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2006年NPR美国国家公共电台九月-A Better Breakfast Can Boost a Child's Br

时间:2007-07-20 08:10来源:互联网 提供网友:joly   字体: [ ]
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    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)
I’m Allison Aubrey. When it comes to the brain and nutrition, there’s lots of evidence to suggest that eating breakfast really can help kids succeed in the classroom. The reason is pretty straightforward1. After a fasting all night, developing brains need a fresh supply of glucose2 or blood sugar.

Without glucose, our brain doesn’t operate very well, and people have difficulty understanding new information. They have difficulty with visual, spatial3, er, understanding and they don’t remember things as well.

Terrill Bravender is professor of pediatrics at Duke University. He says dozens of studies going back to the 1950s have consistently shown that those children who eat breakfast, any breakfast, do better than those who don’t. In one study, of 4,000 elementary school students, researchers gave half of the kids a morning meal and directed the other half to skip it. All of the children then took a battery of attention tests, Harvard psychologist Michael Murphy who directed the study says to measure, for instance, short-term memory, they used a digit4 span test.

We read a series of digits5 out loud, 5, 6, 2 and asked them to repeat them and we would read them longer and longer spans of digits and the total score, you get the number of digits you are able to repeat correctly.

They also tested things such as verbal fluency6. They asked children to name all the animals they could think of in 60 seconds. Across the board, Murphy says the breakfast-eaters performed better. So with the preponderance of evidence suggesting that breakfast really is key, then next question becomes: Does it matter what kinds of foods kids eat? Duke’s Terrill Bravender says one thing he’d never served his children is Froot Loops.

I hate it this on Froot Loops, but any sugared cereal really has a high glycemic index and I think that, not only is breakfast important by itself, but the composition of the breakfast is really important, too.

The glycemic index is basically a measure of how quickly the body absorbs the carbohydrate7 and converts it to fuel. When it comes to sustained brainpower, Bravender explains that food low on the scale, such as less refined wholerain, are preferable. He says even though a bowl of Froot Loops and a bowl of old-fashioned oatmeal may have the same number of carbs, they have different glycemic loads.

The Froot Loops will get in your body really quickly and cause a peak in blood sugar levels that then falls pretty dramatically after about 2 hours or so, the oatmeal, on the other hand, is absorbed a lot slower and so you get a nice slow rise in blood sugar levels and nice amount of energy to last through the morning and you don’t get that fall.

Bravender says this fall or dip in blood sugar can bring with it a release of hormones8 that can affect mood.

These hormones are a signal to the body that something, something stressful is going on, and the response of many people to those hormones is to eat.

In some children, those hormones and the hunger can lead to distraction9 and lack of concentration. Recently, scientists have begun to study this phenomenon. Last year, Tuft university’s psychologist Holly10 Taylor had one group of elementary school children eat oatmeal for breakfast, another ate Cap'n Crunch11. Then both of the groups were given some tasks, such as memorizing the names of countries on the map. The oatmeal eaters did up to 20 percent better on the tests.

There were enough to show that the children were remembering more information about these maps um, after having eaten oatmeal.

Both cereals had the same amount of sugar, but Taylor says the difference is that the oatmeal had more protein, more fiber12 and therefore a lower glycemic index. These findings beg more research. But Duke’s Terrill Bravender says they do suggest some basic rules. First, family should focus on making sure that kids do eat something for breakfast. And if you are trying to track glycemic load, a quick shortcut13 is to serve less processed foods that have some protein and fiber. These would improve the odds14 it'll hold steady until lunch.

Allison Aubrey , NPR news, Washington.
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fast v.
to eat little or no food for a period of time, especially for religious reasons
Muslims fast during Ramadan.
pediatrics
[医]小儿科
across the board
affecting everyone or everything in a situation or organization
an across-the-board pay increase In July everything we sell is reduced right across the board.
preponderance
1
a preponderance of something
if there is a preponderance of people or things of a particular type in a group, there are more of that type than of any other
There is a preponderance of female students in the music department.
2
a preponderance of the evidence
law most of the evidence in a law case
Froot Loops
[(known as Fruit Loops in Australia) is a brand of breakfast cereal produced by Kellogg's and sold in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, and Latin America.]
glycemia
[医]血糖过多
brainpower
1
intelligence, or the ability to think
A lot of brainpower went into solving the problem.
2
educated intelligent people who have special skills, especially in science, considered as a group
the country's shortage of scientific brainpower
wholegrain
adj.
全粒的,全米的
Cap'n Crunch (who also works for Quaker Oats) was a result of market research indicating the one quality kids (who by the early 1960s were behind most cereal-buying decisions) most wanted in a cereal was crunch - i.e., resistance to sogginess when wet. So their chemists devised a reasonably non-toxic substance that would more-or-less live up to the slogan "Stays crunchy even in milk!", and still provide about as much nourishment15 as most other cereals. Then they pre-sweetened it, i.e., coated it with healthy, energy-packed sugar, and dreamed up the name. All that was lacking was the advertising16 campaign.



点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 straightforward fFfyA     
adj.正直的,坦率的;易懂的,简单的
参考例句:
  • A straightforward talk is better than a flowery speech.巧言不如直说。
  • I must insist on your giving me a straightforward answer.我一定要你给我一个直截了当的回答。
2 glucose Fyiyz     
n.葡萄糖
参考例句:
  • I gave him an extra dose of glucose to pep him up.我给他多注射了一剂葡萄糖以增强他的活力。
  • The doctor injected glucose into his patient's veins.医生将葡萄糖注入病人的静脉。
3 spatial gvcww     
adj.空间的,占据空间的
参考例句:
  • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects.大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
  • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement.他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
4 digit avKxY     
n.零到九的阿拉伯数字,手指,脚趾
参考例句:
  • Her telephone number differs from mine by one digit.她的电话号码和我的只差一个数字。
  • Many animals have five digits.许多动物有5趾。
5 digits a2aacbd15b619a9b9e5581a6c33bd2b1     
n.数字( digit的名词复数 );手指,足趾
参考例句:
  • The number 1000 contains four digits. 1000是四位数。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The number 410 contains three digits. 数字 410 中包括三个数目字。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
6 fluency ajCxF     
n.流畅,雄辩,善辩
参考例句:
  • More practice will make you speak with greater fluency.多练习就可以使你的口语更流利。
  • Some young children achieve great fluency in their reading.一些孩子小小年纪阅读已经非常流畅。
7 carbohydrate FTPy0     
n.碳水化合物;糖类;(plural)淀粉质或糖类
参考例句:
  • You should not have too much carbohydrate in your diet.你日常饮食中不该有过多碳水化合物。
  • Cashew nuts are rich in carbohydrate.腰果含丰富碳水化合物。
8 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
参考例句:
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
9 distraction muOz3l     
n.精神涣散,精神不集中,消遣,娱乐
参考例句:
  • Total concentration is required with no distractions.要全神贯注,不能有丝毫分神。
  • Their national distraction is going to the disco.他们的全民消遣就是去蹦迪。
10 holly hrdzTt     
n.[植]冬青属灌木
参考例句:
  • I recently acquired some wood from a holly tree.最近我从一棵冬青树上弄了些木料。
  • People often decorate their houses with holly at Christmas.人们总是在圣诞节时用冬青来装饰房屋。
11 crunch uOgzM     
n.关键时刻;艰难局面;v.发出碎裂声
参考例句:
  • If it comes to the crunch they'll support us.关键时刻他们是会支持我们的。
  • People who crunch nuts at the movies can be very annoying.看电影时嘎吱作声地嚼干果的人会使人十分讨厌。
12 fiber NzAye     
n.纤维,纤维质
参考例句:
  • The basic structural unit of yarn is the fiber.纤维是纱的基本结构单元。
  • The material must be free of fiber clumps.这种材料必须无纤维块。
13 shortcut Cyswg     
n.近路,捷径
参考例句:
  • He was always looking for a shortcut to fame and fortune.他总是在找成名发财的捷径。
  • If you take the shortcut,it will be two li closer.走抄道去要近2里路。
14 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
15 nourishment Ovvyi     
n.食物,营养品;营养情况
参考例句:
  • Lack of proper nourishment reduces their power to resist disease.营养不良降低了他们抵抗疾病的能力。
  • He ventured that plants draw part of their nourishment from the air.他大胆提出植物从空气中吸收部分养分的观点。
16 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
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TAG标签:   npr  公共电台  breakfast  boost
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