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实用英语综合教程第三册-5

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 5
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think over the question.

Should a scientist be responsible for the results of his or her work? Why or why not?

Now read the passage and compare your view with the author's.

Social Responsibility of Scientists

1 There has been much debate for a number of years about how far scientists should be responsible to society for the results of their work. This question applies particularly to university scientists as they are the ones who are free to choose their field of research. The greater number of scientists today work for government sponsored bodies, or in industry; in their case, the responsibility lies mainly with the authorities that employ them; they are not entirely1 free agents, short of resigning from their post.
2 In 1979 legal charges were brought against the University of California claiming that agricultural research which it promoted had led to increased automation and consequently farm workers losing their jobs. The University's defence was that the results of research have been of benefit to the community as a whole through increased productivity and lower food prices, and that in any case the social consequences of its research were the responsibility of the whole community rather than of the University.
3 In 1970 the British Society for Social Responsibility in Science held an international conference in London on "The Social Impact of Modern Biology." Twenty famous scientists, including three Nobel prize-winners and six Fellows of the Royal Society, presented papers which were subsequently published along with the discussions in a book. It was generally accepted that within the next few decades developments in the biological sciences will radically2 change civilization as we know it today. Discoveries used wisely can be of immense benefit to mankind, but many can also be used in ways that either intentionally4 or unintentionally have disastrous5 effects on man and on the other inhabitants of this planet. Most scientists feel involved and have well-developed consciences in these matters, but the problems are extremely complex. In the first place scientists -- especially those doing pure research -- often do not know what sort of discovery they are likely to make, or, having made it, they cannot foresee the eventual6 impact on society. Very occasionally a scientist may find himself in a cruel dilemma7.
4 The conference indicated that most scientists do have a feeling of responsibility toward society, but how far they are able to influence the application of their work is another matter. What they can do is to keep the public informed and especially to advise politicians and other influential8 persons. When a new technical development becomes available it should be examined by a commission on which all sections of the community are represented, including of course scientists competent in the particular field. The universities have a role to play here in that they can provide unbiased experts. The scientists should make the technological9 assessment10 of foreseeable benefits and harmful effects, and these should be clearly stated for all to see, but the decisions and responsibilities should be shared by all sections of the community. One of the problems is to arrive at a general agreement about social values and goals. Public debate through the media is essential in helping11 to shape values and make choices, but everyday experience of politics in democratic countries shows how difficult this often is.
5 One of the clearest statements I have read about the social responsibilities of scientists is an article by Nobel prize-winner Sir Ernst Chain. First he makes the point, with which I agree, that the general run of scientists outside their own specialty12 are no wiser than non-scientists, nor are they free from prejudice and emotional attitudes. Indeed even within their own field they are sometimes intolerant of the views of colleagues with whom they disagree. Their advice should be sought and respected on technical, factual matters within their competence13, but outside that most scientists should be regarded in the same light as other citizens of comparable standing14. Chain concludes that scientists cannot be held responsible for the unpleasant effects of their inventions; responsibility lies with the society that adopts the technological application. It is up to society to take -- and pay for -- measures against the unwanted side-effects such as pollution or invasion of privacy. Like others, Chain says that one thing scientists can and should do is to counteract15 the tendency of the news media to exaggerate and sensationalize new developments.
6 A point on which all scientists agree as an ideal when discussing these matters is that a scientist should be responsible for presenting a true picture to the public about new developments in his own field, and for indicating possible implications so far as he can see them. But of course scientists working in the defence services are rarely free to do this, nor are most of those in industry. A final word: whatever critics may say or wish, today science is an extremely important part of our culture, and modern civilization is in fact based on technology; there is no going back, and science and technology will influence our lives and the world we live in to an increasing extent. Therefore man will have to adjust to this situation as he has to other changes. Scientists must take a positive part, individually and collectively, in helping people understand the spirit of the brave new world.

New Words

sponsor
v. 资助,赞助
n. 1. 赞助者
2. 保证人

agricultural
a. of agriculture 农业的

automation
n. the act or practice of using machines that need little or no human control 自动化(技术),自动操作

subsequent
a. coming after something else 随后的

subsequently
ad. 随后地

radically
ad. 根本地,彻底地

mankind
n. the human race 人类

intention
n. a purpose 目的,意图

intentionally
ad. in an intentional3 manner 故意地,有意地

disastrous
a. 1. 极坏的,很糟的
2. 灾害性的

conscience
n. an inner sense of right and wrong 良心,道德

foresee
v. to see in advance 预见,预知

eventual
a. (of an event) happening at last as a result 最后的

occasional
a. not regular 偶尔的,偶然的

occasionally
ad. now and then 偶尔,间或

influential
a. having great influence 有影响(力)的

competent
a. having the ability or skill to do what is needed 有能力的,能胜任的

unbiased
a. 公正的,不偏袒一方的

technological
a. of or related to technology 技术(上)的

assess
v. to judge the quality or worth of 对…进行估价

assessment
n. a judgement or opinion 评价,估计

democratic
a. 民主的,平民的

prejudice
n. unfair and often unfavourable feeling or opinion 偏见

intolerant
a. not able to accept ways of thinking and behaving which are different from one's own 不能容忍的

factual
a. of, concerning, or based on facts 事实的,根据事实的

competence
n. ability to do what is needed 能力
conclude
v. to come to believe after consideration of known facts 推断出,推论出

unpleasant
a. not pleasant 使人不愉快的,讨厌的

adopt
v. to take and use as one's own 采用,采纳

unwanted
a. 1. 有害的
2. not wanted 不需要的,多余的

side-effect
n. a secondary or indirect effect 副作用,意外后果

invasionn. 侵害,侵占

privacy
n. 1. 隐私
2. 秘密

counteract
v. to act against and make (action, force, etc.) of less effect 对抗,抵制

tendency
n. 1.(作品等的)倾向,意向
2. 趋势,趋向

exaggerate
v. to say or believe more than the truth about 夸张

sensationalize
v. 使引起轰动,以耸人听闻的手段处理

ideal
n. 1. 设想,想象中的事物
2. a perfect example 理想
a. perfect 理想的

critic
n. 1. a person who forms and gives judgement 批评家,评论家
2. a person who (regularly ) finds faults with someone or something爱挑剔的人

collective
a. 1. of or related to a number of people 共同的,集体的
2. considered as a whole 总的

collectively
ad. 集体地,共同地

Phrases and Expressions

be responsible for
对…负责

(be) short of
缺乏,不足

lead to
导致

as a whole
整个来看

in the first place
第一点,首先

arrive at
达到,得出

make a point
表明一种看法,证明一个论点

be free from
没有…的

be up to
是…的职责

pay for
对…负责,为…承担后果或责任

so far as
(表示程度,范围)就…,尽…

Proper Names

the University of California
加利福尼亚大学

Nobel
诺贝尔(从名)

the Royal Society
(英国)皇家学会(=the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge)

Ernst Chain
厄恩斯特.钱恩(人名)

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, consider the questions.

1. What is your image of a scientist in your mind?
2. Do you believe what scientists say? Why?

Science and Truth

1 "Finagle" is not a word that most people associate with science. One reason why science is so respected these days in that the image of the scientist is of one who dispassionately collects data in an impartial16 search for truth. In any debate the phrase "science says" usually squashes the opposition17.
2 But scientists have long acknowledged the existence of a "finagle factor" -- a tendency by many scientists to give a helpful nudge to the data to produce desired results. The latest example of the finagle factor in action comes from Stephen Jay Gould, a Harvard biologist, who has examined the important 19th century work of Dr. Samuel George Morton.
3 Morton was famous in his time not only for gathering18 a huge collection of skulls20 but also for analyzing21 the cranial capacity, or brain size, of the skulls as a measure of intelligence. He concluded that whites had the largest brains, that the brains of Indians and blacks were smaller, and therefore, that whites constitute a superior race.
4 Gould went back to Morton's original data and concluded that the results were an example of the finagle at work. "I have reanalyzed Morton's data," Gould wrote last week in the journal, Science, "and I find that they are a patchwork23 of assumption and finagling, controlled, probably unconsciously, by his conventional a priori ranking (his folks on top, slaves on the bottom)."
5 Morton reached his conclusions, Gould found, by leaving out embarrassing data, using incorrect procedures, making simple arithmetical mistakes (always in his favor) and changing his criteria24 -- again, always in favor of his argument.
6 Left alone, that finding would not be particularly disturbing. Morton has been thoroughly25 discredited27 by now. Scientists do not believe that brain size reflects intelligence, and Morton's brand of raw racism28 is out of style. But Gould goes on to say that Morton's story is only "an admittedly very bad example of a common problem in scientific work." Some of the leading figures in science are believed to have used the finagle factor.
7 One of them is Groggor Mendel, whose work is the foundation of modern genetics. The success of Mendel's work was based on finding a three-to-one ratio in the dominant29 and recessive30 characteristics of hybrid31 plants he was breeding. He found that ratio. But scientists recently have gone back to his data and have found that the results are literally32 too good to be true. Like Morton, Mendel gave himself the benefit of the doubt.
8 All this is important because the finagle factor is still at work. In the saccharin33 controversy34, for example, it was remarked that all the studies sponsored by the sugar industry found that the artificial sweetener was unsafe, while all the studies sponsored by the diet food industry found nothing wrong with saccharin.
9 No one suggested that the scientists were dishonest; it was just that they quite naturally had a strong tendency to find data that would support their beliefs. The same tendency is observable in almost every controversial area of science today -- the fight over race and intelligence, the dispute about generic35 vs. trade name drugs, the argument about nuclear energy, and so on.
10 It is only occasionally that the finagle factor breaks out into pure dishonesty. One example seems to be the research of Cyril Burt, the British scientist whose studies were used to support the belief that intelligence is mostly inherited. It now appears that Burt invented not only a good part of his results but also made up two collaborators whose names appear on his scientific papers.
11 The moral that Gould draws from his study of Morton is not that scientists are wicked but that they are just human beings, like the rest of us, and so should be subject to skepticism like the rest of us. In other words, listen to what science has to say, but never get far away from a grain of salt.

New Words

finagle
v. to act or obtain dishonestly 用欺骗的手段获得,欺骗
a. 欺骗的

dispassionately
ad. 态度客观地,不带偏见地

data
n. facts and information (datum 的复数) 资料

squash
v. to silence (a person) with a clever reply 使无言以对

acknowledge
v. 1. to admit 承认
2. to recognize the fact or existence of 确认

factor
n. a fact, circumstance, etc. helping to bring about a result 因素,要素

helpful
a. 1. useful 有用的,有益的
2. 建设性的

nudge
n. a gentle push 推动,推进

biologist
n. an expert in biology 生物学家

skull19
n. 颅骨,头骨
analyze22
v. to examine carefully in order to find out about 分析

cranial
a. 颅的

constitutev. 1. to form, make up or be 构成,形成
2. to establish 建立

journal
n. 1. a newspaper or periodical 报纸,期刊
2. a daily record of events, etc. 日志

patchwork
n. something made up of a number of different bits and pieces 拼凑的东西,杂烩

assumptionn. something that is taken as a fact or as true without proof 假定,臆断

unconscious
a. 1. not intentional 无意识的,下意识的
2. 失去知觉的

unconsciously
ad. 无意地,下意识地

conventional
a. following accepted practices, customs, and standards 按常规的,习惯的

a priori
a. (拉丁语)先验的;演绎的

procedure
a. an action or set of actions necessary for doing something 方法,步骤

arithmetic
n. 算术,计算

arithmetical
a. 算术(上)的

criterion
n. (pl. criteria) 标准,尺度

thorough
a. complete in every way 彻底的

thoroughly
ad. 彻底地

discredit26
v. to refuse to believe in 怀疑,不信

reflect
v. to express or give an idea of 反映,表明

brand
n. a special kind (独特的)一种,(自成一格的)一类

racism
n. 1. 种族主义,人种优劣论
2. 种族歧视

foundation
n. that on which a belief, custom, way of life, etc. is based 基础,根据

ratio
n. a relation between two amounts 比例,比率

dominant
a. 1.(生物)显性的
2. 占优势的

recessive
a. 1.(生物)隐性的
2. having a tendency to go back 后退的

characteristic
n. a special and easily recognized quality 特点,特性

hybrid
a. (animal, plant, etc.) from parents of different species or varieties 杂交的

saccharin
n. 糖精

sweetener
n. 甜味添加剂

controversial
a. likely to cause controversy 有争议的,引起争论的

dispute
n. debate, argument 争论
v. to argue, debate, etc. 争论

generic
n. 非专利药品

vsprep. (versus的缩略语) against 与…相对,与…相比

dishonesty
n. the quality of being dishonest 不诚实,欺骗

collaboratorn. 合作者,协作者

wicked
a. very bad; evil 坏的,缺德的

skepticism
n. a doubting state or habit of mind 怀疑态度

Phrases and Expressions

in action
在起作用,在运转中

at work
在起作用,在运转

leave out
省略,忽视

in sb's favor
对某人有利

in favor of
有利于

leave alone
不干预,让独自呆着

by now
到现在,至今

(be) out of style
不再流行

break out
突然出现,突然发生

make up
虚构,捏造

be subject to
可有…的,需要…的,易受…的,应服从于

(with) a grain of salt
半信半疑(地)

Proper Names

Stephen Jay Gould
斯蒂芬.杰伊.古尔德(人名)

Harvard
(美国)哈佛大学

Samuel George Morton
塞缪尔.乔治.莫顿(人名)

Groggor Mendel
格罗格.门德尔(人名)

Cyril Burt
西里尔.伯特(人名)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
2 radically ITQxu     
ad.根本地,本质地
参考例句:
  • I think we may have to rethink our policies fairly radically. 我认为我们可能要对我们的政策进行根本的反思。
  • The health service must be radically reformed. 公共医疗卫生服务必须进行彻底改革。
3 intentional 65Axb     
adj.故意的,有意(识)的
参考例句:
  • Let me assure you that it was not intentional.我向你保证那不是故意的。
  • His insult was intentional.他的侮辱是有意的。
4 intentionally 7qOzFn     
ad.故意地,有意地
参考例句:
  • I didn't say it intentionally. 我是无心说的。
  • The local authority ruled that he had made himself intentionally homeless and was therefore not entitled to be rehoused. 当地政府裁定他是有意居无定所,因此没有资格再获得提供住房。
5 disastrous 2ujx0     
adj.灾难性的,造成灾害的;极坏的,很糟的
参考例句:
  • The heavy rainstorm caused a disastrous flood.暴雨成灾。
  • Her investment had disastrous consequences.She lost everything she owned.她的投资结果很惨,血本无归。
6 eventual AnLx8     
adj.最后的,结局的,最终的
参考例句:
  • Several schools face eventual closure.几所学校面临最终关闭。
  • Both parties expressed optimism about an eventual solution.双方对问题的最终解决都表示乐观。
7 dilemma Vlzzf     
n.困境,进退两难的局面
参考例句:
  • I am on the horns of a dilemma about the matter.这件事使我进退两难。
  • He was thrown into a dilemma.他陷入困境。
8 influential l7oxK     
adj.有影响的,有权势的
参考例句:
  • He always tries to get in with the most influential people.他总是试图巴结最有影响的人物。
  • He is a very influential man in the government.他在政府中是个很有影响的人物。
9 technological gqiwY     
adj.技术的;工艺的
参考例句:
  • A successful company must keep up with the pace of technological change.一家成功的公司必须得跟上技术变革的步伐。
  • Today,the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements.当今, 随着科技进步,生活节奏不断增快。
10 assessment vO7yu     
n.评价;评估;对财产的估价,被估定的金额
参考例句:
  • This is a very perceptive assessment of the situation.这是一个对该情况的极富洞察力的评价。
  • What is your assessment of the situation?你对时局的看法如何?
11 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
12 specialty SrGy7     
n.(speciality)特性,特质;专业,专长
参考例句:
  • Shell carvings are a specialty of the town.贝雕是该城的特产。
  • His specialty is English literature.他的专业是英国文学。
13 competence NXGzV     
n.能力,胜任,称职
参考例句:
  • This mess is a poor reflection on his competence.这种混乱情况说明他难当此任。
  • These are matters within the competence of the court.这些是法院权限以内的事。
14 standing 2hCzgo     
n.持续,地位;adj.永久的,不动的,直立的,不流动的
参考例句:
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
15 counteract vzlxb     
vt.对…起反作用,对抗,抵消
参考例句:
  • The doctor gave him some medicine to counteract the effect of the poison.医生给他些药解毒。
  • Our work calls for mutual support.We shouldn't counteract each other's efforts.工作要互相支持,不要互相拆台。
16 impartial eykyR     
adj.(in,to)公正的,无偏见的
参考例句:
  • He gave an impartial view of the state of affairs in Ireland.他对爱尔兰的事态发表了公正的看法。
  • Careers officers offer impartial advice to all pupils.就业指导员向所有学生提供公正无私的建议。
17 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
18 gathering ChmxZ     
n.集会,聚会,聚集
参考例句:
  • He called on Mr. White to speak at the gathering.他请怀特先生在集会上讲话。
  • He is on the wing gathering material for his novels.他正忙于为他的小说收集资料。
19 skull CETyO     
n.头骨;颅骨
参考例句:
  • The skull bones fuse between the ages of fifteen and twenty-five.头骨在15至25岁之间长合。
  • He fell out of the window and cracked his skull.他从窗子摔了出去,跌裂了颅骨。
20 skulls d44073bc27628272fdd5bac11adb1ab5     
颅骨( skull的名词复数 ); 脑袋; 脑子; 脑瓜
参考例句:
  • One of the women's skulls found exceeds in capacity that of the average man of today. 现已发现的女性颅骨中,其中有一个的脑容量超过了今天的普通男子。
  • We could make a whole plain white with skulls in the moonlight! 我们便能令月光下的平原变白,遍布白色的骷髅!
21 analyzing be408cc8d92ec310bb6260bc127c162b     
v.分析;分析( analyze的现在分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析n.分析
参考例句:
  • Analyzing the date of some socialist countries presents even greater problem s. 分析某些社会主义国家的统计数据,暴露出的问题甚至更大。 来自辞典例句
  • He undoubtedly was not far off the mark in analyzing its predictions. 当然,他对其预测所作的分析倒也八九不离十。 来自辞典例句
22 analyze RwUzm     
vt.分析,解析 (=analyse)
参考例句:
  • We should analyze the cause and effect of this event.我们应该分析这场事变的因果。
  • The teacher tried to analyze the cause of our failure.老师设法分析我们失败的原因。
23 patchwork yLsx6     
n.混杂物;拼缝物
参考例句:
  • That proposal is nothing else other than a patchwork.那个建议只是一个大杂烩而已。
  • She patched new cloth to the old coat,so It'seemed mere patchwork. 她把新布初到那件旧上衣上,所以那件衣服看上去就象拼凑起来的东西。
24 criteria vafyC     
n.标准
参考例句:
  • The main criterion is value for money.主要的标准是钱要用得划算。
  • There are strict criteria for inclusion in the competition.参赛的标准很严格。
25 thoroughly sgmz0J     
adv.完全地,彻底地,十足地
参考例句:
  • The soil must be thoroughly turned over before planting.一定要先把土地深翻一遍再下种。
  • The soldiers have been thoroughly instructed in the care of their weapons.士兵们都系统地接受过保护武器的训练。
26 discredit fu3xX     
vt.使不可置信;n.丧失信义;不信,怀疑
参考例句:
  • Their behaviour has bought discredit on English football.他们的行为败坏了英国足球运动的声誉。
  • They no longer try to discredit the technology itself.他们不再试图怀疑这种技术本身。
27 discredited 94ada058d09abc9d4a3f8a5e1089019f     
不足信的,不名誉的
参考例句:
  • The reactionary authorities are between two fires and have been discredited. 反动当局弄得进退维谷,不得人心。
  • Her honour was discredited in the newspapers. 她的名声被报纸败坏了。
28 racism pSIxZ     
n.民族主义;种族歧视(意识)
参考例句:
  • He said that racism is endemic in this country.他说种族主义在该国很普遍。
  • Racism causes political instability and violence.种族主义道致政治动荡和暴力事件。
29 dominant usAxG     
adj.支配的,统治的;占优势的;显性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);显性基因
参考例句:
  • The British were formerly dominant in India.英国人从前统治印度。
  • She was a dominant figure in the French film industry.她在法国电影界是个举足轻重的人物。
30 recessive GANzD     
adj.退行的,逆行的,后退的,隐性的
参考例句:
  • Blue eyes are recessive and brown eyes are dominant.蓝眼睛是隐性的;而褐色眼睛是显性的。
  • Sickle-cell anaemia is passed on through a recessive gene.镰状细胞贫血通过隐性基因遗传给后代。
31 hybrid pcBzu     
n.(动,植)杂种,混合物
参考例句:
  • That is a hybrid perpetual rose.那是一株杂交的四季开花的蔷薇。
  • The hybrid was tall,handsome,and intelligent.那混血儿高大、英俊、又聪明。
32 literally 28Wzv     
adv.照字面意义,逐字地;确实
参考例句:
  • He translated the passage literally.他逐字逐句地翻译这段文字。
  • Sometimes she would not sit down till she was literally faint.有时候,她不走到真正要昏厥了,决不肯坐下来。
33 saccharin dYXxo     
n.糖精
参考例句:
  • We use saccharin in substitution for sugar.我们用糖精代替糖。
  • Is saccharin a good substitute for sugar?糖精是糖的良好替代品吗?
34 controversy 6Z9y0     
n.争论,辩论,争吵
参考例句:
  • That is a fact beyond controversy.那是一个无可争论的事实。
  • We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy.我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
35 generic mgixr     
adj.一般的,普通的,共有的
参考例句:
  • I usually buy generic clothes instead of name brands.我通常买普通的衣服,不买名牌。
  • The generic woman appears to have an extraordinary faculty for swallowing the individual.一般妇女在婚后似乎有特别突出的抑制个性的能力。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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