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实用英语综合教程第三册-3

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 3
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think about the question.

What would you feel in times of crisis? Try to use some of the words given to describe your feeling when you are facing a crisis.
depressed1 troubled
anxious hopeless
determined2 challenging
confident cheerful
strong discouraged
hopeful courageous3

Now read the passage and try to find out what the author thinks we should do in the face of a crisis.

Coping with Crisis

1 If I were asked to give what I consider the single most useful bit of advice for all humanity, it would be this: Expect trouble as an inevitable4 part of life and, when it comes, hold your head high, look it squarely in the eye and say, "I will be bigger than you. You cannot defeat me." Then repeat to yourself the most comforting of all words, "This too shall pass."
2 To forgive oneself in the face of a devastating5 experience is perhaps the most difficult of life's challenges. Most of us find it much easier to forgive others.
3 In many instances we can't control what happens to us, but we can control our reactions to what happens to us. We can stay down for the count and be carried out of the ring, or we can pull ourselves back to our feet. If we are victimized by others, we must refuse to give them the power to break our spirit, make us physically6 ill, perhaps even shorten our lives. Most doctors will tell you that worry, anxiety, tension and anger can make you sicker than a virus.
4 The expression "nervous breakdown7" suggests that nerves have broken down, but organically the nerves are healthy. The problem is purely8 emotional. A doctor on the staff of the Mayo Clinic has said the majority of patients in hospital beds today are there because of illnesses that were psycho-generated. This means the sickness was triggered by an unresolved problem.
5 I believe in blind faith. I have known people who have suffered deep personal tragedies, and this faith has helped them. But I also believe in the efficacy of positive action to overcome grief. Time is a healer, but those who help time by using it wisely and well make a more rapid adjustment.
6 Grief, in part, is self-pity turned inside out. The widow who cries, "He was everything to me. How can I go on without him?" is crying for herself, not for him. The mourner who refuses to let go of his grief eventually isolates10 himself from his friends. The world may stop for a few hours, or perhaps a few days, to hold a hand or to wipe away a tear, but friends and relatives have problems of their own. Life goes on -- and those who refuse to go on with it are left alone to wallow in their misery11.
7 The best prescription12 for a broken heart is activity. I don't mean plunging13 into a social whirl or running off on trips. Too many people who try to escape by doing just that succeed only in taking their troubles with them. The most useful kind of activity involves doing something to help others. I have told thousands of depressed people, "Enough of this breast-beating. No matter how bad things are with you, there is someone who is worse off -- and you can help him."
8 Most touching14 to me is the heroism15, the courage and faith of the average people in the world. Often readers who write about a problem will add something about their personal lives. I am moved by the magnificent people who write such lines as, "My husband lost his sight shortly after we married, but we manage beautifully." Or, "I've had two operations for cancer, but I know I'll be able to attend my son's graduation in June and I'm so thankful for that."
9 No one knows why life must be so punishing to some of God's finest creatures. Perhaps it is true that everything has a price and we must sacrifice something precious to gain something else. The poets and philosophers say adversity, sorrow and pain give our lives an added dimension. Those who suffer deeply touch life at every point; they drain the cup to the dregs while others sip17 only the bubbles on top. Perhaps no man can touch the stars unless he has known the depths of despair -- and fought his way back.

New Words

humanity
n. the human race 人,人类

devastating
a. 毁灭性的,令人泄气的
challenge
n. 1. 挑战
2. 要求,需要
v. 1. 提出挑战
2. 对…表示异议

victimize
v. to cause (someone) to suffer unfairly 使受害,使牺牲

shorten
v. to make or become short 缩短,减少

tension
n. 1. (a feeling of) nervous anxiety, worry or pressure (精神上的)紧张
2. the degree of tightness 拉紧,绷紧

virus
n. 病毒

breakdown
n. a sudden weakening or loss of power of the body or mind 崩溃

nerve
n. 1. 神经
2. courage 勇气,力量

organic
a. 1. 器官的,器质的
2. of living things 有机的 organically
ad. 器官方面地,器质方面地

clinic
n. (a part of) a hospital or institution where medical advice and treatment are given 诊所,(医院的)门诊部

generate
v. to cause to exist; produce 产生,造成

psycho-generated
a. caused by (the illness of) the mind 由心理(或精神)造成的

trigger
v. to start 引起,发动

resolve
v. to settle or clear up (a difficulty)解决

unresolved
a. that has not been or is not settled 未解决的,未解答的

efficacy
n. 功效,功力

grief
n. deep or great sorrow 悲伤,悲痛

healer
n. a person or thing that causes (something) to become healthy 治疗物,医治者

widow
n. a woman whose husband is dead 寡妇

mourner
n. a person who attends a funeral or feels sorrow 送葬者,哀悼者

wallow
v. 沉迷,纵乐

miseryn. great suffering 痛苦, 不幸

prescription
n. 1. 解救方法
2. a doctor's written order for a medicine (or treatment)处方

whirl
n. 1. 一连串纷至沓来的事情,接连不断的活动
2. 旋转(物)

breast
n. 胸,胸部

breast-beating
n. (悲痛、遗憾、不幸等)感情的强烈表露
heroism
n. the quality of being a hero 英雄品质,英勇

magnificent
a. 伟大的,高尚的,宏伟的

graduation
n. 1. a ceremony at which degrees are conferred 毕业典礼
2. 毕业

thankful
a. 欣慰的,感激的

sacrifice
v. to give up or lose, esp. for some good purpose 牺牲,献出

precious
a. of great value and beauty 贵重的,宝贵的

poet
n. a writer of poems 诗人

philosopher
n. a person studying or teaching philosophy 哲学家

adversity
n. bad fortune; trouble 厄运,逆境

sorrow
n. sadness 悲伤

dimension
n. 1. 范围,方面
2. 尺寸,尺度

drain
v. 1. 喝干
2.(液体)排出,放出

dreg
n. (常用复数)残渣,渣滓

sip
v. to drink in very small quantities 小口地喝,抿

bubble
n. (in liquid) a ball of air or gas that rises to the surface 气泡,泡沫

Phrases and Expressions

hold one's head high
昂首,不垂头丧气

look...in the eye(s)
正视,直视

in the face of
在…面前

down for the count
(拳击手)被击倒由裁判数10判定胜负的

to one's feet
起来

turn inside out
使混乱,混淆,彻底查看,把…翻过来

isolate9...from
使隔离,分隔开

hold/a someone's hand
给某人(道义上的)支持

wipe away
擦去,去除

run off
迅速离开,逃走

be worse off
更加糟糕,更加贫穷

at every point
在每一方面

drain to the dregs
喝干

Proper Name

the Mayo Clinic
梅奥诊所


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think over the questions.

1. How many decibels(分贝)do you think may cause hearing damage?
2. What sort of noise you personally dislike most?
3. Are there any sorts of noise that you enjoy?

Now compare your answers with your neighbours'.

Millions of Britons Endure Life with
Noisy Neighbours

Many people believe they are powerless to act, but environmental health officers have a battery of legislation at their disposal.

1 Booming music, banging doors and chatter18 from the house next door, and traffic noise are blighting20 the lives of up to 18 million people according to a survey published today.
2 Environment researchers found that nearly a third of Britons claim their home life is being spoiled by noise from neighbours, road traffic, aircraft and trains. Their findings indicate that the levels of noise pollution are rising, particularly from "amplified21 music, noisy animals and people's voices".
3 The study, which will be presented to a national society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection Seminar in Birmingham, questioned 2373 adults from randomly22 selected households in 1991. The report claims official statistics on noise complaints greatly underestimate the harm it can cause to people's lives and health.
4 Colin Grimwood, a researcher with the Environment Department's Building Research Establishment, said that between 60 and 70 per cent of people who endure noise from neighbours never complain. A small number approach neighbours directly and some consider direct and violent measures. Only 16 per cent will contact a council's environmental health officer, who may have powers to end the misery.
5 The survey found that nearly 30 per cent of those questioned claimed they were adversely23 affected24 by traffic noise, 22 per cent objected to noise from neighbours, 16 per cent suffered from aircraft noise and 4 per cent from train noise.
6 A similar survey carried out in the late 1980s found that 11 per cent of people were affected by traffic and 14 per cent by noisy neighbours.
7 My Grimwood said people reacted to noise, particularly from neighbours, in a variety of ways. These included irritation25, anger, a desire to move house, fatigue26 and depression.
8 Many of those questioned said telephone conversations, reading and sleeping were disrupted by noises from next door.
9 Voices were the most frequently reported sounds from next door. Ten per cent of those surveyed said they could hear them and more than half objected.
10 Mr Grimwood said the impact of a noise depended on how loud it was, how long it lasted and the type of noise. For example, neighbours laughing were often said to be enjoyable sounds, while heavy traffic and emotionally charged or frightening noises such as arguments or children crying triggered stressful or violent moods.
11 Sounds that were unpredictable, perceived as inconsiderate or unfamiliar27 also trigger hostile or distressed29 reactions. These included alarms, building work with no foreseeable date of completion, engines being revved31 and foxes crying.
12 Howard Price, of the Institute of Environmental Health Officers in London, said many people wrongly believed they were powerless to act.
13 He said action could be taken under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and laws that came into force in January covering nuisance noise on streets.
14 Mr Price said people could cause a noise problem not because they were unreasonable32 but because the building in which they lived had poor sound insulation33.

New Words

endure
v. to put up with 忍受

powerless
a. without power; unable 无能为力的,无力量的

battery
n. a set of similar things 一系列,一组

legislation
n. a body of laws 法律,法规

booming
a. (声音等)低沉有回响的,隆隆作响的

bang
v. to knock, beat, or push forcefully 砰地敲,击

chatter
n. 喋喋不休,震颤声

blight19
v. to be a bad influence on or ruin 破坏,摧残

spoil
v. 1. to cause to be useless or unsatisfactory 毁掉,损害
2. 宠坏,溺爱

aircraft
n. an aeroplane 飞机

finding
n. (usu. pl.) what is learnt as the result of inquiry34 (常用复数)调查(或研究)的结果

amplify35
v. to increase the strength of, esp. sound 放大(声音等),增强

seminar
n. 研讨会,讨论会

adult
n. a fully16 grown person 成年人

randomly
ad. 随机地,任意地

complaint
n. a statement of dissatisfaction 抱怨

underestimate
v. to have too low an opinion of the degree or number of 低估

harm
n. damage 危害

approach
v. 1. to speak to, esp. about something for the first time商量
2. to come near(er) to 接近
n. 1. 靠近,临近
2. 方法,态度

violent
a. using great force 强烈的

adversely
ad. 不利地,有害地

irritation
n. 生气,恼怒

fatigue
n. the condition of being very tired 疲劳,劳累

depression
n. a feeling of sadness and hopelessness 沮丧,消沉

disrupt
v. to bring or throw into disorder36 扰乱,使中断

impact
n. a strong influence 影响,作用

stressful
a. 紧张的,压力重的

mood
n. a state of mind and feelings 情绪,精神状态

unpredictable
a. that can not be predicted 不可预测的,易变的

perceive
v. to become aware of, esp. through the eyes or the mind 感知,感觉

considerate
a. thoughtful (of the needs of others) 考虑周到的

inconsiderate
a. (of a person )thoughtless 考虑不周的

hostile
a. unfriendly; showing dislike 怀敌意的,不友善的

distress28
v. to cause great pain to 使痛苦

distressed
a. 痛苦的

foreseeable
a. that can be known in advance 可预见到的

completion
n. the state of being complete or the act of completing 完成

engine
n. 1. 器械,机械
2. 引擎,发动机

rev30
v. to increase the speed of (an engine) 加速

fox
n. 狐

nuisance
a. 讨厌的
n. a thing, a person or an act that causes trouble 讨厌的事,讨厌的人(或行为)

insulation
n. 隔音,隔热

Phrases and Expressions

at someone's disposal
任某人处理,由某人支配

up to
多达

object to
反对

react to
对…作出反应,对…起反应

come into force
开始生效,开始实施

Proper Names

Briton
大不列颠人,英国人

Nick Nuttall
尼克.纳托尔(人名)

Clean Air and Environmental Protection Seminar
清洁空气和环境保护研讨会

Birmingham
伯明翰(英国英格兰中部城市)

Colin Grimwood
科林.格里姆伍德(人名)

the Environment Department's Building Research Establishment
环境部建筑研究机构

the Institute of Environmental Health Officers
环境卫生官员协会

Howard Price
霍华德.普赖斯(人名)

the Environmental Protection Act 1990
1990年环境保护法


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 depressed xu8zp9     
adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
参考例句:
  • When he was depressed,he felt utterly divorced from reality.他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
  • His mother was depressed by the sad news.这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
2 determined duszmP     
adj.坚定的;有决心的
参考例句:
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
3 courageous HzSx7     
adj.勇敢的,有胆量的
参考例句:
  • We all honour courageous people.我们都尊重勇敢的人。
  • He was roused to action by courageous words.豪言壮语促使他奋起行动。
4 inevitable 5xcyq     
adj.不可避免的,必然发生的
参考例句:
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
5 devastating muOzlG     
adj.毁灭性的,令人震惊的,强有力的
参考例句:
  • It is the most devastating storm in 20 years.这是20年来破坏性最大的风暴。
  • Affairs do have a devastating effect on marriages.婚外情确实会对婚姻造成毁灭性的影响。
6 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
7 breakdown cS0yx     
n.垮,衰竭;损坏,故障,倒塌
参考例句:
  • She suffered a nervous breakdown.她患神经衰弱。
  • The plane had a breakdown in the air,but it was fortunately removed by the ace pilot.飞机在空中发生了故障,但幸运的是被王牌驾驶员排除了。
8 purely 8Sqxf     
adv.纯粹地,完全地
参考例句:
  • I helped him purely and simply out of friendship.我帮他纯粹是出于友情。
  • This disproves the theory that children are purely imitative.这证明认为儿童只会单纯地模仿的理论是站不住脚的。
9 isolate G3Exu     
vt.使孤立,隔离
参考例句:
  • Do not isolate yourself from others.不要把自己孤立起来。
  • We should never isolate ourselves from the masses.我们永远不能脱离群众。
10 isolates 338356f90b44ba66febab4a4c173b0f7     
v.使隔离( isolate的第三人称单数 );将…剔出(以便看清和单独处理);使(某物质、细胞等)分离;使离析
参考例句:
  • The transformer isolates the transistors with regard to d-c bias voltage. 变压器可在两个晶体管之间隔离直流偏压。 来自辞典例句
  • In regions with certain isolates of TRV, spraining is more prominent. 在具有TRV某些分离物的地区,坏死是比较显著的。 来自辞典例句
11 misery G10yi     
n.痛苦,苦恼,苦难;悲惨的境遇,贫苦
参考例句:
  • Business depression usually causes misery among the working class.商业不景气常使工薪阶层受苦。
  • He has rescued me from the mire of misery.他把我从苦海里救了出来。
12 prescription u1vzA     
n.处方,开药;指示,规定
参考例句:
  • The physician made a prescription against sea- sickness for him.医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
  • The drug is available on prescription only.这种药只能凭处方购买。
13 plunging 5fe12477bea00d74cd494313d62da074     
adj.跳进的,突进的v.颠簸( plunge的现在分词 );暴跌;骤降;突降
参考例句:
  • War broke out again, plunging the people into misery and suffering. 战祸复发,生灵涂炭。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • He is plunging into an abyss of despair. 他陷入了绝望的深渊。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 touching sg6zQ9     
adj.动人的,使人感伤的
参考例句:
  • It was a touching sight.这是一幅动人的景象。
  • His letter was touching.他的信很感人。
15 heroism 5dyx0     
n.大无畏精神,英勇
参考例句:
  • He received a medal for his heroism.他由于英勇而获得一枚奖章。
  • Stories of his heroism resounded through the country.他的英雄故事传遍全国。
16 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
17 sip Oxawv     
v.小口地喝,抿,呷;n.一小口的量
参考例句:
  • She took a sip of the cocktail.她啜饮一口鸡尾酒。
  • Elizabeth took a sip of the hot coffee.伊丽莎白呷了一口热咖啡。
18 chatter BUfyN     
vi./n.喋喋不休;短促尖叫;(牙齿)打战
参考例句:
  • Her continuous chatter vexes me.她的喋喋不休使我烦透了。
  • I've had enough of their continual chatter.我已厌烦了他们喋喋不休的闲谈。
19 blight 0REye     
n.枯萎病;造成破坏的因素;vt.破坏,摧残
参考例句:
  • The apple crop was wiped out by blight.枯萎病使苹果全无收成。
  • There is a blight on all his efforts.他的一切努力都遭到挫折。
20 blighting a9649818dde9686d12463120828d7504     
使凋萎( blight的现在分词 ); 使颓丧; 损害; 妨害
参考例句:
  • He perceived an instant that she did not know the blighting news. 他立即看出她还不知道这个失败的消息。
  • The stink of exhaust, the mind-numbing tedium of traffic, parking lots blighting central city real estate. 排气管散发的难闻气味;让人麻木的交通拥堵;妨碍中心城市房地产的停车场。
21 amplified d305c65f3ed83c07379c830f9ade119d     
放大,扩大( amplify的过去式和过去分词 ); 增强; 详述
参考例句:
  • He amplified on his remarks with drawings and figures. 他用图表详细地解释了他的话。
  • He amplified the whole course of the incident. 他详述了事件的全过程。
22 randomly cktzBM     
adv.随便地,未加计划地
参考例句:
  • Within the hot gas chamber, molecules are moving randomly in all directions. 在灼热的气体燃烧室内,分子在各个方向上作无规运动。 来自辞典例句
  • Transformed cells are loosely attached, rounded and randomly oriented. 转化细胞则不大贴壁、圆缩并呈杂乱分布。 来自辞典例句
23 adversely 6zEzi6     
ad.有害地
参考例句:
  • We commented adversely upon the imbecility of that message of telegraphic style. 我们对着这条电报式的愚蠢的留言发泄了一通不满。
  • Widely fluctuating exchange rates may adversely affect international trade. 浮动幅度很大的汇率可能会对国际贸易产生有害的影响。
24 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
25 irritation la9zf     
n.激怒,恼怒,生气
参考例句:
  • He could not hide his irritation that he had not been invited.他无法掩饰因未被邀请而生的气恼。
  • Barbicane said nothing,but his silence covered serious irritation.巴比康什么也不说,但是他的沉默里潜伏着阴郁的怒火。
26 fatigue PhVzV     
n.疲劳,劳累
参考例句:
  • The old lady can't bear the fatigue of a long journey.这位老妇人不能忍受长途旅行的疲劳。
  • I have got over my weakness and fatigue.我已从虚弱和疲劳中恢复过来了。
27 unfamiliar uk6w4     
adj.陌生的,不熟悉的
参考例句:
  • I am unfamiliar with the place and the people here.我在这儿人地生疏。
  • The man seemed unfamiliar to me.这人很面生。
28 distress 3llzX     
n.苦恼,痛苦,不舒适;不幸;vt.使悲痛
参考例句:
  • Nothing could alleviate his distress.什么都不能减轻他的痛苦。
  • Please don't distress yourself.请你不要忧愁了。
29 distressed du1z3y     
痛苦的
参考例句:
  • He was too distressed and confused to answer their questions. 他非常苦恼而困惑,无法回答他们的问题。
  • The news of his death distressed us greatly. 他逝世的消息使我们极为悲痛。
30 rev njvzwS     
v.发动机旋转,加快速度
参考例句:
  • It's his job to rev up the audience before the show starts.他要负责在表演开始前鼓动观众的热情。
  • Don't rev the engine so hard.别让发动机转得太快。
31 revved a5e14af176543ac9ad2bb089d5b9f39f     
v.(使)加速( rev的过去式和过去分词 );(数量、活动等)激增;(使发动机)快速旋转;(使)活跃起来
参考例句:
  • The taxi driver revved up his engine. 出租车司机把发动机发动起来。
  • The car revved up and roared away. 汽车发动起来,然后轰鸣着开走了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
32 unreasonable tjLwm     
adj.不讲道理的,不合情理的,过度的
参考例句:
  • I know that they made the most unreasonable demands on you.我知道他们对你提出了最不合理的要求。
  • They spend an unreasonable amount of money on clothes.他们花在衣服上的钱太多了。
33 insulation Q5Jxt     
n.隔离;绝缘;隔热
参考例句:
  • Please examine the insulation of the electric wires in my house.请检查一下我屋子里电线的绝缘情况。
  • It is always difficult to assure good insulation between the electric leads.要保证两个电触头之间有良好的绝缘总是很困难的。
34 inquiry nbgzF     
n.打听,询问,调查,查问
参考例句:
  • Many parents have been pressing for an inquiry into the problem.许多家长迫切要求调查这个问题。
  • The field of inquiry has narrowed down to five persons.调查的范围已经缩小到只剩5个人了。
35 amplify iwGzw     
vt.放大,增强;详述,详加解说
参考例句:
  • The new manager wants to amplify the company.新经理想要扩大公司。
  • Please amplify your remarks by giving us some examples.请举例详述你的话。
36 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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