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VOA慢速英语 2007 1211b

时间:2008-03-20 02:40来源:互联网 提供网友:蓝静子   字体: [ ]
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

VOICE ONE:

This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember.

VOICE TWO:

And I'm Bob Doughty1. On our program this week, we will tell about an environmental study of the recent wildfires in California. We will also tell how some water-treatment products use ultraviolet light to destroy harmful organisms. And we offer suggestions for treating minor2 cuts and wounds.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

 
An air tanker3 drops fire retardant chemicals in Malibu, California, in November
American scientists have been studying the effects of the recent wildfires in California. One study confirmed that large fires produce large amounts of carbon dioxide, a gas linked to climate change. It also found that such fires produce as much carbon dioxide in a few weeks as California's motor vehicle traffic does in a year.

Vehicles, factories and power stations produce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Such gases have been shown to trap warm air in Earth's atmosphere. Many climate scientists believe these gases are responsible, at least in part, for rising temperatures on Earth.

VOICE TWO:

The study used satellite observations of fires and a new computer program. The program created estimates of carbon dioxide production based on the amount of plants burned.

The study estimated that fires in the United States mainland and Alaska release about two hundred ninety tons of carbon dioxide each year. That is about four to six percent of the amount of carbon dioxide released by burning fossil fuels like oil.

The study found that fires are responsible for a higher percentage of the greenhouse gases in some western and southeastern states. Very large fires can quickly release huge amounts of carbon dioxide into Earth's atmosphere.

VOICE ONE:

Christine Wiedinmyer works for America's National Center for Atmospheric4 Research. She developed the computer program to study the wildfires. Her estimates show the fires produced nearly eight million metric tons of carbon dioxide in just a one-week period. That is almost twenty-five percent of the monthly average production from all fossil fuel burned in California.

Miz Wiedinmyer worked on the study with Jason Neff of the University of Colorado at Boulder5. He says the recent wildfires in the United States partly resulted from a century of fire suppression. He says attempts to control fire have had the unplanned effect of storing more carbon in our forests and reducing the effect of burning fossil fuels. As these forests now begin to burn, that stored carbon is moving back into the atmosphere. Professor Neff says this may affect the current problems with carbon dioxide.

VOICE TWO:

The study found that evergreen6 forests in the South and West are the main reason for carbon dioxide emissions7 from fires. Fires in grasslands8 and agricultural areas have less carbon dioxide because of less plant life there. Generally, carbon dioxide emissions are highest during the spring in the southeastern and central United States. During the summer, the emissions are highest in the West.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

You are listening to SCIENCE IN THE NEWS in VOA Special ENGLISH. With Bob Doughty, I'm Steve Ember in Washington.

(MUSIC)

Viruses, bacteria and other organisms in dirty water sicken hundreds of millions of people every year. Yet there are many different water-treatment technologies available.

Some systems use ultraviolet light to destroy harmful organisms. One product that disinfects water with UV light is called AquaStar, made by Meridian9 Design. The American company says most UV water-purification systems put into homes have one or more filters. These use carbon or mesh10 to catch impurities11. The filters are added to improve the taste and smell of water.

But the company says a complex system like this is often not needed in situations where the aim is just to make water safe to drink.

VOICE TWO:

The AquaStar device is a one-liter bottle with an ultraviolet lamp inside. The user pushes a button and the light goes on for about a minute and a half. Two small batteries provide power to the light.

Two electrical engineers, Dan Matthews and Kurt Kuhlmann, designed the system. They brought it to market in January of two thousand five. Since then, they say, Meridian Design has sold about two thousand devices a year, at a price of eighty-nine dollars.

VOICE ONE:

Meridian's newest water treatment device is called the mUV ("move"). This micro-UV device floats and is small enough to use in a glass. It works like the AquaStar purifier but has a rechargeable battery.

Dan Matthews says the mUV can be connected to almost any battery for enough of a charge to clean twelve liters of water. He says Meridian Design is currently supporting a project by the Mexican nonprofit organization Niparajá. The group is producing containers that disinfect water with UV lights powered by the sun. The containers hold fifteen liters.

The device is called the UV Bucket, and it won an award last year from the World Bank. Families in parts of Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Guatemala are using it.

VOICE TWO:

Meridian Design is also working with several partners on a solar-powered version of its AquaStar purifier. This has already been developed and is now being tested. Dan Matthews says the goal is to be able to sell it at a low price.

Meridian Design is also working with a partner to develop a different kind of solar-powered purification system. This one would make a chlorine-based disinfectant out of salt added to water. The goal there is to be able to store large amounts of water and keep it disinfected.

(MUSIC)

VOICE ONE:

Finally, we have some helpful first aid information. First Aid is the kind of medical care given to a victim of an accident or sudden injury before trained medial help can arrive.

First Aid treatments are generally easy to carry out. They can be taught to people of all ages. Learning them is important. Knowing how to treat someone in an emergency can mean the difference between life and death.

VOICE TWO:

Minor cuts are common and are usually not serious injuries. But they can become dangerous and lead to infection when left untreated. An increasing number of bacterial12 skin infections are resistant13 to antibiotic14 medicines. These infections can spread throughout the body.

Bacteria can enter the body through even the smallest cut in the skin. Taking good care of any injury that breaks the skin can help prevent an infection.

Medical experts suggest first cleaning the wound with clean water. Lake or ocean water should not be used. To clean the area around the wound, medical experts suggest using a clean cloth and soap. There is no need to use liquids such as hydrogen peroxide or iodine15.

VOICE ONE:

It is important to remove all dirt and other materials from the wound. After the wound is clean, add a small amount of antibiotic ointment16 or cream. Studies have shown that these medicated products can aid in healing. They also help to keep the surface of the wound from becoming dry. Finally, cover the cut with a clean bandage while it heals. Change the bandage daily and keep the wound clean.

VOICE TWO:

As the wound heals, inspect for signs of infection including increased pain, redness and fluid around the cut. A high body temperature is also a sign of infection. If a wound seems infected, let the victim rest. Physical activity can spread the infection. If infection develops, seek the help of a medical expert.

For larger wounds, or if bleeding does not stop quickly, add direct pressure. Place a clean piece of cloth on the area and hold it firmly in place until the bleeding stops or medical help arrives.

VOICE ONE:

Direct pressure should be kept on a wound for about twenty minutes. Do not remove the cloth if the blood drips through it. Instead, put another cloth on top and continue pressure. Use more pressure if the bleeding has not stopped after twenty minutes. Deep cuts usually require immediate17 attention from trained medical experts.

Doctors suggest getting a tetanus vaccination18 every ten years. A tetanus booster shot may be required if a wound is deep or dirty.

To learn more about first aid, contact a hospital or local organization like a Red Cross or Red Crescent society. There may be training programs offered in your area.

(MUSIC)

VOICE TWO:

This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by Brianna Blake, Soo Jee Han and Jill Moss19. Our producer was Brianna Blake. I'm Bob Doughty.

VOICE ONE:

And I'm Steve Ember. Read and listen to our programs at voaspecialenglish.com. Join us again at this time next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 doughty Jk5zg     
adj.勇猛的,坚强的
参考例句:
  • Most of successful men have the characteristics of contumacy and doughty.绝大多数成功人士都有共同的特质:脾气倔强,性格刚强。
  • The doughty old man battled his illness with fierce determination.坚强的老人用巨大毅力与疾病作斗争。
2 minor e7fzR     
adj.较小(少)的,较次要的;n.辅修学科;vi.辅修
参考例句:
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年轻的男演员在这出新戏里被分派担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分财产给了他。
3 tanker xqawA     
n.油轮
参考例句:
  • The tanker took on 200,000 barrels of crude oil.油轮装载了二十万桶原油。
  • Heavy seas had pounded the tanker into three parts.汹涌的巨浪把油轮撞成三载。
4 atmospheric 6eayR     
adj.大气的,空气的;大气层的;大气所引起的
参考例句:
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
5 boulder BNbzS     
n.巨砾;卵石,圆石
参考例句:
  • We all heaved together and removed the boulder.大家一齐用劲,把大石头搬开了。
  • He stepped clear of the boulder.他从大石头后面走了出来。
6 evergreen mtFz78     
n.常青树;adj.四季常青的
参考例句:
  • Some trees are evergreen;they are called evergreen.有的树是常青的,被叫做常青树。
  • There is a small evergreen shrub on the hillside.山腰上有一小块常绿灌木丛。
7 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名词复数 ); 散发物(尤指气体)
参考例句:
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多数科学家都相信气候变化与排放的含碳气体有关。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危险的辐射物从钚放散出来。
8 grasslands 72179cad53224d2f605476ff67a1d94c     
n.草原,牧场( grassland的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Songs were heard ringing loud and clear over the grasslands. 草原上扬起清亮激越的歌声。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Grasslands have been broken and planted to wheat. 草原已经开垦出来,种上了小麦。 来自《简明英汉词典》
9 meridian f2xyT     
adj.子午线的;全盛期的
参考例句:
  • All places on the same meridian have the same longitude.在同一子午线上的地方都有相同的经度。
  • He is now at the meridian of his intellectual power.他现在正值智力全盛期。
10 mesh cC1xJ     
n.网孔,网丝,陷阱;vt.以网捕捉,啮合,匹配;vi.适合; [计算机]网络
参考例句:
  • Their characters just don't mesh.他们的性格就是合不来。
  • This is the net having half inch mesh.这是有半英寸网眼的网。
11 impurities 2626a6dbfe6f229f6e1c36f702812675     
不纯( impurity的名词复数 ); 不洁; 淫秽; 杂质
参考例句:
  • A filter will remove most impurities found in water. 过滤器会滤掉水中的大部分杂质。
  • Oil is refined to remove naturally occurring impurities. 油经过提炼去除天然存在的杂质。
12 bacterial dy5z8q     
a.细菌的
参考例句:
  • Bacterial reproduction is accelerated in weightless space. 在失重的空间,细菌繁殖加快了。
  • Brain lesions can be caused by bacterial infections. 大脑损伤可能由细菌感染引起。
13 resistant 7Wvxh     
adj.(to)抵抗的,有抵抗力的
参考例句:
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
14 antibiotic KNJzd     
adj.抗菌的;n.抗生素
参考例句:
  • The doctor said that I should take some antibiotic.医生说我应该服些用抗生素。
  • Antibiotic can be used against infection.抗菌素可以用来防止感染。
15 iodine Da6zr     
n.碘,碘酒
参考例句:
  • The doctor painted iodine on the cut.医生在伤口上涂点碘酒。
  • Iodine tends to localize in the thyroid.碘容易集于甲状腺。
16 ointment 6vzy5     
n.药膏,油膏,软膏
参考例句:
  • Your foot will feel better after the application of this ointment.敷用这药膏后,你的脚会感到舒服些。
  • This herbal ointment will help to close up your wound quickly.这种中草药膏会帮助你的伤口很快愈合。
17 immediate aapxh     
adj.立即的;直接的,最接近的;紧靠的
参考例句:
  • His immediate neighbours felt it their duty to call.他的近邻认为他们有责任去拜访。
  • We declared ourselves for the immediate convocation of the meeting.我们主张立即召开这个会议。
18 vaccination bKGzM     
n.接种疫苗,种痘
参考例句:
  • Vaccination is a preventive against smallpox.种痘是预防天花的方法。
  • Doctors suggest getting a tetanus vaccination every ten years.医生建议每十年注射一次破伤风疫苗。
19 moss X6QzA     
n.苔,藓,地衣
参考例句:
  • Moss grows on a rock.苔藓生在石头上。
  • He was found asleep on a pillow of leaves and moss.有人看见他枕着树叶和苔藓睡着了。
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