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2006年NPR美国国家公共电台六月-China Races to Rescue Its Shrinking Wetla

时间:2007-07-20 06:35来源:互联网 提供网友:zhao6221133   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)
One not so sudden problem that Chinese media have been reporting a serious shortage of water. Some worry that it could derail the country's rapid economic growth. China's per capita water resources are only a quarter of the world average and the problem is aggravated1 by pollution, fouling2 China's rivers and lakes. The country's wetland environments and their unique way of life are especially threatened. NPR's Anthony Kuhn traveled 100 miles from Beijing and visited north China's largest wetland ecosystem3.

Instead of one lake with people living on its shores, Lake Baiyangdian is composed of 143 small lakes with dozens of fishing villages scattered4 on the lake's many islands. Traditionally, at least, the life of the people was inseparable from the life of the lake. That interdependence survives in a unique local tradition, fishing with birds.

Sixty-year-old fisherman Zhang Shuiyuan unties5 6 cormorants from their perches near his home and hoists them into his flat-bottomed rowboat. The big birds have webbed feet and a throat pouch9, good gear for fishing. With the birds riding shotgun, Zhang heads for the open water. Out on the lake, lotus leaves and lily pads form a lush green carpet. The tall reeds rustle10 in the wind. Before sending the cormorants6 after the fish, Zhang first ties a piece of straw around each bird's neck so it won't swallow its catch. Zhang urges the birds on, splashing his oars11 and stamping his feet on the boat. The birds dive and stay under for the better part of a minute. When they surface, Zhang hoists8 them aboard with a pole and empties the fish from their gullets.

"These birds are domesticated12 animals. We don't raise them for the fun of it. We used to use them to make a living, but now there are faster ways to catch fish."

Baiyangdian's wetland ecosystem performs vital functions. It catches floodwaters and moderates the weather. It maintains the biodiversity of plant and animal species. It's China's easternmost rest stop for migratory13 birds and it cleans the rivers that flow through it, earning it the nickname 'North China's Kidney'.

The channels in islands of Baiyangdian are like the broad avenues and narrow lanes of a great city. 74-year-old boatman Wang Dabang knows them all intimately.

"I knew how to swim from about the same time I knew how to run and play. I played in the water all day. Back then the water was really clean. We all just scooped it up and drank it."

Now Wang has to bring drinking water from village wells when he goes out on the lake. Over the past two decades, he's seen cars driving on the dry lake bed, he's seen pollution turn the water the color of soy sauce, he's seen once plentiful15 mandarin16 fish and turtles disappear, but he's also seen the standard of living rise.

"Life is definitely better now. Then we could barely stave off hunger. Now we have everything, rice, white flour. Back then, we only got to eat white flour at Chinese New Year."

Over the past four decades, Baiyangdian's waters have shrunk by a third to their current size of about 140 square miles. Most of the nine rivers that used to feed the lake have run dry due to climate change and the building of dams and reservoirs upstream. The lake receives tons of sewerage and industrial waste from Baoding, a city of 10 million people upstream. But some experts feel the damage is reversible. Fisherman Zhang agrees that with a little help, Baiyangdian may yet be able to heal itself.

"The turtles and the mandarin fish are gone, but if the water can be cleaned, they will naturally reappear by themselves. Even the most experienced fishermen can't explain this. It's just nature. "

The Chinese government has recently announced a ten-year, a billion-dollar effort to clean up Baiyangdian. Anthony Kuhn, NPR News, Lake Baiyangdian.
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per capita:used to describe the average amount of something in a particular place, calculated according to the number of people who live there; 每人, 照人数分配的
wetland:an area of land that is partly covered with water, or is wet most of the time; 潮湿的土壤, 沼泽地
ecosystem:all the animals and plants in a particular area, and the way in which they are related to each other and to their environment; 生态系统
interdependence:a situation in which people or things depend on each other; 互相依赖
cormorant:a large black sea bird which has a long neck and eats fish; 鸬鹚, 贪婪的人
perch:a branch or stick where a bird sits; 栖木, 人所居的高位, 有利的地位, 杆, 河鲈
hoist:to raise, lift, or pull up something, especially using ropes; 提升间, 升起
webbed:webbed feet or toes have skin between the toes; 作成蜘蛛网状的, 有蹼的
pouch:a fold of skin like a bag which animals such as hamsters or squirrels have inside each cheek to carry and store food; 小袋, 烟草袋, 钱袋, 育儿袋
lush:plants that are lush grow many leaves and look healthy and strong; 青葱的, 味美的, 豪华的, 繁荣的
rustle:if leaves, papers, clothes etc rustle, or if you rustle them, they make a noise as they rub against each other ;发出沙沙声, 奋力工作, 急速移动
splash:if a liquid splashes, it hits or falls on something and makes a noise; 溅, 泼, 溅湿
gullet:the tube at the back of your mouth through which food goes down your throat ;食道, 咽喉, 水道, 峡谷, 锯齿间空隙
domesticated:domesticated animals are able to work for people or live with them as pets;驯化的
biodiversity:the variety of plants and animals in a particular place;区域动植物多元化
scoop up:铲起
mandarin fish:鳜鱼或桂鱼
stave off:to keep someone or something from reaching you or affecting you for a period of time; 避开, 挡开, 延迟
back then:a long time ago when things were different
reversible: a change that is reversible can be changed back to how it was before;可逆的


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 aggravated d0aec1b8bb810b0e260cb2aa0ff9c2ed     
使恶化( aggravate的过去式和过去分词 ); 使更严重; 激怒; 使恼火
参考例句:
  • If he aggravated me any more I shall hit him. 假如他再激怒我,我就要揍他。
  • Far from relieving my cough, the medicine aggravated it. 这药非但不镇咳,反而使我咳嗽得更厉害。
2 fouling 51c8adea6ef6cc2e33d171f8ae739b2d     
n.(水管、枪筒等中的)污垢v.使污秽( foul的现在分词 );弄脏;击球出界;(通常用废物)弄脏
参考例句:
  • He was sent off for fouling the other team's goalkeeper. 他因对对方守门员犯规而被罚出场。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • A basketball player is allowed five personal fouls before fouling out. 篮球运动员侵人犯规五次即被罚下场。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
3 ecosystem Wq4xz     
n.生态系统
参考例句:
  • This destroyed the ecosystem of the island.这样破坏了岛上的生态系统。
  • We all have an interest in maintaining the integrity of the ecosystem.维持生态系统的完整是我们共同的利益。
4 scattered 7jgzKF     
adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
参考例句:
  • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散乱的文件收拾起来,塞进文件夹里。
5 unties 6fa923cbf8294d1497dbaa48a44d7aa7     
松开,解开( untie的第三人称单数 ); 解除,使自由; 解决
参考例句:
  • High efficiency unties the method experience that circular functions inscribes in high school mathematics, good Bonus. 高中数学中高效率解三角函数题的方法经验,好了加分。
6 cormorants 7fd38480459c8ed62f89f1d9bb497e3e     
鸬鹚,贪婪的人( cormorant的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The birds are trained cormorants. 那些鸟是受过训练的鸬鹚。
  • The cormorants swim down and catch the fish, and bring them back the raft. 鸬鹚又下去捉住鱼,再返回竹筏。
7 perches a9e7f5ff4da2527810360c20ff65afca     
栖息处( perch的名词复数 ); 栖枝; 高处; 鲈鱼
参考例句:
  • Other protection can be obtained by providing wooden perches througout the orchards. 其它保护措施是可在种子园中到处设置木制的栖木。
  • The birds were hopping about on their perches and twittering. 鸟儿在栖木上跳来跳去,吱吱地叫着。
8 hoists eb06914c09f60e5d4a3d4bf9750ccb64     
把…吊起,升起( hoist的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Mine hoists are usually operated by the counterbalance of an ascending and a descending car. 矿井升降机通常用一个升车一个落车互相平衡的方法进行操作。
  • Sam understands tacitly. He hoists his cup saying. 山姆心领神会,举起酒杯。
9 pouch Oi1y1     
n.小袋,小包,囊状袋;vt.装...入袋中,用袋运输;vi.用袋送信件
参考例句:
  • He was going to make a tobacco pouch out of them. 他要用它们缝制一个烟草袋。
  • The old man is always carrying a tobacco pouch with him.这老汉总是随身带着烟袋。
10 rustle thPyl     
v.沙沙作响;偷盗(牛、马等);n.沙沙声声
参考例句:
  • She heard a rustle in the bushes.她听到灌木丛中一阵沙沙声。
  • He heard a rustle of leaves in the breeze.他听到树叶在微风中发出的沙沙声。
11 oars c589a112a1b341db7277ea65b5ec7bf7     
n.桨,橹( oar的名词复数 );划手v.划(行)( oar的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • He pulled as hard as he could on the oars. 他拼命地划桨。
  • The sailors are bending to the oars. 水手们在拼命地划桨。 来自《简明英汉词典》
12 domesticated Lu2zBm     
adj.喜欢家庭生活的;(指动物)被驯养了的v.驯化( domesticate的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He is thoroughly domesticated and cooks a delicious chicken casserole. 他精于家务,烹制的砂锅炖小鸡非常可口。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The donkey is a domesticated form of the African wild ass. 驴是非洲野驴的一种已驯化的品种。 来自《简明英汉词典》
13 migratory jwQyB     
n.候鸟,迁移
参考例句:
  • Many migratory birds visit this lake annually.许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
  • This does not negate the idea of migratory aptitude.这并没有否定迁移能力这一概念。
14 scooped a4cb36a9a46ab2830b09e95772d85c96     
v.抢先报道( scoop的过去式和过去分词 );(敏捷地)抱起;抢先获得;用铲[勺]等挖(洞等)
参考例句:
  • They scooped the other newspapers by revealing the matter. 他们抢先报道了这件事。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The wheels scooped up stones which hammered ominously under the car. 车轮搅起的石块,在车身下发出不吉祥的锤击声。 来自《简明英汉词典》
15 plentiful r2izH     
adj.富裕的,丰富的
参考例句:
  • Their family has a plentiful harvest this year.他们家今年又丰收了。
  • Rainfall is plentiful in the area.这个地区雨量充足。
16 Mandarin TorzdX     
n.中国官话,国语,满清官吏;adj.华丽辞藻的
参考例句:
  • Just over one billion people speak Mandarin as their native tongue.大约有十亿以上的人口以华语为母语。
  • Mandarin will be the new official language of the European Union.普通话会变成欧盟新的官方语言。
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TAG标签:   npr  公共电台  china  rescue  wetla
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