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实用英语综合教程第一册-2

时间:2007-01-09 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 2
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, decide whether the statements are True or False.

1. Rock and Roll comes mainly from black African music.
2. An electric guitar is a necessary instrument in Rock and Roll music.
3. The King of Rock and Roll is John Winston Lenon(约翰.列农).

Now read the passage to check your answers.

Rock and Roll

1. It is difficult to say exactly how the music we call "rock" or "rock and roll" began. Its roots go back to many different countries and many different kinds of music and musicians.
2. Rock music developed mainly from the interaction1 of black African and white European music. The Europeans and the African slaves who came to America during the seventeenth century each had their own different kinds of music. Black Africans used heavy drumbeats, a rough singing voice, and the calling of a melody2 and answer of a chorus3. The white Europeans, mostly English and Scots, used a stronger melody, a less heavy beat, and instruments such as guitars, horns, and fiddles5. The history of rock and roll is the history of how rock evolved7 from these two traditions.
3. From the seventeenth to the twentieth century, musicians in the southern United States developed two new forms of music: the blues8, usually played by blacks, and country music, played by whites. Black musicians sang the blues accompanied by a guitar. This music was similar to work songs: stories of troubles and pain, with lines that were repeated several times. The words "rock and roll" probably came from the black churches in the South, where people sang spiritual music and danced to the strong rhythms10, which they called "rocking and reeling12". At the same time, whites were playing country music, which was mostly traditional dancing music and slow songs that told sad stories. The singers were accompanied by string instruments such as fiddles and guitars.
4. During this time blues and country musicians had some influence on each other, but the influence grew stronger after phonograph records became popular in the late nineteenth century. The birth of the electric guitar changed country and blues music in the 1940's. The sound of the electric guitar would become the sound of rock and roll. No one thinks of early rock and roll without thinking of Elvis Presley, the "King of Rock and Roll". Elvis was an ordinary boy. He grew up poor, learned13 to sing in church, and became a truck driver when he graduated from high school.
5. No one thought that this young man with the guitar would change popular culture. But after he recorded two blues songs in Memphis, everything changed. He sang throughout the South, and teenagers went crazy over his amazing voice and his attractive performances. His music was an exciting mixture of white country and black blues. With his long hair and tight pants, he became a teenage idol14. In two years, he was a national phenomenon.
6. Elvis's career then went downhill. He went into the army, then stopped performing and made a series of bad movies. He continued to record, but his music rarely had the life of his early songs. He remained the symbol of rock and roll, however, not only in the United States but also around the world. He died in 1977, at the age of 42, but his music did not die with him. Rock music continues to develop and change, but the heart and soul of rock is the same heart and soul that Elvis expressed.

New Words

root
n. 1. cause, central part or base 根源,根本
2. 根,根茎
v. to (cause to) be fixed15 or unmoving 使扎根,使固定

musician
n. 音乐家,作曲家

interaction
n. 相互作用,相互影响

drumbeat
n. 鼓的一击(声)

melody
n. 歌曲,旋律,曲调

chorus
n. something said or sung by many people at one time 合唱,齐声

mostly
ad. 几乎全部地,多半

instrument
n. an object used to help in work 仪器,器具,乐器

guitar
n. 吉它,六弦琴

horn
n. 1. (管乐器)喇叭,号,管,(角制的)号角
2. (牛、羊、鹿等动物的)角,触角

fiddle4
n. 小提琴(非正式名称),提琴类乐器

evolve6
v. to (cause to) develop bit by bit (使)发展,(使)进化

tradition
n. 传统

accompany
v. 1. to make supporting music for 为...伴奏
2. to go with, as on a journey 伴随,陪同

similar
a. like or alike16, partly or almost the same 相似的,类似的

spiritual
a. 1. 宗教的,神圣的
2. 精神(上)的,心灵的

rhythm9
n. 节奏,节拍

reel11
v. 摇晃,摇摆

string
n. 1.(乐器的)弦
2. 线,细绳

influence
n. 影响,感化

phonograph
n. 留声机,唱机

popular
a. enjoyed or liked by many people 大众喜爱的,流行的

driver
n. a person who drives 驾驶员,司机

graduate
v. 毕业
n. 毕业生

culture
n. 文化,修养

teenager
n. a young person of between 13 and 19 years old (13至19岁的)青少年

crazy
a. 1. widely excited; very keen17 or interested 着迷的,狂热爱慕的
2. mad; ill in the mind 发疯的,疯子的

amazing
a. causing great surprise or wonder 令人惊异的

attractive
a. 有吸引力的,引起注意的

performance
n. 1. 演出,表演
2. 行为,工作

mixture
n. 混合,混合物

tight
a. closely18 fastened, firmly fixed in place 紧的,紧固的

pants
n. (pl.) trousers 裤子

teenage
a. 青少年的,十几岁的少年的

idol
n. someone or something admired or loved too much 偶像

phenomenon
n. 1. 奇迹,杰出人物
2. (pl. phenomena) 现象

career
n. 生涯,专业

downhill
ad. 如下坡路般,趋向衰退

perform
v. 1. 演出,表演
2. to carry out (a piece of) work 完成,执行

movie
n. a film 电影

rarely
ad. not often 很少,难得

symbol
n. 象征

Phrases and Expressions

go back to
追溯到

such as
例如,比如

come from
产生于,生于

be similar to
和...相似

have influence on/upon
对...有影响

grow up
长大,成长

not only...but also...
不但...而且...

at the age of
在...岁时

Proper Names

Scot
苏格兰人

Elvis Presley
埃尔维斯.普莱斯利(1935-1977,美国摇滚乐歌手)

Memphis
孟菲斯(美国城市)


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
You are going to read a passage entitled19 (标题为) "The First American Music". Which of the questions do you think may probably be answered in the passage?

1. How did the first American music begin?
2. Why do so many people around world love American music?
3. What role does modern science play in the development of American music?
4. When and where did the word "music" first appear in the American history?

Now read the passage to check your answers.

The First American Music

1. The first Europeans came to America in 1492 with Christopher Columbus. Since that time people have come to America from all over the world, from Europe, Africa, and Asia, and they have brought their music with them. This mixing of people and music has created American music.
2. Music is a very important part of our lives. Music is for dancing, drinking, eating, loving, and thinking. Some songs remind us of our childhood or youth. Others remind us of the people we love. Many important occasions21, like weddings and funerals, have special music. Every nation has a national song like the American song "The Star-Spangled Banner22". In the U.S., high schools and colleges have school songs too.
3. Music is a part of the history of America. It expresses the problems and feelings of its people. As the years pass, the music grows and changes.
4. Modern science has also changed music. Inventions like records, radio, movies, electric instruments, tape recorders, and videos have changed the way we play and listen to music. They have helped to make music an important form of international communication.
5. American music, from the earliest folk songs to modern "pop", is known around the world. Music is one of America's most important exports. It brings the people of the world together. Even when people cannot understand the same language, they can share the same music. Many people learn and practice English by singing songs. Understanding American music can help you understand American people, their history and culture.
6. So, as the song says, "Put a dime23 in the juke box, baby." Let's listen to the music!
7. Native Americans lived in America before Columbus arrived. They had songs for many occasions and they used drums and other musical instruments. Dancing and music was an important part of their life and their religion. You can still hear native American music and see dancing at special festivals.
8. The first British people who came to America were very religious. They came for religious freedom. Their songs were simple and they did not use musical instruments in the church.
9. Soon other people with different forms of the Christian24 religion arrived in America. They brought different kinds of church music from Europe and they used musical instruments, like the organ and the piano, in the church.
10. Not all early music was church music. Some people liked to drink and dance. Many drinking places opened and fiddle (violin) music and European songs entertained the people.
11. American farmers soon left the east coast to begin new farms further west. The farms were big and far apart. There were not many towns or churches. Religious leaders, called preachers, rode horses around the country and brought religion to the farm people.
12. To bring the country people together in a large group, these preachers held "camp meetings". These religious meetings were held in big tents. Sometimes thousands of people went to hear the preachers. Camp meetings often went on for several days. Popular religious songs were sung and the music was very lively. People clapped their hands and tapped their feet to the music. The first camp meeting was held in 1800 and they are still held today. Many pop stars, for example Elvis Presley, first learned to sing and to love music at these meetings.

New Words

create
v. to produce (something new) 创造,创作

remind
v. to tell or cause (someone) to remember (a fact, or to do something) 提醒,使想起

childhood
n. the time or condition of being a child 幼年(时代),童年

occasion20
n. a time when something happens 场合,时刻

wedding
n. 婚礼

funeral
n. 葬礼

spangle
v. 使闪烁

banner
n. 1. a flag 旗,旗帜
2. (写有标语等的)横幅

invention
n. 1. 发明物
2. 发明,创造

tape
n. 1. 磁带,录音带
2. 狭带,线带

recorder
n. 1. 录音机,录音器
2. 记录员,记录者

video
n. 电视,视频,影像
a. 电视的,视频的

international
a. having to do with more than one nation 国际的,世界的

communication
n. 1. 交流,联系
2. 传递,传达

folk
a. 民间的
n. 人们

pop
n. 流行音乐,流行艺术

export
n. 输出品
v. 输出,出口

dime
n. (美国和加拿大的)1角银币

juke
n. 1. 自动唱机音乐
2. (丢进硬币按钮选唱片的)自动唱机

drum
n. 鼓

musical
a. of, like or producing music 音乐的,悦耳的

Christian
a. 基督教的,信基督教的

religion
n. 宗教,信仰

festival
n. 1. (音乐,戏剧)节
2. 节日,喜庆日

religious
a. 宗教的,虔诚的

organ
n. 1. 风琴
2. 器官

violin
n. 小提琴

entertain
v. 1. 使娱乐,使欢乐
2. to provide food and drink in one's house (for) 招待,款待

coast
n. an area next to the sea, seashore 海岸,海滨(地区)

apart
ad. 1. separate; away; distant相隔,相距
2. in or into a state of separation (from each other) 离开,拆开
a. separate 分开的,拆开的

leader
n. a person or thing that leads or is in advance of others 领袖,领导

preacher
n. 传道士,说教者

tap
v. to strike (the hand, foot, etc.) lightly against something (连续)轻打,轻敲

Phrases and Expressions

all over the world
世界各地

remind ... of
使想起,提醒

bring ... together
使...在一起

go on
持续

Proper Names

Christopher Columbus
克里斯托弗.哥伦布(1451-1506,意大利航海家、新大陆发现者)

the Star-Spangled Banner
星条旗之歌(美国国歌)

British
英国的,英国人的


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 interaction 355x9     
n.交流;相互作用,相互影响,合作
参考例句:
  • The interaction of the two groups produced many good ideas.两个组的相互交流产生了许多好主意。
  • Price is determined through the interaction of demand and supply.价格在供需的相互作用中形成。
2 melody LCax9     
n.旋律,曲调,悦耳的音乐
参考例句:
  • She struck up a folk melody on the piano.她开始用钢琴演奏那首民歌。
  • After she wrote the melody,she asked us for criticisms.她做好曲之后,请我们提意见。
3 chorus urozX     
n.合唱,合唱队,齐声
参考例句:
  • Never before have I heard this song sung in chorus.我从来没有听过这首歌的合唱。
  • The children repeated the words after her in chorus.孩子们跟她齐声朗读单词。
4 fiddle GgYzm     
n.小提琴;vi.拉提琴;不停拨弄,乱动
参考例句:
  • She plays the fiddle well.她小提琴拉得好。
  • Don't fiddle with the typewriter.不要摆弄那架打字机了。
5 fiddles 47dc3b39866d5205ed4aab2cf788cbbf     
n.小提琴( fiddle的名词复数 );欺诈;(需要运用手指功夫的)细巧活动;当第二把手v.伪造( fiddle的第三人称单数 );篡改;骗取;修理或稍作改动
参考例句:
  • He fiddles with his papers on the table. 他抚弄着桌子上那些报纸。 来自辞典例句
  • The annual Smithsonian Festival of American Folk Life celebrates hands-hands plucking guitars and playing fiddles. 一年一度的美国民间的“史密斯索尼安节”是赞美人的双手的节日--弹拔吉他的手,演奏小提琴的手。 来自辞典例句
6 evolve mnFxD     
vt.演化,发展,逐步形成;进化
参考例句:
  • How did you evolve this very personal and original style?你是怎样逐步形成这种很有个性且具独创性的风格的?
  • It has taken us several million years to evolve from the apes.我们人类从猿类开始进化用了几百万年的时间。
7 evolved 517eaa7028931ab6e10a4ebaef3cc179     
动词evolve的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • The idea evolved from a drawing I discovered in the attic. 这种想法是从我在阁楼里发现的一幅画得到启发的。
  • Man was evolved from an ancestor that was probably arboreal. 人大概是从住在树上的祖先进化而来的。
8 blues blues     
n.抑郁,沮丧;布鲁斯音乐
参考例句:
  • She was in the back of a smoky bar singing the blues.她在烟雾弥漫的酒吧深处唱着布鲁斯歌曲。
  • He was in the blues on account of his failure in business.他因事业失败而意志消沉。
9 rhythm hCHzx     
n.韵律;节奏
参考例句:
  • He has an ear for the rhythm of Irish speech.他对爱尔兰语的节奏很敏感。
  • His poem has a pleasing rhythm.他的诗有和谐的韵律。
10 rhythms 0250aacb232e3ea3b1313a0ce838eaa1     
节奏( rhythm的名词复数 ); 规则变化; 规律; 节律
参考例句:
  • Double rhythms, resounding through the lyric depiction and connecting with each other, indicate the thespian place of mankind and the cognition of the writer to this thespian place. 这双重旋律互为表里,表明了人类的某种悲剧性处境以及作家对这种悲剧性处境的感受和认识。
  • Stylistically, the term implies loose, rapid painthandling, large rhythms and broken colour. 从风格上来说,这个名称意味着松散而迅速的绘画笔触,奔放的格调,使用强烈配色。
11 reel oSNzM     
n.卷筒,线轴;vi.蹒跚地走,旋转,骚乱,退缩,摇晃;vt.卷,卷...于轴上;旋转
参考例句:
  • He cast the line and then reel it back.他把线抛出,然后把线绕回。
  • The child could reel off many poems of the Tang Dynasty at the age of five.这孩子五岁时就能把许多唐诗倒背如流。
12 reeling da4a2aed50181be3de8b3205dcc86bb2     
把东西用卷轴卷起来,从卷轴上放出来( reel的现在分词 ); 感到震惊; 发昏; 似乎在不停旋转
参考例句:
  • His mind was reeling at the shock. 他吃惊得脑袋发晕。
  • He was reeling a little. He must be very drunk. 他走起来有点儿摇晃,一定是喝多了。
13 learned m1oxn     
adj.有学问的,博学的;learn的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • He went into a rage when he learned about it.他听到这事后勃然大怒。
  • In this little village,he passed for a learned man.在这个小村子里,他被视为有学问的人。
14 idol Z4zyo     
n.偶像,红人,宠儿
参考例句:
  • As an only child he was the idol of his parents.作为独子,他是父母的宠儿。
  • Blind worship of this idol must be ended.对这个偶像的盲目崇拜应该结束了。
15 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
16 alike kLUyz     
adj.同样的,相像的;adv.一样地;同程度地 
参考例句:
  • The twins are so alike that I can't tell which is which.这对双胞胎一模一样,我分辨不出谁是谁。
  • All stories seemed dreadfully alike,no matter who told them.看来,不管谁讲,故事都是千篇一律的。
17 keen nRfzj     
adj.热心的;敏锐的;激烈的;锋利的
参考例句:
  • There is keen competition between the two motorcar firms.两家汽车公司之间存在着激烈的竞争。
  • The children are mad keen to go to the zoo.孩子们非常想去动物园。
18 closely XwNzIh     
adv.紧密地;严密地,密切地
参考例句:
  • We shall follow closely the development of the situation.我们将密切注意形势的发展。
  • The two companies are closely tied up with each other.这两家公司之间有密切联系。
19 entitled 8tWzka     
有资格的
参考例句:
  • You will be entitled to your pension when you reach 65. 你到65岁就有资格享受养老金。
  • He entitled us to enter his office at any time. 他授权给我们可以随时进入他的办公室。
20 occasion DIAxo     
n.场合,时机,机会,诱因,理由;vt.惹起,引起
参考例句:
  • Her dress was too showy for such a formal occasion.在如此正式的场合,她的服装过分华丽了。
  • Her tears were fought back on such an occasion.在这种场合下她忍住了眼泪。
21 occasions 11557f17371ac4f35f50715ad4a32024     
n.机会( occasion的名词复数 );时刻;原因;需要
参考例句:
  • The prosecution stated that intercourse had occurred on several occasions. 控诉方称发生过数次性交。
  • He has been late on numerous occasions. 他已经迟到过无数次了。
22 banner OPEyJ     
n.旗,旗帜,横幅
参考例句:
  • The new government came to power under the banner of fighting poverty.新政府是在对贫穷开战的名义下上台的。
  • A white banner was hanging out of the window.一面白旗挂在窗子外面。
23 dime SuQxv     
n.(指美国、加拿大的钱币)一角
参考例句:
  • A dime is a tenth of a dollar.一角银币是十分之一美元。
  • The liberty torch is on the back of the dime.自由火炬在一角硬币的反面。
24 Christian KVByl     
adj.基督教徒的;n.基督教徒
参考例句:
  • They always addressed each other by their Christian name.他们总是以教名互相称呼。
  • His mother is a sincere Christian.他母亲是个虔诚的基督教徒。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程  第一册
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