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实用英语综合教程第三册-9

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 9
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think over the questions.

1. Do you know who Martin Luther King Jr. was?
2. When and where was the speech "I have a dream" given?

Now read the passage.

"I Have a Dream"
-- 30 Years Ago and Now

1 Few issues are as clear as the one that drew a quarter-million Americans to the Lincoln Memorial 30 years ago this August 28. "America has given the Negro people a bad check," the nation was told. It had promised equality but delivered second-class citizenship1, a back-of-the-bus status because of race. Few orators3 could define the injustice4 as eloquently6 as Martin Luther King Jr., whose words on that sweltering day remain etched in the public consciousness: "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character."
2 The March on Washington had been the dream of a black labor7 leader, A. Philip Randolph, who, like the NAACP's Roy Wilkins, was a powerful figure in the civil-rights movement. But it was King who emerged as the symbol of the black people's struggle. His "I have a dream" speech struck such an emotional chord that recordings8 of it were made, sold, bootlegged and resold within weeks of its delivery. The magic of the moment was that it gave white America a new perspective on black America and pushed civil rights forward on the nation's agenda.
3 When the march was planned by a coalition9 of civil-rights, union and church leaders, nothing quite like it had ever been seen. Tens of thousands of blacks streamed into the nation's capital by car, bus, train and on foot, an invading army of the disenfranchised singing freedom songs and demanding rights. By their very numbers, they forced the world's greatest democracy to face an embarrassing question: How could America continue on a course that denied so many the simply amenities10 of a water fountain or a lunch counter? Or the most essential element of democracy -- the vote?
4 Three decades later, we still wrestle11 with questions of black and white, but now they are confused by shades of gray. The gap persists between the quality of black life and white life. The black urban underclass has grown more entrenched12. Bias13 remains14. And the nation is jarred from time to time by sensational15 cases stemming from racial hate. But the clarity of the 1963 issue is gone; No longer do governors stand in schoolhouse doors. Nor do signs bar blacks from restaurants or theaters. It is illegal to deny African-Americans the vote. There are 7 500 black elected officials, including 338 mayors and 40 members of Congress, plus a large black middle class. And we are past the point when white America must look to one eloquent5 leader to answer the question "What does the Negro want?" The change is reflected in the variety of causes on the wish list of this year's anniversary March on Washington. Health care reform. Job training. Religious freedom for American Indians. Statehood for the District of Columbia. Head start for young people. Security for the disabled. And an end to racism16.
5 The compelling issue of 1963 -- discrimination -- today is more a matter of dark hearts than evil laws. The legislative17 agenda of modern-day marchers is American, not black.

New Words

memorial
n. something made to remind people of an event, person, etc. 纪念馆,纪念碑

Negro
n. a black person 黑人

equality
n. the state of being equal 平等

citizenship
n. the state of being a citizen 公民(或市民)身份

status
n. 地位,身份

orator2
n. a person who makes speeches (esp. a good speaker) 演说家

define
v. 1. to show or explain the qualities, nature, duties, etc. of使明确,使清楚
2. to give the meaning(s) of (a word or idea) 给…下定义

injustice
n. unfairness 不公正

eloquently
ad. 雄辩地,有说服力地

sweltering
a. very hot, causing unpleasantness 闷热的,热得难受的

consciousness
n. 1. 觉悟,意识
2. 知觉

civil-rights
a. 1. 为了民权事业的,促进民权事业的
2. 公民权的

chord
n. 1. 心弦
2. 和弦,和音

bootleg
v. to make, carry, or sell unlawfully 非法制造、携带或出售

delivery
n. 传送

magic
n. a strange influence or power 魔力,魅力

perspective
n. (观察问题的)视角,观点

agenda
n. a list of things to be done 议事日程

coalition
n. a union of political parties for a special purpose 同盟或临时结成的联盟

stream
v. to move in a continuous flowing mass 涌(出)

invade
v. 1. to enter in large numbers 大批进入
2. to go or come into and attack so as to take control of (a country, city, etc.)侵略

disenfranchised
a. 被剥夺公民权的,被剥夺选举权的

democracy
n. 民主,民主政治,民主政体

deny
v. 1. to refuse to give or allow 拒绝给予
2. to refuse to accept 否认

amenity18
n. a thing or condition that make life pleasant 舒适;生活福利设施

vote
n. 1. 选举权,表决权
2. 选举
wrestle
v. to struggle 努力解决,全力对付

underclass
n. 下层社会

entrenched
a. firmly established 确立的,处于牢固地位的

bias
n. 偏见

jar
v. 1. 刺激,使感不快
2. 不和谐,不一致

stem
v. 起源,发生

racial
a. connected with one's race 种族的

clarity
n. clearness 清晰,明晰

governor
n. 1.(组织、机构的)主管人员
2. 统治者,管辖者

elect
v. to choose (someone) by voting 选举

mayor
n. 市长

anniversary
n. 周年纪念日
a. 每年的,周年的

statehood
n. the condition of being one of the states making up a nation (美国)州的地位,州一级

district
n. 行政区,区

disabled
a. 丧失能力的,有残疾的

compel
v. to make (a person or thing) do something by force 强制,强迫

discrimination
n. treating different things or people in different ways 歧视

legislative
a. 1. 由法律规定的,根据法律产生的
2. having the power or duty to make laws 立法的

Phrases and Expressions

strike a chord
拨动心弦

wrestle with
努力解决,全力对付

Proper Names

the Lincoln Memorial
林肯纪念堂
Martin Luther King Jr.
马丁.路德.金(人名)

the March on Washington
“向华盛顿进军”(1963)

A. Philip Randolph
艾.菲利普.伦道夫(人名)

NAACP
(美国)有色人种协进会(=National Association for the Advancement19 of Colored People

Roy Wilkins
罗伊.威尔金斯(人名)

the District of Columbia
哥伦比亚特区

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
The passage you are going to read is entitled "The Key Issue for Women". Which of the issues do you think is/are the key one(s) for women in China?

1. Education.
2. Health.
3. Violence against women.
4. Employment.
5. Equality.
6. Social position.

Now compare your answers with your neighbors'.

The Key Issue for Women

1 "Equality between women and men is no longer a negotiable issue." These are strong words of Gertrude Mongella of Tanzania, the Secretary General of the Beijing Women's Conference. She says equality is at the centre of everything which touches women worldwide.
2 In many societies women are invisible. They grow the crops, bring up the children, take care of the home, sell food they produce in their gardens and work in the informal sector20 -- that sector, which doesn't get counted when a country's Gross Domestic Product is calculated. Poor women living on the margin21 of society, refugee women and migrant women are usually more vulnerable than men in the same circumstances. So unless their special needs are recognised and addressed, many of the world's women will continue to be on the bottom, worker ants toiling23 in appalling24 conditions.
3 Education is a major need for women and girls. Today, in spite of repeated calls at international conferences, education for them is often out of reach, or not provided, and is frequently unequal. Educational opportunities for women are limited at best.
4 Women's health needs have in the past often been overlooked, or assumed to be the same as men's. At the Cairo conference last year it was agreed that the consequence of unsafe abortions26 are part of overall health care. The conferences recognise that women have specific health needs which must be understood, and that women must have full access to adequate health care services.
5 An old phenomenon but one which has only been recognised as a social ill in recent years is violence against women. Generally this means domestic violence, as women are far more likely to be injured by their husbands or male partners than they are to initiate27 physical attacks. Violence against women is found throughout the world.
6 Another fairly new realisation is that women suffer greatly in times of war. They lose their homes, conflicts disrupt societies and civilian28 jobs disappear. In the increasing number of ethnic29 conflicts women and children are just as likely to become victims as men in the armed forces are.
7 The Beijing Programme of Action also draws attention to a key problem, women's lack of power in decision-making at all levels. In the home women may make the important decisions, but they rarely share power with men in their communities, and they are seldom asked for the opinions when policies are formulated30. Nor do most societies actively31 promote the advancement of women.
8 Women's central role in managing natural resources and protecting the environment has been overlooked more often than it has been acknowledged. Women are the ones who grow most of the food crops in developing countries, and they know from their hands-on experience when agricultural techniques upset the environmental balance. As in all the other areas of setting policy, their experience needs to be drawn32 into the mainstream33. Women can't be overlooked when environmentally safe sustainable development plans are being worked out. If they are left out of this process, the policies will lose some of their impact. In a "worst case" situation, the policies will fail because they are not grounded in women's experience going back over generations.
9 "As long as women remain unequal they can't have access to resources, they can never participate in political decision-making, they can't make their own choices in life. That is the bottom line." Mrs Mongella says women round the world are all concerned about equality. In developing countries, in states emerging as industrial powers, in the countries of the West, women are looking for action, action she sometimes calls a revolution.

New Words

negotiable
a. that can be negociated 可谈判的,可磋商的

invisible
a. 1. that can not be seen 看不见的
2. 难觉察的,难辨认的

formal
a. according to accepted rules or customs 正式的

informal
a. not formal 非正式的,非正规的

gross
n. the whole 总量,总额
a. total 总的

domestic
a. 1. of one's own country 本国的,国内的
2. of the family 家的,家庭的

margin
n. 1. the area on the outside edge of a large area 边沿,边缘
2. 页边的空白

refugee
n. 逃难者,避难者

migrant
a. 1. (应季节性劳动需要而)流动的
2. 迁移的,移居的
n. 1. 移民
2. 候鸟

vulnerable
a. (of a person or his feelings) easily harmed or hurt; sensitive 易受伤害的,敏感的

ant
n. 蚂蚁

toil22
v. to work hard 辛勤工作,辛苦从事

appalling
a. 令人震惊的,骇人听闻的

overlook
v. 1. to miss, fail to see or notice 忽视,忽略
2. to have a view of something from above 俯瞰,眺望

abortion25
n. 流产

injure
v. to hurt 伤害,使受伤

initiate
v. 开始,发起

ethnic
a. of or related to a racial group 种族的

victim
n. a person suffering injury, pain, loss, etc. 受害者

advancement
n. improvement 前进,改进

central
a. main; of greatest importance 主要的;最重要的

hands-on
a. 亲身实践的

mainstream
n. 注流,主要倾向

sustain
v. 1. to keep in continuance; maintain 保持
2. to bear 承受,支撑

sustainable
a. 1. 能保持的,能持续的
2. 能支撑得住的

Phrases and Expressions

out of reach
得不到的

at best
就乐观的方面来看,至多,充其量

have access to
有…的机会,有…权利

in times of
在…时候

draw attention to
把注意力引向

work out
制订出,产生出

Proper Names

Gertrude Mongella 葛杜鲁德.蒙格拉(人名)

Tanzania
坦桑尼亚(东非国家)

the Beijing Women's Conference
北京世界妇女大会

Gross Domestic Product
国内生产总值(GDP)

Cairo
开罗(埃及首都)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 citizenship AV3yA     
n.市民权,公民权,国民的义务(身份)
参考例句:
  • He was born in Sweden,but he doesn't have Swedish citizenship.他在瑞典出生,但没有瑞典公民身分。
  • Ten years later,she chose to take Australian citizenship.十年后,她选择了澳大利亚国籍。
2 orator hJwxv     
n.演说者,演讲者,雄辩家
参考例句:
  • He was so eloquent that he cut down the finest orator.他能言善辩,胜过最好的演说家。
  • The orator gestured vigorously while speaking.这位演讲者讲话时用力地做手势。
3 orators 08c37f31715969550bbb2f814266d9d2     
n.演说者,演讲家( orator的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The hired orators continued to pour forth their streams of eloquence. 那些雇来的演说家继续滔滔不绝地施展辩才。 来自辞典例句
  • Their ears are too full of bugles and drums and the fine words from stay-at-home orators. 人们的耳朵被军号声和战声以及呆在这的演说家们的漂亮言辞塞得太满了。 来自飘(部分)
4 injustice O45yL     
n.非正义,不公正,不公平,侵犯(别人的)权利
参考例句:
  • They complained of injustice in the way they had been treated.他们抱怨受到不公平的对待。
  • All his life he has been struggling against injustice.他一生都在与不公正现象作斗争。
5 eloquent ymLyN     
adj.雄辩的,口才流利的;明白显示出的
参考例句:
  • He was so eloquent that he cut down the finest orator.他能言善辩,胜过最好的演说家。
  • These ruins are an eloquent reminder of the horrors of war.这些废墟形象地提醒人们不要忘记战争的恐怖。
6 eloquently eloquently     
adv. 雄辩地(有口才地, 富于表情地)
参考例句:
  • I was toasted by him most eloquently at the dinner. 进餐时他口若悬河地向我祝酒。
  • The poet eloquently expresses the sense of lost innocence. 诗人动人地表达了失去天真的感觉。
7 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
8 recordings 22f9946cd05973582e73e4e3c0239bb7     
n.记录( recording的名词复数 );录音;录像;唱片
参考例句:
  • a boxed set of original recordings 一套盒装原声录音带
  • old jazz recordings reissued on CD 以激光唱片重新发行的老爵士乐
9 coalition pWlyi     
n.结合体,同盟,结合,联合
参考例句:
  • The several parties formed a coalition.这几个政党组成了政治联盟。
  • Coalition forces take great care to avoid civilian casualties.联盟军队竭尽全力避免造成平民伤亡。
10 amenities Bz5zCt     
n.令人愉快的事物;礼仪;礼节;便利设施;礼仪( amenity的名词复数 );便利设施;(环境等的)舒适;(性情等的)愉快
参考例句:
  • The campsite is close to all local amenities. 营地紧靠当地所有的便利设施。
  • Parks and a theatre are just some of the town's local amenities. 公园和戏院只是市镇娱乐设施的一部分。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 wrestle XfLwD     
vi.摔跤,角力;搏斗;全力对付
参考例句:
  • He taught his little brother how to wrestle.他教他小弟弟如何摔跤。
  • We have to wrestle with difficulties.我们必须同困难作斗争。
12 entrenched MtGzk8     
adj.确立的,不容易改的(风俗习惯)
参考例句:
  • Television seems to be firmly entrenched as the number one medium for national advertising.电视看来要在全国广告媒介中牢固地占据头等位置。
  • If the enemy dares to attack us in these entrenched positions,we will make short work of them.如果敌人胆敢进攻我们固守的阵地,我们就消灭他们。
13 bias 0QByQ     
n.偏见,偏心,偏袒;vt.使有偏见
参考例句:
  • They are accusing the teacher of political bias in his marking.他们在指控那名教师打分数有政治偏见。
  • He had a bias toward the plan.他对这项计划有偏见。
14 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
15 sensational Szrwi     
adj.使人感动的,非常好的,轰动的,耸人听闻的
参考例句:
  • Papers of this kind are full of sensational news reports.这类报纸满是耸人听闻的新闻报道。
  • Their performance was sensational.他们的演出妙极了。
16 racism pSIxZ     
n.民族主义;种族歧视(意识)
参考例句:
  • He said that racism is endemic in this country.他说种族主义在该国很普遍。
  • Racism causes political instability and violence.种族主义道致政治动荡和暴力事件。
17 legislative K9hzG     
n.立法机构,立法权;adj.立法的,有立法权的
参考例句:
  • Congress is the legislative branch of the U.S. government.国会是美国政府的立法部门。
  • Today's hearing was just the first step in the legislative process.今天的听证会只是展开立法程序的第一步。
18 amenity wLuy2     
n.pl.生活福利设施,文娱康乐场所;(不可数)愉快,适意
参考例句:
  • The amenity of his manners won him many friends.他和悦的态度替他赢得很多朋友。
  • Teachers' good amenity and culture have important educational value.教师良好的礼仪修养具有重要的教育价值。
19 advancement tzgziL     
n.前进,促进,提升
参考例句:
  • His new contribution to the advancement of physiology was well appreciated.他对生理学发展的新贡献获得高度赞赏。
  • The aim of a university should be the advancement of learning.大学的目标应是促进学术。
20 sector yjczYn     
n.部门,部分;防御地段,防区;扇形
参考例句:
  • The export sector will aid the economic recovery. 出口产业将促进经济复苏。
  • The enemy have attacked the British sector.敌人已进攻英国防区。
21 margin 67Mzp     
n.页边空白;差额;余地,余裕;边,边缘
参考例句:
  • We allowed a margin of 20 minutes in catching the train.我们有20分钟的余地赶火车。
  • The village is situated at the margin of a forest.村子位于森林的边缘。
22 toil WJezp     
vi.辛劳工作,艰难地行动;n.苦工,难事
参考例句:
  • The wealth comes from the toil of the masses.财富来自大众的辛勤劳动。
  • Every single grain is the result of toil.每一粒粮食都来之不易。
23 toiling 9e6f5a89c05478ce0b1205d063d361e5     
长时间或辛苦地工作( toil的现在分词 ); 艰难缓慢地移动,跋涉
参考例句:
  • The fiery orator contrasted the idle rich with the toiling working classes. 这位激昂的演说家把无所事事的富人同终日辛劳的工人阶级进行了对比。
  • She felt like a beetle toiling in the dust. She was filled with repulsion. 她觉得自己像只甲虫在地里挣扎,心中涌满愤恨。
24 appalling iNwz9     
adj.骇人听闻的,令人震惊的,可怕的
参考例句:
  • The search was hampered by appalling weather conditions.恶劣的天气妨碍了搜寻工作。
  • Nothing can extenuate such appalling behaviour.这种骇人听闻的行径罪无可恕。
25 abortion ZzjzxH     
n.流产,堕胎
参考例句:
  • She had an abortion at the women's health clinic.她在妇女保健医院做了流产手术。
  • A number of considerations have led her to have a wilful abortion.多种考虑使她执意堕胎。
26 abortions 4b6623953f87087bb025549b49471574     
n.小产( abortion的名词复数 );小产胎儿;(计划)等中止或夭折;败育
参考例句:
  • The Venerable Master: By not having abortions, by not killing living beings. 上人:不堕胎、不杀生。 来自互联网
  • Conclusion Chromosome abnormality is one of the causes of spontaneous abortions. 结论:染色体异常是导致反复自然流产的原因之一。 来自互联网
27 initiate z6hxz     
vt.开始,创始,发动;启蒙,使入门;引入
参考例句:
  • A language teacher should initiate pupils into the elements of grammar.语言老师应该把基本语法教给学生。
  • They wanted to initiate a discussion on economics.他们想启动一次经济学讨论。
28 civilian uqbzl     
adj.平民的,民用的,民众的
参考例句:
  • There is no reliable information about civilian casualties.关于平民的伤亡还没有确凿的信息。
  • He resigned his commission to take up a civilian job.他辞去军职而从事平民工作。
29 ethnic jiAz3     
adj.人种的,种族的,异教徒的
参考例句:
  • This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。
  • The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.这一方案很有可能只会加剧种族冲突。
30 formulated cfc86c2c7185ae3f93c4d8a44e3cea3c     
v.构想出( formulate的过去式和过去分词 );规划;确切地阐述;用公式表示
参考例句:
  • He claims that the writer never consciously formulated his own theoretical position. 他声称该作家从未有意识地阐明他自己的理论见解。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • This idea can be formulated in two different ways. 这个意思可以有两种说法。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
31 actively lzezni     
adv.积极地,勤奋地
参考例句:
  • During this period all the students were actively participating.在这节课中所有的学生都积极参加。
  • We are actively intervening to settle a quarrel.我们正在积极调解争执。
32 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,紧张的
参考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
33 mainstream AoCzh9     
n.(思想或行为的)主流;adj.主流的
参考例句:
  • Their views lie outside the mainstream of current medical opinion.他们的观点不属于当今医学界观点的主流。
  • Polls are still largely reflects the mainstream sentiment.民调还在很大程度上反映了社会主流情绪。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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