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大学体验英语第四册Unit5-Passage A

时间:2007-01-17 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]

The Moral Advantage
How to Succeed in Business by Doing the Right Thing
As for the moral advantage in business, of all places, everyone knows a modicum1 of ethics2 is called for in any business - you can't cheat your customers forever and get away with it. But wouldn't it be more advantageous3 if you actually could get away with it? Profits would soar out of sight! Then you would really have an advantage, or so the thinking might go. 

 The notion of seeking the moral advantage is a new way of thinking about ethics and virtue4 in business, an approach that does not accept the need for trade-offs between ambition and conscience. Far from obstructing5 the drive for success, a sense of moral purpose can help individuals and companies achieve at the highest - and most profitable - levels.  

 Cynicism dominates our attitudes about what it takes to succeed in business. A common way of thinking about morality in business goes something like this: 

 Ethical6 conduct is an unpleasant medicine that society forces down business people's throats to protect the public interest from business avarice7.  

 Morality gets in the way of the cold, hard actions truly ambitious Skepticism people must take to reach their goals. 

 Moneymaking is inevitably8 tainted9 by greed, deceit, and exploitation. 

 The quest for profits stands in opposition10 to everything that is moral, fair, decent, and charitable. 

 Skepticism about moneymaking goes back a long way. The Bible warns that it's harder for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. "Behind every great fortune," wrote French novelist Honoré de Balzac in the 1800s, "lies a great crime." British author G. K. Chesterton sounded the same theme in the early 20th century, noting that a businessman "is the only man who is forever apologizing for his occupation." 

 The contemporary media often characterize business as nothing more than a self-serving exercise in greed, carried out in as corrupt11 and ruthless a manner as possible. In television and movies, moneymaking in business is tainted by avarice, exploitation, or downright villainy. The unflattering portrayals12 have become even more pointed13 over time. In 1969, the businessman in Philip Roth's Goodbye, Columbus advises the story's protagonist14, "To get by in business, you've got to be a bit of a thief." He seems like a benignly15 wise, figure compared with Wall Street's 1980s icon16, Gordon Gekko, whose immortal17 words were "Greed is good."  

?Yet some important observers of business see things differently. Widely read gurus such as Stephen Covey and Tom Peters point to the practical utility of moral virtues18 such as compassion19, responsibility, fairness, and honesty. They suggest that virtue is an essential ingredient in the recipe for success, and that moral standards are not merely commendable20 choices but necessary components21 of a thriving business career. This is a frequent theme in commencement addresses and other personal testimonials: Virtuous22 behavior advances a career in the long run by building trust and reputation, whereas ethical shortcomings eventually derail careers. The humorist Dorothy Parker captured this idea in one of her signature quips: "Time wounds all heels. 

?So who's right --- those who believe that morality and business are mutually exclusive, or those who believe they reinforce one another? Do nice guys finish last, or are those who advocate doing well by doing good the real winners? Is the business world a den23 of thievery or a haven24 for upstanding citizens? 

 With colleagues Howard Gardner at Harvard University and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi at Claremont Graduate University, I've examined this question by interviewing 40 top business leaders, such as McDonald's CEO Jack25 Greenberg and the late Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, between 1998 and 2000 as part of our joint26 "Project on Good Work." We found that a strong sense of moral purpose not only promotes a business career but also provides a telling advantage in the quest to build a thriving enterprise. In fact, a sense of moral purpose stands at the center of all successful business innovations. Far from being a constraining27 force that merely keeps people honest and out of trouble, morality creates a fertile source of business motivation, inspiration, and innovation. 
 This is different from the view of morality you'll encounter in a typical business-ethics course. It's so different that I now speak about moralities, in the plural28, when discussing the role of virtue and ethics in business. Morality in business has three distinct faces, each playing its own special role in ensuring business success.  


1 modicum Oj3yd     
  • If he had a modicum of sense,he wouldn't do such a foolish thing.要是他稍有一点理智,他决不会做出如此愚蠢的事来。
  • There's not even a modicum of truth in her statement.她说的话没有一点是真的。
2 ethics Dt3zbI     
  • The ethics of his profession don't permit him to do that.他的职业道德不允许他那样做。
  • Personal ethics and professional ethics sometimes conflict.个人道德和职业道德有时会相互抵触。
3 advantageous BK5yp     
  • Injections of vitamin C are obviously advantageous.注射维生素C显然是有利的。
  • You're in a very advantageous position.你处于非常有利的地位。
4 virtue BpqyH     
  • He was considered to be a paragon of virtue.他被认为是品德尽善尽美的典范。
  • You need to decorate your mind with virtue.你应该用德行美化心灵。
5 obstructing 34d98df4530e378b11391bdaa73cf7b5     
阻塞( obstruct的现在分词 ); 堵塞; 阻碍; 阻止
  • You can't park here, you're obstructing my driveway. 你不能在这里停车,你挡住了我家的车道。
  • He was charged for obstructing the highway. 他因阻碍交通而受控告。
6 ethical diIz4     
  • It is necessary to get the youth to have a high ethical concept.必须使青年具有高度的道德观念。
  • It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
7 avarice KeHyX     
  • Avarice is the bane to happiness.贪婪是损毁幸福的祸根。
  • Their avarice knows no bounds and you can never satisfy them.他们贪得无厌,你永远无法满足他们。
8 inevitably x7axc     
  • In the way you go on,you are inevitably coming apart.照你们这样下去,毫无疑问是会散伙的。
  • Technological changes will inevitably lead to unemployment.技术变革必然会导致失业。
9 tainted qgDzqS     
adj.腐坏的;污染的;沾污的;感染的v.使变质( taint的过去式和过去分词 );使污染;败坏;被污染,腐坏,败坏
  • The administration was tainted with scandal. 丑闻使得政府声名狼藉。
  • He was considered tainted by association with the corrupt regime. 他因与腐败政府有牵连而名誉受损。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 opposition eIUxU     
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
11 corrupt 4zTxn     
  • The newspaper alleged the mayor's corrupt practices.那家报纸断言市长有舞弊行为。
  • This judge is corrupt.这个法官贪污。
12 portrayals 67f3ceddf8ba97bd42dbe499f8cad7dd     
n.画像( portrayal的名词复数 );描述;描写;描摹
  • And painters alluded to her eroticism in their bare breasted portrayals of the dying queen. 画家们把她描绘为裸胸垂死的贪欲的女王。 来自互联网
13 pointed Il8zB4     
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
14 protagonist mBVyN     
  • The protagonist reforms in the end and avoids his proper punishment.戏剧主角最后改过自新并避免了他应受的惩罚。
  • He is the model for the protagonist in the play.剧本中的主人公就是以他为模特儿创作的!
15 benignly a1839cef72990a695d769f9b3d61ae60     
  • Everyone has to benignly help people in distress. 每一个人应让该亲切地帮助有困难的人。 来自互联网
  • This drug is benignly soporific. 这种药物具有良好的催眠效果。 来自互联网
16 icon JbxxB     
  • They found an icon in the monastery.他们在修道院中发现了一个圣像。
  • Click on this icon to align or justify text.点击这个图标使文本排齐。
17 immortal 7kOyr     
  • The wild cocoa tree is effectively immortal.野生可可树实际上是不会死的。
  • The heroes of the people are immortal!人民英雄永垂不朽!
18 virtues cd5228c842b227ac02d36dd986c5cd53     
美德( virtue的名词复数 ); 德行; 优点; 长处
  • Doctors often extol the virtues of eating less fat. 医生常常宣扬少吃脂肪的好处。
  • She delivered a homily on the virtues of family life. 她进行了一场家庭生活美德方面的说教。
19 compassion 3q2zZ     
  • He could not help having compassion for the poor creature.他情不自禁地怜悯起那个可怜的人来。
  • Her heart was filled with compassion for the motherless children.她对于没有母亲的孩子们充满了怜悯心。
20 commendable LXXyw     
  • The government's action here is highly commendable.政府这样的行动值得高度赞扬。
  • Such carping is not commendable.这样吹毛求疵真不大好。
21 components 4725dcf446a342f1473a8228e42dfa48     
(机器、设备等的)构成要素,零件,成分; 成分( component的名词复数 ); [物理化学]组分; [数学]分量; (混合物的)组成部分
  • the components of a machine 机器部件
  • Our chemistry teacher often reduces a compound to its components in lab. 在实验室中化学老师常把化合物分解为各种成分。
22 virtuous upCyI     
  • She was such a virtuous woman that everybody respected her.她是个有道德的女性,人人都尊敬她。
  • My uncle is always proud of having a virtuous wife.叔叔一直为娶到一位贤德的妻子而骄傲。
23 den 5w9xk     
  • There is a big fox den on the back hill.后山有一个很大的狐狸窝。
  • The only way to catch tiger cubs is to go into tiger's den.不入虎穴焉得虎子。
24 haven 8dhzp     
  • It's a real haven at the end of a busy working day.忙碌了一整天后,这真是一个安乐窝。
  • The school library is a little haven of peace and quiet.学校的图书馆是一个和平且安静的小避风港。
25 jack 53Hxp     
  • I am looking for the headphone jack.我正在找寻头戴式耳机插孔。
  • He lifted the car with a jack to change the flat tyre.他用千斤顶把车顶起来换下瘪轮胎。
26 joint m3lx4     
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
27 constraining cc35429b91ea67e2478332bc4d1c3be7     
强迫( constrain的现在分词 ); 强使; 限制; 约束
  • He was constraining his mind not to wander from the task. 他克制着不让思想在工作时开小差。
  • The most constraining resource in all of these cases is venture capital. 在所有这些情况下最受限制的资源便是投入资本。
28 plural c2WzP     
  • Most plural nouns in English end in's '.英语的复数名词多以s结尾。
  • Here you should use plural pronoun.这里你应该用复数代词。
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