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新东方优美背诵短文50篇 Unit43:Statistics

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43.Statistics

There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical1 methods. Statistics had a mother who was dedicated2 to keeping orderly records of government units (states and statistics come from the same Latin root status) and a gentlemanly gambling3 father who relied on mathematics to increase his skill at playing the odds4 in games of chance. The influence of the mother on the offspring, statistics, is represented by counting, measuring, describing, tabulating5, ordering, and the taking of censuses—all of which led to modern descriptive statistics. From the influence of the father came modern inferential statistics, which is based squarely on theories of probability.

Describing collections involves tabulating, depicting6 and describing collections of data. These data may be quantitative7 such as measures of height, intelligence or grade level------variables that are characterized by an underlying8 continuum---or the data may represent qualitative9 variables, such as sex, college major or personality type. Large masses of data must generally undergo a process of summarization or reduction before they are comprehensible. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data.

Inferential statistics is a formalized body of methods for solving another class of problems that present great of problems characteristically involves attempts to make predictions using a sample of observations. For example, a school superintendent10 wishes to determine the proportion of children in a large school system who come to school without breakfast, have been vaccinated11 for flu, or whatever. Having a little knowledge of statistics, the superintendent would know that it is unnecessary and inefficient12 to question each child: the proportion for the sample of as few as 100 children. Thus , the purpose of inferential statistics is to predict or estimate characteristics of a population from a knowledge of the characteristics of only a sample of the population.


统计学
统计方法的早期发展受到两种截然不同的影响。统计学有一个"母亲",她致力于井井
有条地记录政府机构的文件(国家和统计学这两个词源于同一个拉丁语词根,status),还有一
个有绅士般的赌博"父亲",他依靠数学来提高赌技,以便在几率的游戏中取胜。"母亲"对
其子女统计学的影响表现在计数、测量、描述、制表、归类和人口普查。所有这些导致了现代描述统计学的诞生。
由于"父亲"的影响则产生了完全基于概率论原理的现代推理统计学。描述统计学涉及对所收集数据的制表、制图和描述。这些数据可以是数量性的数据,
如高度、智商、或者是层级性的数据--具有连续性的变量--或数据也可以代表性质变量,如性别、大学专业或性格类型等等。
数量庞大的数据通常必须经过概括或删减的程序才能为人所理解。描述统计学就是这样一个工具,它对极其庞杂的数据进行描述、概括或删减,
使其变成能为人理解的东西。推理统计学是一套已定形了的方法体系,它解决的是光凭人脑极难解决的另一类问题。
这类问题的显著特点是试图通过取样调查来作出预测。例如,有一位教育督察想知道在一个庞大的学校系统中,不吃早饭就上学的学生、已经做过防感冒
免疫的学生,或其它任何类型的学生占多大比例。若具备一些统计学的知识,这位督察应明白,询问每个孩子是没有必要而且没有效率的,只要用100
个孩子为样本,他就可以相当精确地得出这些孩子占整个学区的比例了。因此,推理统计学的目的就是通过了解一个群
体中一些样本的特性,从而对整个群体的特性进行推测和估算。

 


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1 statistical bu3wa     
adj.统计的,统计学的
参考例句:
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。
2 dedicated duHzy2     
adj.一心一意的;献身的;热诚的
参考例句:
  • He dedicated his life to the cause of education.他献身于教育事业。
  • His whole energies are dedicated to improve the design.他的全部精力都放在改进这项设计上了。
3 gambling ch4xH     
n.赌博;投机
参考例句:
  • They have won a lot of money through gambling.他们赌博赢了很多钱。
  • The men have been gambling away all night.那些人赌了整整一夜。
4 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
5 tabulating ed759cf435b380e0e10c8c3658f2a56d     
把(数字、事实)列成表( tabulate的现在分词 ); 制表
参考例句:
  • The Census Office did not finish tabulating the results until 1888. 直到1888年,人口普查办公室才完成统计数字表格。
  • By 1890 a revolutionary electrical tabulating system was available. 到了1890年,一种具有革命意义的电动制表装置投入使用。
6 depicting eaa7ce0ad4790aefd480461532dd76e4     
描绘,描画( depict的现在分词 ); 描述
参考例句:
  • a painting depicting the Virgin and Child 一幅描绘童贞马利亚和圣子耶稣的画
  • The movie depicting the battles and bloodshed is bound to strike home. 这部描写战斗和流血牺牲的影片一定会取得预期效果。
7 quantitative TCpyg     
adj.数量的,定量的
参考例句:
  • He said it was only a quantitative difference.他说这仅仅是数量上的差别。
  • We need to do some quantitative analysis of the drugs.我们对药物要进行定量分析。
8 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
9 qualitative JC4yi     
adj.性质上的,质的,定性的
参考例句:
  • There are qualitative differences in the way children and adults think.孩子和成年人的思维方式有质的不同。
  • Arms races have a quantitative and a qualitative aspects.军备竞赛具有数量和质量两个方面。
10 superintendent vsTwV     
n.监督人,主管,总监;(英国)警务长
参考例句:
  • He was soon promoted to the post of superintendent of Foreign Trade.他很快就被擢升为对外贸易总监。
  • He decided to call the superintendent of the building.他决定给楼房管理员打电话。
11 vaccinated 8f16717462e6e6db3389d0f736409983     
[医]已接种的,种痘的,接种过疫菌的
参考例句:
  • I was vaccinated against tetanus. 我接种了破伤风疫苗。
  • Were you vaccinated against smallpox as a child? 你小时候打过天花疫苗吗?
12 inefficient c76xm     
adj.效率低的,无效的
参考例句:
  • The inefficient operation cost the firm a lot of money.低效率的运作使该公司损失了许多钱。
  • Their communication systems are inefficient in the extreme.他们的通讯系统效率非常差。
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TAG标签:   新概念  背诵  短文  statistics
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