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实用英语综合教程第三册-4

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 4
Text A

FRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think over the questions.

1. Do you think there exist intelligent beings in outer space?
2. Is it possible to communicate with intelligent beings living beyond our solar system? If yes, how?

Now read the passage to learn how some people tried to send messages to other civilizations.

Interstellar
Postcards -- Messages to Space

1 For centuries, a lonely sailor put messages into bottles and threw them into the ocean, hoping someone might find them, thousands of miles away. This is just what we have done, on a much larger scale, with radio signals and with spacecraft. A message to other civilizations has been broadcast, and four spacecraft have been launched that are now leaving the solar system.
2 How do you write a message for someone who knows no human language? In the 1960s, Frank Drake devised a clever approach to the problem. He wrote a short message containing some basic information we would like to know about another civilization, putting it as a series of ones and zeroes of the sort used by computers. Then he mailed copies to his colleagues, asking them to decipher it. They had great difficulty, but the mathematically inclined reader is encouraged to attempt to make sense of this message.
3 If you give up, here's the answer: the message is a television picture. To see the picture, you have to notice that it contains 551 characters. This number is special, the product of 19 and 29. In turn 19 and 29 are even more special numbers, called prime numbers, numbers that cannot be evenly divided by any other numbers except one or themselves. Thus 551 equals 19 times 29, and cannot be written any other way.
4 This means that a rectangular picture can be built up from the 551 digits2 by putting them down in 29 rows of 19 characters, putting black squares where there are ones and white squares where there are zeroes. The picture shows a crude image of a humanoid, together with information about chemistry, astronomy and biology.
5 Admittedly, it's hard to understand his message, but a committee of scientists could figure it out. In fact, he found that individual scientists usually were able to understand only the parts of the message related to their own specialties3. If we were not limited to short messages, we could send more detailed4 images and avoid the uncertainties5 of this crude picture, and in fact, since then, increasingly sophisticated messages have been sent into space.
6 Our first deliberate note in a space-bottle was on NASA's Pioneer 10 spacecraft. It was designed to be the first vessel6 to fly by the planet Jupiter, but it had a distinction that made it one of the most extraordinary events in human history: Pioneer 10 was the first object from our civilization that would leave the solar system forever.
7 In giving the rocket enough of a boost to get to Jupiter, we left it with enough energy to continue sailing forever. It would not only have escape velocity7 from the Earth, it would have escape velocity from the Sun, after Jupiter's gravitational pull.
8 On realizing that Pioneer 10 would become the first object in the history of the human species to leave our planetary system, space writer Eric Burgess came up with the idea that we send a message to any alien civilization that might find the spacecraft, even millions or billions of years in the future.
9 Burgess and Richard Hoagland contacted Carl Sagan, who greeted the idea enthusiastically. Sagan and Frank Drake designed a plaque8 that any advanced being should be able to decipher. Sagan's wife at the time, Linda Salzman Sagan, drew the human figures for the plaque. NASA approved the idea and etched it onto a gold-anodized aluminum9 plaque mounted on a part of the spacecraft that is shielded from interstellar dust.
10 Pioneer 10 and its twin, Pioneer 11, with the same plaque, were successfully launched in 1972, starting their interstellar postcards on the longest journey in history.

New Words

interstellar
a. happening or done between the stars 星际的

postcard
n. 明信片

sailor
n. a person with a job on a ship or a member of a navy 水手,水兵

spacecraft
n. a vehicle able to travel in space 宇宙飞船,航空器

civilization
n. 1. 文明世界
2. 文明,文化

launch
v. 1. to send into the air or space 发射
2. 发动(战争等),开展(运动、斗争等)

devise
v. to plan or invent esp. cleverly 设计,发明

colleague
n. 同事

decipherv. to discover the meaning of (something difficult or secret)破译

mathematically
ad. 数学(上)地

incline
v. to cause someone to feel, think, etc. 使有意于,使倾向于

inclined
a. 倾向于…的,对…有好感的,有…的意向的

prime
a. 1. 素数的,质数的
2. 最初的,基本的
evenly
ad. 偶数地

rectangular
a. 长方形的,矩形的

digit1
n. any of the numbers from 0 to 9 (0到9中的任何一个)数字

image
n. 1. 像,图象
2. 形象,典型

humanoid
n. 类人动物(尤指原人或科幻小说中的外星人)

astronomy
n. the science of the stars and planets 天文学
admittedly
ad. it must be admitted (that) 诚然,公认地

specialty10
n. (AmE) a special field of work or study (美语)专业,专长

uncertainty11
n. the state or quality of being uncertain 不确定,不稳定

sophisticated
a. 1. 复杂的,精密的,尖端的
2. 老于世故的
deliberate
a. 1. carefully considered 深思熟虑的
2. on purpose 故意的

space-bottle
n. 太空漂流瓶

Jupiter
n. 木星

distinction
n. 1. the quality of being unusual 特点
2. difference 差别

rocket
n. 火箭

boost
n. something that helps to increase force, power, etc. 推动(力)

velocity
n. speed in a certain direction; rate of movement 速率,速度

gravitational
a. (万有)引力的

planetary
a. of or like a planet 行星的

alien
a. 1. foreign 外国的
2. different in nature 性质不同的

enthusiastically
ad. 热情地,极感兴趣地

plaque
n. 饰板

approve
v. to agree officially to 赞同

etch
v. (用酸类或加热法在金属、玻璃、木头或塑料上)蚀刻

anodize
v. 对…作阳极处理,对…作阳极氧化

aluminum
n. 铝

twin
n. 1. each of a closely related pair 两个非常相像或紧密相关的人或物之一
2. 孪生儿之一

Phrases and Expressions

on a large scale
大规模地

make sense of
理解,弄懂

in turn
转过来,依次

together with
和…一起,和…同时

figure out
理解,明白,想出

come up with 提出,想出

shield ...from
保护…使免受

Proper Names

Frank Drake
弗兰克.德雷克(人名)

NASA
(美国)国家航空和航天局(National Aeronautics12 and Space Administration)

Pioneer 10
先锋10号宇宙飞船

Eric Burgess
埃里克.伯吉斯(人名)

Richard Hoagland 理查德.霍格兰(人名)

Carl Sagan
卡尔.萨根(人名)

Linda Salzman Sagan
琳达.萨尔茨曼.萨根(人名)


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think about the questions.

When do you think is the best time for children to learn science? Why?

Now read the passage and try to find out why the author thinks it is important for children to learn science.

Why Should Children Learn Science?

1 Learning science helps children to develop ways of understanding the world around them. For this they have to build up concepts which help them link their experiences together; they must learn ways of gaining and organizing information and of applying and testing ideas. This contributes not only to children's ability to make better sense of things around them, but prepares them to deal more effectively with wider decision-making and problem-solving in their lives. Science is as basic a part of education as numeracy and literary; it daily becomes more important as the complexity13 of technology increases and touches every part of our lives.
2 Learning science can bring a double benefit because science is both a method and a set of ideas; both a process and a product. The processes of science provide a way of finding out information, testing ideas and seeking explanations. The products of science are ideas which can be applied14 in helping15 to understand new experiences.
3 The word can is used advisedly here; it indicates that there is the potential to bring these benefits but no guarantee that they will be realized without taking the appropriate steps. In learning science the development of the process side and the product side must go hand in hand; they are totally interdependent. This has important implications for the kinds of activities children need to encounter in their education. But before pursuing these implications, there are still two further important points which underline the value of including science in primary education.
4 The first is that whether we teach children science or not, they will be developing ideas about the world around from their earliest years. If these ideas are based on casual observation, non-investigated events and the acceptance of hearsay16, then they are likely to be non-scientific, "everyday" ideas. There are plenty of such ideas around for children to pick up. My mother believed (and perhaps still does despite my efforts) that if the sun shines through the window on to the fire it puts the fire out, that cheese maggots (a common encounter in her youth when food was sold unwrapped) are made of cheese and develop spontaneously from it, that placing a lid on a pan of boiling water makes it boil at a lower temperature, that electricity travels more easily if the wires are not twisted. Similar myths still abound17 and no doubt influence children's attempts to make sense of their experience. As well as hearsay, left to themselves, children will also form some ideas which seem unscientific; for example, that to make something move requires a force but to stop it needs no force. All these ideas could easily be put to the test; children's science education should make children want to do it. Then they not only have the chance to modify their ideas, but they learn to be sceptical about so-called "truths" until these have been put to the test. Eventually they will realize that all ideas are working hypotheses which can never be proved right, but are useful as long as they fit the evidence of experience and experiment.
5 The importance of beginning this learning early in children's education is twofold. On the one hand the children begin to realize that useful ideas must fit the evidence; on the other hand they are less likely to form and to accept everyday ideas which can be shown to be in direct conflict with evidence and scientific concepts. There are research findings to show that the longer the non-scientific ideas have been held, the more difficult they are to change. Many children come to secondary science, not merely lacking the scientific ideas they need, but possessing alternative ideas which are a barrier to understanding their science lessons.
6 The second point about starting to learn science, and to learn scientifically, at the primary level is connected with attitudes to the subject. There is evidence that attitudes to science seem to be formed earlier than to most other subjects and children tend to have taken a definite position with regard to their liking18 of the subject by the age of 11 or 12. Given the remarks just made about the clash between the non-scientific ideas that many children bring to their secondary science lessons and the scientific ideas they are assumed to have, it is not surprising that many find science confusing and difficult. Such reactions undoubtedly19 affect their later performance in science. Although there is a lesson here for secondary science, it is clear that primary science can do much to avoid this crisis at the primary/secondary interface20.

New Words

concept
n. a thought, idea, or principle 概念,观念,思想

contribute
v. 1. to help to cause 有助于,促成
2. 贡献出
3. 捐款

numeracy
n. 识数,计算能力

literacy
n. 识字,读写能力

guarantee
n. a promise that certain conditions will be fulfilled 担保,保证v. 保证,担保

dependent
a. that depends on 依靠的,依赖的

interdependent
a. depending on each other; necessary to each other 互相依赖的,互相依存的

encounter
v. 1. to meet; be faced by (something bad) 遇到,遭到
2. to meet unexpectedly 偶尔碰到

pursue
v. 1. 继续,进行
2. 追赶,追踪

observation
n. 1. an action of noticing or watching 观察
2. the ability to notice things 观察力

acceptance
n. 1. approval; favour 赞同
2. the act of accepting or of being accepted 接受,赞同

hearsay
n. things which are said rather than proved 风闻,传闻

despite
prep. in spite of 不管,尽管

maggot
n. 蛆

wrap
v. to cover 包

unwrapped
a. 未包装的

spontaneously
ad. 自发地

lid
n. a cover for a container 盖子

twist
v. to change shape by bending, curling, turning, etc. 扭

myth
n. 1. a widely believed false story or idea (没有事实根据的)虚构信念、理论或观点
2. 古代神话

abound
v. to exist in large numbers or great quantity 大量存在

unscientific
a. not scientific 非科学的,不符合科学原理的

modifyv. to change slightly 修改

sceptical
a. doubting; distrustful 表示怀疑的

hypothesis
n. (pl. hypotheses) 假设

twofold
a. 1. 双重的,有两部分的
2. double 两倍的

conflict
n. the meeting of opposing ideas or beliefs 抵触,冲突

secondarya. 1. coming after what is first 第二(位)的,中等的
2. 次要的,副的

scientifically
ad. 科学地

remark
n. a spoken or written opinion 评论,言辞

undoubtedly
ad. 无疑地

interface
n. a place or area where different things meet and have an effect on each other (两个独立系统互相衔接并互相影响的)接合部位,接口

Phrases and Expressions

build up
逐步建立,发展

contribute to
有助于,促成,为…作出贡献

take (the appropriate) steps
采取(适当)步骤

put out
熄灭,扑灭

put...to the test
使经受考验,检验

one the one hand...on the other hand
一方面…,另一方面…

in conflict with
(与…)不一致

with regard to
关于,在…方面


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 digit avKxY     
n.零到九的阿拉伯数字,手指,脚趾
参考例句:
  • Her telephone number differs from mine by one digit.她的电话号码和我的只差一个数字。
  • Many animals have five digits.许多动物有5趾。
2 digits a2aacbd15b619a9b9e5581a6c33bd2b1     
n.数字( digit的名词复数 );手指,足趾
参考例句:
  • The number 1000 contains four digits. 1000是四位数。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The number 410 contains three digits. 数字 410 中包括三个数目字。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
3 specialties 4f19670e38d5e63c785879e223b3bde0     
n.专门,特性,特别;专业( specialty的名词复数 );特性;特制品;盖印的契约
参考例句:
  • Great Books are popular, not pedantic. They are not written by specialists about specialties for specialists. 名著绝不引经据典,艰深难懂,而是通俗易读。它们不是专家为专业人员撰写的专业书籍。 来自英汉 - 翻译样例 - 文学
  • Brain drains may represent a substantial reduction in some labor force skills and specialties. 智力外流可能表示某种劳动力技能和特长大量减少。 来自辞典例句
4 detailed xuNzms     
adj.详细的,详尽的,极注意细节的,完全的
参考例句:
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我们的出版物有一份详细的目录备索。
5 uncertainties 40ee42d4a978cba8d720415c7afff06a     
无把握( uncertainty的名词复数 ); 不确定; 变化不定; 无把握、不确定的事物
参考例句:
  • One of the uncertainties of military duty is that you never know when you might suddenly get posted away. 任军职不稳定的因素之一是你永远不知道什么时候会突然被派往它处。
  • Uncertainties affecting peace and development are on the rise. 影响和平与发展的不确定因素在增加。 来自汉英非文学 - 十六大报告
6 vessel 4L1zi     
n.船舶;容器,器皿;管,导管,血管
参考例句:
  • The vessel is fully loaded with cargo for Shanghai.这艘船满载货物驶往上海。
  • You should put the water into a vessel.你应该把水装入容器中。
7 velocity rLYzx     
n.速度,速率
参考例句:
  • Einstein's theory links energy with mass and velocity of light.爱因斯坦的理论把能量同质量和光速联系起来。
  • The velocity of light is about 300000 kilometres per second.光速约为每秒300000公里。
8 plaque v25zB     
n.饰板,匾,(医)血小板
参考例句:
  • There is a commemorative plaque to the artist in the village hall.村公所里有一块纪念该艺术家的牌匾。
  • Some Latin words were engraved on the plaque. 牌匾上刻着些拉丁文。
9 aluminum 9xhzP     
n.(aluminium)铝
参考例句:
  • The aluminum sheets cannot be too much thicker than 0.04 inches.铝板厚度不能超过0.04英寸。
  • During the launch phase,it would ride in a protective aluminum shell.在发射阶段,它盛在一只保护的铝壳里。
10 specialty SrGy7     
n.(speciality)特性,特质;专业,专长
参考例句:
  • Shell carvings are a specialty of the town.贝雕是该城的特产。
  • His specialty is English literature.他的专业是英国文学。
11 uncertainty NlFwK     
n.易变,靠不住,不确知,不确定的事物
参考例句:
  • Her comments will add to the uncertainty of the situation.她的批评将会使局势更加不稳定。
  • After six weeks of uncertainty,the strain was beginning to take its toll.6个星期的忐忑不安后,压力开始产生影响了。
12 aeronautics BKVyg     
n.航空术,航空学
参考例句:
  • National Aeronautics and Space undertakings have made great progress.国家的航空航天事业有了很大的发展。
  • He devoted every spare moment to aeronautics.他把他所有多余的时间用在航空学上。
13 complexity KO9z3     
n.复杂(性),复杂的事物
参考例句:
  • Only now did he understand the full complexity of the problem.直到现在他才明白这一问题的全部复杂性。
  • The complexity of the road map puzzled me.错综复杂的公路图把我搞糊涂了。
14 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
15 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
16 hearsay 4QTzB     
n.谣传,风闻
参考例句:
  • They started to piece the story together from hearsay.他们开始根据传闻把事情的经过一点点拼湊起来。
  • You are only supposing this on hearsay.You have no proof.你只是根据传闻想像而已,并没有证据。
17 abound wykz4     
vi.大量存在;(in,with)充满,富于
参考例句:
  • Oranges abound here all the year round.这里一年到头都有很多橙子。
  • But problems abound in the management of State-owned companies.但是在国有企业的管理中仍然存在不少问题。
18 liking mpXzQ5     
n.爱好;嗜好;喜欢
参考例句:
  • The word palate also means taste or liking.Palate这个词也有“口味”或“嗜好”的意思。
  • I must admit I have no liking for exaggeration.我必须承认我不喜欢夸大其词。
19 undoubtedly Mfjz6l     
adv.确实地,无疑地
参考例句:
  • It is undoubtedly she who has said that.这话明明是她说的。
  • He is undoubtedly the pride of China.毫无疑问他是中国的骄傲。
20 interface e5Wx1     
n.接合部位,分界面;v.(使)互相联系
参考例句:
  • My computer has a network interface,which allows me to get to other computers.我的计算机有网络接口可以与其它计算机连在一起。
  • This program has perspicuous interface and extensive application. 该程序界面明了,适用范围广。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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