive instinct to flee a place of danger.逃离危险的地方是一种原始本能。
  • His book describes the march of the civilization of a primitive society.他的著作描述了一个原始社会的开化过程。
12 warriors 3116036b00d464eee673b3a18dfe1155     
武士,勇士,战士( warrior的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • I like reading the stories ofancient warriors. 我喜欢读有关古代武士的故事。
  • The warriors speared the man to death. 武士们把那个男子戳死了。
13 confrontations c51194060d6a4df61a641d2290c573ad     
n.对抗,对抗的事物( confrontation的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • At times, this potential has escalated into actual confrontations. 有时,这一矛盾升级为实际的对抗。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
  • These confrontations and uncertainties were bing played out for the first time on a global scale. 所有这一切对抗和不稳定,第一次在全球范围内得到充分的表演。 来自辞典例句
14 athletic sOPy8     
adj.擅长运动的,强健的;活跃的,体格健壮的
参考例句:
  • This area has been marked off for athletic practice.这块地方被划出来供体育训练之用。
  • He is an athletic star.他是一个运动明星。
15 tribal ifwzzw     
adj.部族的,种族的
参考例句:
  • He became skilled in several tribal lingoes.他精通几种部族的语言。
  • The country was torn apart by fierce tribal hostilities.那个国家被部落间的激烈冲突弄得四分五裂。
16 warfare XhVwZ     
n.战争(状态);斗争;冲突
参考例句:
  • He addressed the audience on the subject of atomic warfare.他向听众演讲有关原子战争的问题。
  • Their struggle consists mainly in peasant guerrilla warfare.他们的斗争主要是农民游击战。
17 proxy yRXxN     
n.代理权,代表权;(对代理人的)委托书;代理人
参考例句:
  • You may appoint a proxy to vote for you.你可以委托他人代你投票。
  • We enclose a form of proxy for use at the Annual General Meeting.我们附上委任年度大会代表的表格。
18 albeit axiz0     
conj.即使;纵使;虽然
参考例句:
  • Albeit fictional,she seemed to have resolved the problem.虽然是虚构的,但是在她看来好象是解决了问题。
  • Albeit he has failed twice,he is not discouraged.虽然失败了两次,但他并没有气馁。
19 fickle Lg9zn     
adj.(爱情或友谊上)易变的,不坚定的
参考例句:
  • Fluctuating prices usually base on a fickle public's demand.物价的波动往往是由于群众需求的不稳定而引起的。
  • The weather is so fickle in summer.夏日的天气如此多变。
20 bragging 4a422247fd139463c12f66057bbcffdf     
v.自夸,吹嘘( brag的现在分词 );大话
参考例句:
  • He's always bragging about his prowess as a cricketer. 他总是吹嘘自己板球水平高超。 来自辞典例句
  • Now you're bragging, darling. You know you don't need to brag. 这就是夸口,亲爱的。你明知道你不必吹。 来自辞典例句
21 ardent yvjzd     
adj.热情的,热烈的,强烈的,烈性的
参考例句:
  • He's an ardent supporter of the local football team.他是本地足球队的热情支持者。
  • Ardent expectations were held by his parents for his college career.他父母对他的大学学习抱着殷切的期望。
22 arsenal qNPyF     
n.兵工厂,军械库
参考例句:
  • Even the workers at the arsenal have got a secret organization.兵工厂工人暗中也有组织。
  • We must be the great arsenal of democracy.我们必须成为民主的大军火库。
23 biased vyGzSn     
a.有偏见的
参考例句:
  • a school biased towards music and art 一所偏重音乐和艺术的学校
  • The Methods: They employed were heavily biased in the gentry's favour. 他们采用的方法严重偏袒中上阶级。
24 referee lAqzU     
n.裁判员.仲裁人,代表人,鉴定人
参考例句:
  • The team was left raging at the referee's decision.队员们对裁判员的裁决感到非常气愤。
  • The referee blew a whistle at the end of the game.裁判在比赛结束时吹响了哨子。
25 apparently tMmyQ     
adv.显然地;表面上,似乎
参考例句:
  • An apparently blind alley leads suddenly into an open space.山穷水尽,豁然开朗。
  • He was apparently much surprised at the news.他对那个消息显然感到十分惊异。
26 espouse jn1xx     
v.支持,赞成,嫁娶
参考例句:
  • Today,astronomers espouse the theory that comets spawn the swarms.如今,天文学家们支持彗星产生了流星团的说法。
  • Some teachers enthusiastically espouse the benefits to be gained from educational software.有些教师热烈赞同可以从教学软件中得到好处的观点。
27 attachment POpy1     
n.附属物,附件;依恋;依附
参考例句:
  • She has a great attachment to her sister.她十分依恋她的姐姐。
  • She's on attachment to the Ministry of Defense.她现在隶属于国防部。
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TAG标签:   体验英语  综合教程  passage
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